Clavicle well developed (allows increase flexibility, supports arms). Five digits, front and rear. Often thumb (and big toe) opposable.

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Clavicle well developed (allows increase flexibility, supports arms). Five digits, front and rear. Often thumb (and big toe) opposable."

Transcription

1 Human evolution. It d be nice to spend some time with some other groups (e.g. dinosaurs), but this just isn t possible in a survey course like this. BUT, we will spend a little time on human evolution! Fascinating subject - where did we come from? History of Primates: Evolved from shrew like animals over 65 mya. Some characteristics of primates: Clavicle well developed (allows increase flexibility, supports arms). Five digits, front and rear. Often thumb (and big toe) opposable. Claws -> nails Lots of skin receptors in fingers. Snout shortened (sense of smell is less important - Why?). Usually only one pair of mammary glands Excellent vision, well developed nervous control, often increased intelligence. Several orders and suborders. In general, lemurs, a few smaller groups such as bush babies and tarsiers, old world monkeys, new world monkeys, and humans & great apes. Origin of humans [OVERHEAD fig. 19.9B, p. 400]: Some preliminary remarks: There is a lot of controversy here. Some of it just plain silly (i.e., is species x part of the genus Homo or the genus Australopithecus ). Much of it also has to do with which species are thought to be ancestral to humans, and which are not. [Note: the following overheads are not in the text (but see fig , p. 403 for an overview (though not very good)] A possible common ancestor for both humans and apes (i.e. split from rest of primates): No way to prove this, but might be Proconsul or something like it. Shows many features of both humans and great apes - roughly 18 mya. On the other hand, a few years ago: Sahelanthropus tchadensis, or Toumaë (meaning hope of life in the local language. Discovered in northern Chad.

2 6-7 million years old. Fairly complete skull. Thought to be a hominid, and therefore possibly our ancestor (far too early to be sure, though). Bipedal? no one is sure. Some folks consider this a common ancestor between us and the great apes. Ardipithecus ramidus 4.4 million years ago, possibly up to 5.8. Until recently, the oldest known hominid. Possibly bipedal, up to four feet tall. Also, possibly a forest dweller, meaning the origins of bipedalism need to be re-examined. Skull fragments and teeth Australopithecus anamensis More recently a more complete reconstruction was based on bone fragments using computers (computer tomography / CT scans) million years ago. Partial leg bones indicate bipedalism. Human like humerus. Skull primitive, skeleton more modern. Now, the first really well known fossil: Australopithecus afarensis. Also known as Lucy. From about 2.8 to 3.8 mya. Original fossil (Lucy) discovered in Ethiopia, but since then others (parts of up to 300 individuals) have been found in East Africa. Also: footprints in the Olduvai gorge. Bipedal, small brain (about 400cc), large canines, projecting jaw, but still a good climber. Disproved an old theory about large brains evolving before bipedalism.

3 No stone tools survive, but may have used wood or other things that don t preserve well. Australopithecus seems to have branched into two (three?) lines 1) more Austrolopithecines such as A. aethiopicus, A. robustus, and A. boisei. Sometimes the genus name Paranthropus (or rarely, Zijantrhopus) is used for these three species. [Isn t it great that folks can t make up their minds?]. These are generally agreed not to be ancestral to humans. Lived at the same time as our ancestors, but were much more vegetarian. Many had more robust skulls. A. aethipicus was probably the ancestor of the other two. Cranial capacities of around 530 cc., except for A. aethipicus, which was around 410 cc. 1 1/2) Australopithecus africanus. There is some thought that this may have been ancestral to modern humans, though most folks would disagree. May have given rise to the other species of Australopithecus. Generally more graceful appearance & lighter build. Cranial capacity between 420 and 500 cc. 2) the genus Homo The genus Homo (our genus): Note: there are numerous other species of Homo, but we'll only cover the most important ones for us. Species like Homo ergaster and Homo rudolphensis are very controversial (depending on who you talk to), and are generally difficult to fit precisely into our family tree. Homo habilis mya Face projects even less. Teeth smaller, jaws smaller & less muscular. Larger cranial capacity, cc. Still a good tree climber. TOOLS! crude stone tools can be dated from this time.

4 Suggestions from fossils are that large animals were not used much for food yet. East Africa. Homo erectus More modern humans. 300, mya. Some recent finds indicate they may have lasted until 50,000 years ago, and thus overlapped with more modern humans (this is part of the controversy around Homo ergaster ). First known hominoid found outside Africa ( Java man. Peking man ), though most fossils (and the oldest) still from Africa. 850cc cc cranical capacity. (1200 is kind of high). Much like us, but different in: Smaller brain/more massive jaw/eyebrow ridges/ sloping forehead/sloping chin. Probably could not really talk yet in the sense of having a conversation like us. Most complete fossil is still being analyzed (has yielded much information so far), but is of a young boy about 11 to 13 years old - over 60% complete (found in Kenya). More advanced tools, fire, large animal bones associated with camps. Most likely directly ancestral to us. Homo heidelbergensis (some controversy here) Basically a more archaic form of Homo sapiens. Appear between 800,000 and 500,000 years ago. Seem very transitional between Homo erectus and Homo sapiens (some of these have characteristics of both, and are difficult to classify as either Homo erectus or Homo sapiens). This is the reason Homo heidelbergensis is often used now for these specimens. Cranial capacity of around 1200 cc. Still some skull features that are more robust than modern human, though not as much as in Homo erectus.

5 Homo sapiens neanderthalensis ( = Homo neanderthalensis, depending on who you talk to) Very much like modern human. Probably not directly ancestral, but it appears that we do share a lot of genes (some this has recently been called into question). Note that some people consider this OUR species, but a different subspecies (this obviously controversial). Burial of dead, highly crafted tools. Eyebrow ridges, bigger Incidentally, being bigger means you need bigger brains. Since these were essentially modern humans, they did have slightly bigger brains than us (1450 cc, but not increased intelligence). Did they have modern speech?? 35, ,000 years ago. Properly dressed, they wouldn t stand out in a crowd today. Homo sapiens sapiens. Cro-Magnon and modern humans. Cave paintings, evidence for culture, etc. No anatomical differences between Cro-Magnon and us - modern in all respects. The term merely refers to older humans. 100,000 years ago to present. Displaced Neanderthal, possibly by interbreeding in some areas. Brain capacity about 1350 cc. So story now goes from biology into history - civilizations etc.

6 Can we make any sense of the above, rather confusing picture? Here is a possible evolutionary tree that might help keep things straight. The question marks (?) indicate the more controversial parts: Homo sapiens (incl. neanderthals) Homo heidelbergensis Homo erectus A. boisei A. robustus Homo habilis Australopithecus aethiopicus?????? Australopithecus africanus? Australopithecus afarensis Australopithecus anamensis Ardipithecus ramidus?? Sahelanthropus tchadensis (??)???? Proconsul africanus???? Some concluding remarks about human evolution. There is a lot of controversy. Unfortunately, much of it not friendly. The differing factions often dislike each other (have been known to lock each other in jail!). If you look around web, the authors viewpoint will be obvious. Don t be surprised if you run into something that doesn t look much like what was presented here. Even the Smithsonian is doing things differently. Incidentally, even though they have varying opinions, they have an excellent web site:

Study Guide Primates and Human Evolution. Where do you fit into the natural world? Characteristics of Primates

Study Guide Primates and Human Evolution. Where do you fit into the natural world? Characteristics of Primates Study Guide Primates and Human Evolution Describe the traits of primates.! Classify yourself taxonomically.! What traits make you human?! Describe the evolutionary trends in hominin species over the past

More information

Primate Evolution. Section 1. Primates

Primate Evolution. Section 1. Primates Section 1 Primates Characteristics of Primates! Manual dexterity! Five digits on each hand and foot! Flat nails and sensitive areas on the ends of their digits! The first digits are opposable. Section

More information

THE EARLIEST HUMANS. Student Handouts, Inc.

THE EARLIEST HUMANS. Student Handouts, Inc. THE EARLIEST HUMANS Student Handouts, Inc. HOMINID EVOLUTION Hominids = great apes Chimpanzees, gorillas, humans, and orangutans Numerous intermediary fossils have been found But scientists disagree on

More information

Mammals Grew 1,000 Times Larger After the Demise of the Dinosaurs

Mammals Grew 1,000 Times Larger After the Demise of the Dinosaurs Mammals Grew 1,000 Times Larger After the Demise of the Dinosaurs The largest land mammals that ever lived, Indricotherium and Deinotherium, would have towered over the living African Elephant. Indricotherium

More information

4/20/2008. Overview. Early Human Evolution. Chronology of Hominid Evolution. Overview of Species. Epochs of the Cenozoic Era

4/20/2008. Overview. Early Human Evolution. Chronology of Hominid Evolution. Overview of Species. Epochs of the Cenozoic Era Early Human Evolution Overview and Chronology What makes us human? Ardipithecus and early Australopithecus Robust and gracile australopithecines Oldowan tools Overview First hominins appeared late in the

More information

Human Evolution - Skull Analysis

Human Evolution - Skull Analysis Name: Date: Human Evolution - Skull Analysis Prior Knowledge Questions (Do these BEFORE using the Gizmo.) 1. Label one of the skulls below as human and the other as a chimpanzee skull. 2. What features

More information

Hominid Skull Comparisons

Hominid Skull Comparisons Hominid Skull Comparisons Visit the following website: www.humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/human-family-tree Explore the interactive Human Family Tree. What can you conclude about the evolution of humans

More information

Student Exploration: Human Evolution - Skull Analysis

Student Exploration: Human Evolution - Skull Analysis Name: Date: Student Exploration: Human Evolution - Skull Analysis Prior Knowledge Questions 1. Label one of the skulls below as human and the other as a chimpanzee skull. 2. What features did you use to

More information

Our own species, Homo sapiens, belongs to the order that also

Our own species, Homo sapiens, belongs to the order that also 32 3 Primates and Human Origins Section 32 3 Our own species, Homo sapiens, belongs to the order that also includes lemurs, monkeys, and apes. Carolus Linnaeus named our order Primates, which means first

More information

A n t h r o p o l o g y

A n t h r o p o l o g y A n t h r o p o l o g y Appreciating Human Diversity Fifteenth Edition Conrad Phillip Kottak University of Michigan McGraw-Hill 2013 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved. C H A P T E R EARLY HOMININS

More information

Investigating Hominoid Fossils Laboratory

Investigating Hominoid Fossils Laboratory Biology I Unit V: Zoology Chapter 25-28 & DOL: Vertebrates Investigating Hominoid Fossils Laboratory Name: Date: Hour: Investigating Hominoid Fossils Laboratory Pre-Lab Discussion Because hominoid fossils

More information

Introduction to Biological Anthropology: Notes 21 Apes and early hominins Copyright Bruce Owen 2011 the first known hominoids (apes) appeared in the

Introduction to Biological Anthropology: Notes 21 Apes and early hominins Copyright Bruce Owen 2011 the first known hominoids (apes) appeared in the Introduction to Biological Anthropology: Notes 21 Apes and early hominins Copyright Bruce Owen 2011 the first known hominoids (apes) appeared in the late Oligocene, 27 mya example Oligocene ape: genus

More information

The Mystery of the Skulls What Old Bones Can Tell Us About Hominins

The Mystery of the Skulls What Old Bones Can Tell Us About Hominins Cornell Institute for Biology Teachers Copyright CIBT This work may be copied by the original recipient from CIBT to provide copies for users working under the direction of the original recipient. All

More information

As we review the fossil evidence for early hominins, keep in mind the importance of identifying derived traits Ancestral traits are traits that have

As we review the fossil evidence for early hominins, keep in mind the importance of identifying derived traits Ancestral traits are traits that have As we review the fossil evidence for early hominins, keep in mind the importance of identifying derived traits Ancestral traits are traits that have not changed from the earlier ancestral form Derived

More information

Short Film Great Transitions: The Origin of Humans IN-DEPTH FILM GUIDE

Short Film Great Transitions: The Origin of Humans IN-DEPTH FILM GUIDE DESCRIPTION IN-DEPTH FILM GUIDE Paleontologists have studied the fossil record of human evolution just as they have done for that of other major transitions including the transition from fish to tetrapods

More information

BIO 182 LAB SIGN OFF PAGE LESSON 10

BIO 182 LAB SIGN OFF PAGE LESSON 10 BIO 182 LAB SIGN OFF PAGE LESSON 10 Name Please staple all of your lab pages for this Lesson together with this page as the top. You will use this page to get your Labs for Lesson 10 signed off by the

More information

Cenozoic Climates. Human Evolution and Adaptation

Cenozoic Climates. Human Evolution and Adaptation Cenozoic Climates Human Evolution and Adaptation Life Styles of the Merely Hominid Miocene Climates Miocene Habitats The increase in climate variability would have been evident in many regions as increased

More information

Introduction to Biological Anthropology: Notes 20 Apes and early hominins Copyright Bruce Owen 2010 the first known hominoids (apes) appeared in the

Introduction to Biological Anthropology: Notes 20 Apes and early hominins Copyright Bruce Owen 2010 the first known hominoids (apes) appeared in the Introduction to Biological Anthropology: Notes 20 Apes and early hominins Copyright Bruce Owen 2010 the first known hominoids (apes) appeared in the late Oligocene, 27 mya example Oligocene ape: genus

More information

Animals II: The Chordates

Animals II: The Chordates Animals II: The Chordates Phylum : Chordata Subphylum: Urochordata: Tunicates Cephalochordata: Lancelets Vertebrata: Vertebrates Chordate Characteristics Bilaterally symmetrical, coelomate animals Complete

More information

Build Vocabulary Students will have a more successful lab experience if they understand these terms.

Build Vocabulary Students will have a more successful lab experience if they understand these terms. Guided Inquiry Forensics Lab hapter 26 Lab Investigating Hominoid Fossils Problem What can a comparison of skulls and hands reveal about the evolution of humans? Introduction paleontologist takes photographs

More information

The Deuterostomes and the rise of the Vertebrates: from Echinoderms to Man

The Deuterostomes and the rise of the Vertebrates: from Echinoderms to Man The Deuterostomes and the rise of the Vertebrates: from Echinoderms to Man 1 The Deuterostomes Calcarea and Silicea Cnidaria Lophotrochozoa Ecdysozoa Deuterostomia 2 The Ancestral Deuterostome Bilateral

More information

Walking Upright The cost of human evolution

Walking Upright The cost of human evolution LENScience Senior Biology Seminar Series 2010 Walking Upright The cost of human evolution Peter Gluckman, Alan Beedle, Tatjana Buklijas, Jacquie Bay 14 th October 2010 Human Evolution ????? Walking Upright

More information

Primate Evolution. Why It s Important Humans are primates. A knowledge of primates and their evolution can provide an understanding

Primate Evolution. Why It s Important Humans are primates. A knowledge of primates and their evolution can provide an understanding Primate Evolution What You ll Learn You will compare and contrast primates and their adaptations. You will analyze the evidence for the ancestry of humans. Why It s Important Humans are primates. A knowledge

More information

Where Do We Come From? An Introduction to Primate Biology GK-12 Inquiry Science Lesson Kristin De Lucia Fall 2002

Where Do We Come From? An Introduction to Primate Biology GK-12 Inquiry Science Lesson Kristin De Lucia Fall 2002 Where Do We Come From? An Introduction to Primate Biology GK-12 Inquiry Science Lesson Kristin De Lucia Fall 2002 Background: This lesson is designed to correspond with units on human anatomy, especially

More information

A New Kind of Ancestor: Ardipithecus Unveiled

A New Kind of Ancestor: Ardipithecus Unveiled A New Kind of Ancestor: Ardipithecus Unveiled The oldest known hominin skeleton reveals the body plan of our very early ancestors and the upright origins of humankind Every day, scientists add new pages

More information

Human Evolution: One Step at a Time. Objectives

Human Evolution: One Step at a Time. Objectives TEACHER GUIDE Human Evolution: One Step at a Time 60-Minute Life Science Lesson Interactive Video Conferencing Grades: 6-12 Human Evolution: One Step at a Time Description Trace the development of modern

More information

Primates : mammal order with about 185 spp. (out of 4500 mammal species) Primates. Sister order = tree shrews? (order Scandentia)

Primates : mammal order with about 185 spp. (out of 4500 mammal species) Primates. Sister order = tree shrews? (order Scandentia) Primates : mammal order with about 185 spp. (out of 4500 mammal species) bonnet macaque squirrel monkey Primates - largely tree-dwelling (arboreal) and tropical Sister order = tree shrews? (order Scandentia)

More information

Comparing Indexes Among Primates

Comparing Indexes Among Primates CHAPTER 12 ADDITIONAL INVESTIGATION Comparing Indexes Among Primates Background Humans have the largest brains of all primates. In order to accommodate this large brain, the skull of a human has a vertical

More information

AS IWILLATTEMPT to show in this article, we already know a lot about

AS IWILLATTEMPT to show in this article, we already know a lot about In the beginning was the monkey! WALTER A. NEVES Introduction AS IWILLATTEMPT to show in this article, we already know a lot about the evolution of our line, the hominins a (Figure 1). Moreover, I will

More information

Origin and Evolution of Human Postcranial Anatomy

Origin and Evolution of Human Postcranial Anatomy CHAPTER 10 Origin and Evolution of Human Postcranial Anatomy Brian G. Richmond and Kevin G. Hatala INTRODUCTION One of the oldest questions in paleoanthropology concerns what stages, or body shapes and

More information

Vertebrates. Chapter 34. Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece. PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for

Vertebrates. Chapter 34. Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece. PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for Chapter 34 Vertebrates PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero, updated by Erin Barley with contributions from Joan Sharp Copyright

More information

Bipedalism and Tool Making. And the fascinating history of the extended phenotype

Bipedalism and Tool Making. And the fascinating history of the extended phenotype Bipedalism and Tool Making And the fascinating history of the extended phenotype What exactly does it mean for big toes to be abductible (opposable)? I was wondering how scientists were able to distinguish

More information

The Toledo Zoo/ThinkingWorks. Teacher Overview for the Primate Lessons

The Toledo Zoo/ThinkingWorks. Teacher Overview for the Primate Lessons The Toledo Zoo/ThinkingWorks Teacher Overview for the Primate Lessons Teacher Overview: Primates Primates have many traits that are unique to this particular order of animals. Below is a list of general

More information

Looking a fossil horse in the mouth! Using teeth to examine fossil horses!

Looking a fossil horse in the mouth! Using teeth to examine fossil horses! Looking a fossil horse in the mouth Using teeth to examine fossil horses Virginia Museum of Natural History Paleontology Department Fossil Teaching Kit 1 Teacher s Guide In this activity students will

More information

Unit #1: Art of the Paleolithic

Unit #1: Art of the Paleolithic Announcements: Unit #1: Art of the Paleolithic Hand in initial questionnaire assignment folders handed out Buy your art materials for next Thurs. Unit 1 activities and terms are posted Hunter/Gatherer

More information

Evidence of a chimpanzee-sized ancestor of humans but a gibbon-sized ancestor of apes

Evidence of a chimpanzee-sized ancestor of humans but a gibbon-sized ancestor of apes DOI: 0.08/s67-07-00997- OPEN Evidence of a chimpanzee-sized ancestor of humans but a gibbon-sized ancestor of apes Mark Grabowski,,, & William L. Jungers 5,6 Body mass directly affects how an animal relates

More information

extinct southern apes of Africa: a fresh light on their status?

extinct southern apes of Africa: a fresh light on their status? Australopithecines the extinct southern apes of Africa: a fresh light on their status? A.W. (Bill) Mehlert The now-extinct hominid subfamily Australopithecinae has long been a hot and contentious topic

More information

2/17/2017. Lec. 11: Ch. 32 Deuterostomes

2/17/2017. Lec. 11: Ch. 32 Deuterostomes 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Lec. 11: Ch. 32 Deuterostomes Deuterostomes Radial cleavage Indeterminant blastomeres Blastopore becomes anus Coelom forms by outpouching of the gut (enterocoelous) Phylum Echinodermata

More information

AUSTRALOPITHECUS TO HOMO: Transformations in Body and Mind

AUSTRALOPITHECUS TO HOMO: Transformations in Body and Mind Annu. Rev. Anthropol. 2000. 29:125 46 Copyright c 2000 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved AUSTRALOPITHECUS TO HOMO: Transformations in Body and Mind Henry M. McHenry and Katherine Coffing Department

More information

Unit #1: Art of the Paleolithic

Unit #1: Art of the Paleolithic Announcements: Unit #1: Art of the Paleolithic assignment folders handed out Turn in initial assessment Buy your art materials for next Weds. Unit 1 activities and Terms are posted Hunter/Gatherer lecture

More information

Dorsal hollow nerve chord that forms spinal cord and brain. VERTEBRATES [OVERVIEW - OVERHEAD, similar to fig. 19.1, p. 390]:

Dorsal hollow nerve chord that forms spinal cord and brain. VERTEBRATES [OVERVIEW - OVERHEAD, similar to fig. 19.1, p. 390]: Phylum Chordata (44,000 species) Dorsal hollow nerve chord that forms spinal cord and brain Notochord at some stage of life cycle Gill slits at some point in life cycle VERTEBRATES [OVERVIEW - OVERHEAD,

More information

Teachers Learning Resource. Wriggle! National Museum Cardiff 18 th June 2016 October 2017

Teachers Learning Resource. Wriggle! National Museum Cardiff 18 th June 2016 October 2017 Teachers Learning Resource Wriggle! National Museum Cardiff 18 th June 2016 October 2017 This resource will help you prepare for a self-led visit to the Wriggle exhibition. It includes information about

More information

Travel speed and injury risk (1)

Travel speed and injury risk (1) Travel speed and injury risk (1) The power model and a new exponential function (From: The new Traffic Safety Handbook, Elvik et al 2012) 1 Travel speed and injury risk (2) A decrease by 20% of the mean

More information

Australopiths wading? Homo diving? Marc Verhaegen & Stephen Munro 23 July 1999

Australopiths wading? Homo diving? Marc Verhaegen & Stephen Munro 23 July 1999 Australopiths wading? Homo diving? http://allserv.rug.ac.be/~mvaneech/symposium.html http://www.flash.net/~hydra9/marcaat.html Abstract Marc Verhaegen & Stephen Munro 23 July 1999 Asian pongids (orangutans)

More information

Planet. of the 74 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN AUGUST 2003 COPYRIGHT 2003 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, INC. Proconsul. Dryopithecus. Sivapithecus

Planet. of the 74 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN AUGUST 2003 COPYRIGHT 2003 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, INC. Proconsul. Dryopithecus. Sivapithecus Planet of the Proconsul Dryopithecus Sivapithecus A DIVERSITY OF APES ranged across the Old World during the Miocene epoch, between 22 million and 5.5 million years ago. Proconsul lived in East Africa,

More information

ORIENTATION OF THE FORAMEN MAGNUM IN LATE MIOCENE TO EXTANT AFRICAN APES AND HOMINIDS

ORIENTATION OF THE FORAMEN MAGNUM IN LATE MIOCENE TO EXTANT AFRICAN APES AND HOMINIDS Orientation of the Foramen Magnum in Late Miocene to Extant African Apes and Hominids XLIII/2 3 pp. 103 110 2005 MARTIN PICKFORD ORIENTATION OF THE FORAMEN MAGNUM IN LATE MIOCENE TO EXTANT AFRICAN APES

More information

SHARKS. How sharks work

SHARKS. How sharks work SHARKS How sharks work College of Marine Sciences Shanghai Ocean University 2017 Shark shapes All sharks have the same basic body plan- a head with eyes, nostrils and a month, and a body with a tail and

More information

The Fishes: Vertebrate Success. in Water

The Fishes: Vertebrate Success. in Water The Fishes: The Fishes: Vertebrate Success Vertebrate Success in Water in Water Chapter 18 Chapter 18 Phylum Chordata (45,000 species)- notochord, pharyngeal slits, dorsal tubular nerve cord, postanal

More information

Chapter 12 Marine Fishes

Chapter 12 Marine Fishes Chapter 12 Marine Fishes Marine Protochordates Phylum: Chordata (nerve cord) Subphylum: Protochordata first chordates/primitive Primitive species of marine vertebrates Do not have advanced features (backbone)

More information

Three-dimensional morphometrics of the proximal metatarsal articular surfaces of Gorilla, Pan, Hylobates, and shod and unshod humans

Three-dimensional morphometrics of the proximal metatarsal articular surfaces of Gorilla, Pan, Hylobates, and shod and unshod humans University of Iowa Iowa Research Online Theses and Dissertations Summer 2010 Three-dimensional morphometrics of the proximal metatarsal articular surfaces of Gorilla, Pan, Hylobates, and shod and unshod

More information

KidsPost New Species

KidsPost New Species Volume 11, Issue 7 KidsPost New Species News Article: This sea grass is REALLY old Discussion Questions: Really Old Sea Grass Map: Europe News Article and Discussion Questions: New animal species are found

More information

The Pliocene hominin diversity conundrum: Do more fossils mean less clarity?

The Pliocene hominin diversity conundrum: Do more fossils mean less clarity? SPECIAL FEATURE: PERSPECTIVE SPECIAL FEATURE: PERSPECTIVE The Pliocene hominin diversity conundrum: Do more fossils mean less clarity? Yohannes Haile-Selassie a,b,1, Stephanie M. Melillo c, and Denise

More information

The Hominid Status of Sahelanthropus tchadensis and Orrorin tugenensis

The Hominid Status of Sahelanthropus tchadensis and Orrorin tugenensis Darshana Shapiro Biological Anthropology Senior Honors Thesis May 2009 The Hominid Status of Sahelanthropus tchadensis and Orrorin tugenensis Introduction Since the time when Charles Darwin first proposed

More information

Feet Cross-curricular links

Feet Cross-curricular links Teacher Resource Feet Cross-curricular links Feet FEET CROSS CURRICULAR LINKS 1 Cross-curricular links: Feet Art - Foot painting Watch the film: Watch Tom Yendell at bbc.co.uk/programmes/ p01pm8w4 Tom

More information

Aquarboreal ancestors?

Aquarboreal ancestors? 212 Opinion Aquarboreal ancestors? Marc Verhaegen, Pierre-François Puech and Stephen Munro According to biomolecular data, the great apes split into Asian pongids (orang-utan) and African hominids (gorillas,

More information

All about Jenkinson s Aquarium. By The Tiger Class February

All about Jenkinson s Aquarium. By The Tiger Class February All about Jenkinson s Aquarium By The Tiger Class February 2 2017 Table of Contents 1. Introduction 3 2. Harbor Seals 4,5 3. Penguins 6,7 4. Pythons 8 5. Fish 9 6. Sea Urchins 10 7. Eels 11 8. Stingrays

More information

Zoo Connections Curriculum

Zoo Connections Curriculum Zoo Connections Curriculum Habitats and Adaptations 3 rd grade Pre-Visit Vocabulary Words Habitat Adaptation Camouflage Predator Prey Forest Grassland Wetland Desert Tundra Concepts There are many diverse

More information

Landing Hip Turn Glove Side. non teach. Soft test the ice. button Acceleration occurs around front leg Paul Nyman. determines There are no

Landing Hip Turn Glove Side. non teach. Soft test the ice. button Acceleration occurs around front leg Paul Nyman. determines There are no When I was asked to contribute to this series I initially declined. What could I possibly add to these distinguished pitching instructors? I re-thought that position when I remembered that my perspective

More information

Journal of Human Evolution

Journal of Human Evolution Journal of Human Evolution 58 (2010) 492e504 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Journal of Human Evolution journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/jhevol Locomotor anatomy and biomechanics of

More information

Morphology of the Distal Radius in Extant Hominoids and Fossil Hominins: Implications for the Evolution of Bipedalism

Morphology of the Distal Radius in Extant Hominoids and Fossil Hominins: Implications for the Evolution of Bipedalism THE ANATOMICAL RECORD 295:454 464 (2012) Morphology of the Distal Radius in Extant Hominoids and Fossil Hominins: Implications for the Evolution of Bipedalism MELISSA TALLMAN* Department of Anthropology,

More information

Vertebrate Animals. DOMAIN- Eukarya KINGDOM- Animalia PHYLUM- Chordata SUBPHYLUM- Vertebrata CLASS- 7 different»orders- 10 Placental mammals

Vertebrate Animals. DOMAIN- Eukarya KINGDOM- Animalia PHYLUM- Chordata SUBPHYLUM- Vertebrata CLASS- 7 different»orders- 10 Placental mammals Vertebrate Animals DOMAIN- Eukarya KINGDOM- Animalia PHYLUM- Chordata SUBPHYLUM- Vertebrata CLASS- 7 different»orders- 10 Placental mammals Characteristics of ALL vertebrates Backbone Endoskeleton Distinct

More information

News English.com Ready-to-use ESL / EFL Lessons

News English.com Ready-to-use ESL / EFL Lessons www.breaking News English.com Ready-to-use ESL / EFL Lessons The Breaking News English.com Resource Book 1,000 Ideas & Activities For Language Teachers http://www.breakingnewsenglish.com/book.html UN suspends

More information

DETERMINING IF THE LOCATION SOCCER BALLS ARE SHOT FROM EFFECT THE ACCURACY ON GOAL

DETERMINING IF THE LOCATION SOCCER BALLS ARE SHOT FROM EFFECT THE ACCURACY ON GOAL DETERMINING IF THE LOCATION SOCCER BALLS ARE SHOT FROM EFFECT THE ACCURACY ON GOAL Lyndon Wood Cary Academy ABSTRACT The purpose of the experiment was to test if the location a soccer ball is shot from

More information

Chapter 6 The Rime of the Ancient Mariner: Transcript. 1. Jenny: Okay, as you guys look at these words, what do you think of?

Chapter 6 The Rime of the Ancient Mariner: Transcript. 1. Jenny: Okay, as you guys look at these words, what do you think of? 1 Chapter 6 The Rime of the Ancient Mariner: Transcript 1. Jenny: Okay, as you guys look at these words, what do you think of? 2. Haja: Water 3. Jenny: Moyatu? 4. Moyatu: Um, water, like in Africa, how

More information

Journal of Human Evolution (1996) 30, Introduction

Journal of Human Evolution (1996) 30, Introduction Lynne A. Isbell* Department of Anthropology, Rutgers University, Douglass Campus, Box 270, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08903, U.S.A. Truman P. Young Louis Calder Center, Fordham University, Box K, Armonk,

More information

Journal of Human Evolution

Journal of Human Evolution Journal of Human Evolution 62 (2012) 520e532 Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect Journal of Human Evolution journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/jhevol Hand pressure distribution during

More information

Bucking the Tide and Blazing New Trails at the Intersection of Crisis, Opportunity and Leadership. Hal Salwasser

Bucking the Tide and Blazing New Trails at the Intersection of Crisis, Opportunity and Leadership. Hal Salwasser Bucking the Tide and Blazing New Trails at the Intersection of Crisis, Opportunity and Leadership Hal Salwasser Vary by culture and time Dependence exploiter Dominance subdue Avoidance ahimsa Co dependence

More information

Blue Holes: Some of the Least Explored Areas on Earth

Blue Holes: Some of the Least Explored Areas on Earth 30 November 2011 voaspecialenglish.com Blue Holes: Some of the Least Explored Areas on Earth Diving deep in a blue hole ngs.org (You can download an MP3 of this story at voaspecialenglish.com) BARBARA

More information

The Rare Species Fund is helping support the Batwa pygmy tribe of western Uganda through the building of homes, education and cultural preservation.

The Rare Species Fund is helping support the Batwa pygmy tribe of western Uganda through the building of homes, education and cultural preservation. PRESS RELEASE: Building Homes for the Batwa Pygmies Supplemental video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a3d8cnethdi A Batwa home sponsored by the RSF in the process of being built. The Rare Species Fund

More information

News English.com Ready-to-use ESL / EFL Lessons Zidane - "Italy player called me a terrorist"

News English.com Ready-to-use ESL / EFL Lessons Zidane - Italy player called me a terrorist www.breaking News English.com Ready-to-use ESL / EFL Lessons The Breaking News English.com Resource Book 1,000 Ideas & Activities For Language Teachers http://www.breakingnewsenglish.com/book.html Zidane

More information

Lesson 1 - Meet the White Sturgeon

Lesson 1 - Meet the White Sturgeon Big Idea: The mighty sturgeon has been on earth for more than 250 million years and can grow to over 6 metres in length. How could one of the longest surviving animal species that grows to the length of

More information

Fishes and Amphibians Objectives

Fishes and Amphibians Objectives Fishes and Amphibians Objectives List the four common body parts of chordates. Describe the two main characteristics of vertebrates. Explain the difference between an ectotherm and an endotherm. Describe

More information

BUILD A HORSESHOE CRAB

BUILD A HORSESHOE CRAB The Education Program at the New Jersey Sea Grant Consortium 22 Magruder Road Fort Hancock, NJ 07732 732 872 1300 njseagrant.org BUILD A HORSESHOE CRAB OVERVIEW OBJECTIVES During this lesson, students

More information

Averages. October 19, Discussion item: When we talk about an average, what exactly do we mean? When are they useful?

Averages. October 19, Discussion item: When we talk about an average, what exactly do we mean? When are they useful? Averages October 19, 2005 Discussion item: When we talk about an average, what exactly do we mean? When are they useful? 1 The Arithmetic Mean When we talk about an average, we can mean different things

More information

Bio 2 Lab Practicum 4 1

Bio 2 Lab Practicum 4 1 Bio 2 Lab Practicum 4 1 Introduction Mammals Like all chordates, mammals have the presence of four anatomical features both as juveniles and adults although in adults they are highly modified. They exhibit

More information

Early Origin for Human-Like Precision Grasping: A Comparative Study of Pollical Distal Phalanges in Fossil Hominins

Early Origin for Human-Like Precision Grasping: A Comparative Study of Pollical Distal Phalanges in Fossil Hominins Early Origin for Human-Like Precision Grasping: A Comparative Study of Pollical Distal Phalanges in Fossil Hominins Sergio Almécija 1 *, Salvador Moyà-Solà 2, David M. Alba 1 1 Institut Català de Paleontologia,

More information

Task 1. Within the safari park we are currently keeping and breeding two species of animal. These are the white rhino and the Ring tailed lemur.

Task 1. Within the safari park we are currently keeping and breeding two species of animal. These are the white rhino and the Ring tailed lemur. Information Within the safari park we are currently keeping and breeding two species of animal. These are the white rhino and the Ring tailed lemur. We are looking after them as there are not many of them

More information

MABULA GUIDES NEWS FOR JULY 2016

MABULA GUIDES NEWS FOR JULY 2016 MABULA GUIDES NEWS FOR JULY 2016 Compiled by: Isaiah Banda Head Guide Picture taken by Mr Jaishanker on Mabula Game Reserve As a guide, it s pretty important to get an idea as to what it is exactly that

More information

The Fossil Fish of Burrinjuck

The Fossil Fish of Burrinjuck ABOVE: How the Taemas-Wee Jasper Reefs may have looked four hundred million years ago. Buchanosteus (the large fish in the top left corner) was a predatory placoderm, while the bottom-living Murrindalaspis

More information

A WHITE PAPER. Subject: What Aspects Should Be Considered When Selecting A. Gas Bubbler System. Part I

A WHITE PAPER. Subject: What Aspects Should Be Considered When Selecting A. Gas Bubbler System. Part I A WHITE PAPER Subject: What Aspects Should Be Considered When Selecting A Gas Bubbler System Part I By: Bill Fletcher President and Chief Scientist at Design Analysis Associates, Inc. The WATERLOG Gas

More information

Comparisons of the IMO and IOI

Comparisons of the IMO and IOI Olympiads in Informatics, 2012, Vol. 6, 199 204 199 2012 Vilnius University Comparisons of the IMO and IOI Peter TAYLOR Australian Mathematics Trust, University of Canberra ACT 2601 Australia e-mail: pjt013@gmail.com

More information

Phylum Chordata Featuring Vertebrate Animals

Phylum Chordata Featuring Vertebrate Animals Phylum Chordata Featuring Vertebrate Animals Prepared by Diana C. Wheat For Linn-Benton Community College Characteristics All have a notochord: a stiff but flexible rod that extends the length of the body

More information

AAAS is here. Evolution

AAAS is here. Evolution BRIEF EDUCATION AAAS is here. Evolution In America today, 1 in 3 individuals do not accept evolution. 1 That s why AAAS continues to play an important role in the effort to protect the integrity of science

More information

ROAMING IN ROME COLOSSEUM AND ROMAN FORUM

ROAMING IN ROME COLOSSEUM AND ROMAN FORUM BY JEN APRIL 9, 2015 ROAMING IN ROME COLOSSEUM AND ROMAN FORUM Visiting the Colosseum and the Roman forum are on the top of most travelers list of must-see places when visiting Rome, Italy. And they should

More information

Morphometric Analysis of Hominoid Lower Molars from Yuanmou of Yunnan Province, China

Morphometric Analysis of Hominoid Lower Molars from Yuanmou of Yunnan Province, China PRIMATES, 42(2): 123-134, April 21 123 Morphometric Analysis of Hominoid Lower Molars from Yuanmou of Yunnan Province, China W. LIw The Chinese Academy of Sciences L. J. HLUSKO The Pennsylvania State University

More information

Biodiversity Trail. Biodiversity trail. What is biodiversity? The term biodiversity refers to the great variety

Biodiversity Trail. Biodiversity trail. What is biodiversity? The term biodiversity refers to the great variety Biodiversity trail What is biodiversity? The term biodiversity refers to the great variety Biodiversity Trail Biodiversity refers to the variety of all living organisms, from microscopic bacteria to giant

More information

1 "The Cost Is Extinction: African Elephants and the Ivory Trade by Katherine Grunder

1 The Cost Is Extinction: African Elephants and the Ivory Trade by Katherine Grunder 1 "The Cost Is Extinction: African Elephants and the Ivory Trade by Katherine Grunder I saw this picture on the Internet whilst researching for this essay that burrowed to the deeps of my soul and has

More information

NEIL THOMAS ROACH. Department of Human Evolutionary Biology Harvard University

NEIL THOMAS ROACH. Department of Human Evolutionary Biology Harvard University NEIL THOMAS ROACH Department of Human Evolutionary Biology Harvard University 11 Divinity Avenue Email: ntroach@fas.harvard.edu Cambridge, MA 02138 Phone: 617-495-1870 EDUCATION 2012 PhD Harvard University,

More information

The evolution of human and ape hand proportions

The evolution of human and ape hand proportions ARTICLE Received 6 Feb 2015 Accepted 4 Jun 2015 Published 14 Jul 2015 DOI: 10.1038/ncomms8717 OPEN The evolution of human and ape hand proportions Sergio Almécija 1,2,3, Jeroen B. Smaers 4 & William L.

More information

Another shark attack in Florida

Another shark attack in Florida www.breaking News English.com Ready-to-use ESL / EFL Lessons Another shark attack in Florida URL: http://www.breakingnewsenglish.com/0506/050629-shark.html Today s contents The Article 2 Warm-ups 3 Before

More information

BIOLOGY OF THE INVERTEBRATES BY JAN PECHENIK DOWNLOAD EBOOK : BIOLOGY OF THE INVERTEBRATES BY JAN PECHENIK PDF

BIOLOGY OF THE INVERTEBRATES BY JAN PECHENIK DOWNLOAD EBOOK : BIOLOGY OF THE INVERTEBRATES BY JAN PECHENIK PDF Read Online and Download Ebook BIOLOGY OF THE INVERTEBRATES BY JAN PECHENIK DOWNLOAD EBOOK : BIOLOGY OF THE INVERTEBRATES BY JAN PECHENIK PDF Click link bellow and free register to download ebook: BIOLOGY

More information

How does war affect gorillas?

How does war affect gorillas? february 2017 How does war affect gorillas? Authors: Andrew Plumptre, Stuart Nixon, Deo Kujirakwinja, Ghislain Vieilledent, Rob Critchlow, Elizabeth Williamson, Radar Nishuli, Andrew Kirkby and Jefferson

More information

Let s Talk Helmet Safety

Let s Talk Helmet Safety Activity Book Starring Helmutt the Helmet Safety Dog Sponsored by the New Mexico Brain Injury Advisory Council 2 Welcome to the Let s Talk Helmet Safety Activity Book! Join Helmutt the Helmet Safety Dog

More information

STARS series E. trategies o chieve R S. eading uccess. Name

STARS series E. trategies o chieve R S. eading uccess. Name STARS series E S TA trategies o chieve R S eading uccess Name TABLE OF CONTENTS Lesson 1 Finding Main Idea......................................... 4 Lesson 2 Recalling Facts and Details................................

More information

ICBC Driving Habits DRIVING HABITS AND BEHAVIOURS

ICBC Driving Habits DRIVING HABITS AND BEHAVIOURS ICBC Driving Habits Methodology: Results are based on an online study conducted from February 20 to February 28, 2017, among 1,126 drivers in British Columbia aged 21 and over. The data has been statistically

More information

Gone Hunting: A Look at Vermont s Heritage

Gone Hunting: A Look at Vermont s Heritage Gone Hunting: A Look at Vermont s Heritage Kelly Koetsier LS09086 Vermont is a state that many would consider to be very culturally rich, and proud to celebrate its heritage. For centuries one such celebration,

More information

Fish Dissection. Background

Fish Dissection. Background Fish Dissection The Fish Dissection program at Hatfield Marine Science Center is a 50-minute hands-on program for 4th through 12th grade students. Students will work in small groups as they examine a variety

More information