Appendix B Warrants, Standards, and Guidelines for Traffic Control Devices used at Senior Citizen and Disabled Person Crossings

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1 Appendix B Warrants, Standards, and Guidelines for Traffic Control Devices used at Senior Citizen and Disabled Person Crossings B.1 General Minnesota Statute and Highway Traffic Regulation directs the Commissioner of the Minnesota Department of Transportation (MnDOT) to "...adopt uniform specifications for senior citizens or disabled persons. The specifications shall include criteria for determining the need for a crossing and the type and design of traffic control devices or signals that may be used at the crossing. The specifications shall be incorporated as a part of the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices required pursuant to section " Consequently, MnDOT organized a multi-agency committee of traffic engineers to develop standards, guidelines, and warrants for traffic control devices to accommodate senior citizen and handicapped pedestrians. The committee included representatives from MnDOT; the Cities of Bloomington, Minneapolis, and St. Paul; and Anoka, Dakota, Hennepin, Ramsey, and Washington Counties. In August 1983, this committee published a report entitled "Traffic Engineering for Senior Citizen and Handicapped Pedestrians". Prior to publication, the committee solicited comments on the draft report from the nine MnDOT District Traffic Engineers, members of the Minnesota Urban Traffic Engineers Council, and a number of advocacy organizations for senior citizen and handicapped persons. B.2 Definitions The definitions and interpretations of terms approved by the committee are as follows: Senior Citizen: those individuals 65 years of age or older. Disabled person: those individuals who by reason of illness, injury, congenital malfunction, or age are unable to walk as effectively as persons who are not so affected. This would include persons with the following: 1. Developmental restrictions or chronic restrictive conditions related to agility, stamina, and reaction time. 2. Lower extremity impairment - includes those confined to a wheel chair, walking with special aids, or walking with difficulty without the use of special aids. 3. Chronic impairment of upper extremities and shoulders. 4. Severe auditory or visual impairments. 5. Obvious confusion, and/or disorientation. Senior Citizen or Disabled Person Crossing: a pedestrian crossing on any street or highway in the vicinity of a senior citizen housing project, senior citizen nursing home,residential care facility for disabled persons, or any other facility or business establishment generating concentrations of senior citizens or disabled persons. Vicinity: within two blocks, or 1,000 feet of the senior citizen or disabled person facility, whichever is less. The following sections of this Appendix present a summary of the committee recommendations regarding warrants, standards, and guidelines for traffic control devices used to facilitate the movement of senior citizen and disabled persons. B.3 Signing and Pavement Marking for Disabled Persons The warrants or guidelines for traffic control devices should be in the order of need (ie: signing and pavement marking, flashers, and traffic signals). Since the excessive usage of signs and pavement markings can substantially reduce the effectiveness of the devices, installation should be limited to locations where significant numbers of senior citizens or disabled persons cross the street or highway. B-1 December, 2011

2 AHEAD OR W16-9P AHEAD OR mounted directly below it. An optional method is to install a Disabled Crossing sign () adjacent to the crossing. 4. In general, intersection crossings are preferred. However, there may be locations where mid-block crossings are justified. 5. Parking restrictions should be considered at all crossings to ensure adequate sight distance. If midblock crossings are used, it is especially important to restrict parking. 6. As much standardization as possible should be maintained with other types of pedestrian crossings. 500 FEET W16-2P 500 FEET Since the warning symbol sign may not be readily recognizable by the public, it may be accompanied by an educational plaque which is to remain in place for at least 3 years after initial installation. No special effort need be made to remove educational plaques as long as they are in serviceable condition. These signing and pavement marking standards should be used on crossing approaches where amber flashers are used, but not normally at crossings where there is a "STOP" sign. W16-7P Signing and pavement marking standards for senior citizen and disabled person crossings shall be as follows: 1. The format should be as shown in Figure B-1. This is the same as the school crossing format shown in the "Minnesota Traffic Engineering Manual" dated January, Standard crosswalk markings should be used, with the "Zebra" style optional. An advance pavement message, consisting of the international symbol for disabled persons painted on the pavement followed by the word "XING", is optional. 3. When signed, a Disabled Crossing Advance sign () shall be used in advance of the crossing. In addition, the exact location of the crossing shall be marked with a crossing sign assembly. The crossing sign assembly shall consist of the Disabled Crossing Advance sign and a supplemental plaque (W16-7p) At signalized intersections the advance sign and advance pavement message may be used if no other advance warning sign message is present. The pavement messages, if used, shall be 8 feet tall. If the approach speeds are low, 6 foot messages may be used. In addition to individual crossings, senior citizen and handicapped pedestrian "ZONES" should be considered. Also, walkway additions should be considered if they can eliminate the need for a crossing. B.4 Hazard Identification Beacons (Flashers) Flashers should be used at crossings where special hazards exist due to traffic and/or physical conditions. To determine the need for flashers, the procedure outlined in the ITE publication "A Program for School Crossing Protection" (Revised, 1971) should be followed. The equations presented in this publication should be modified, December, 2011 B-2

3 9.7 m (32 ft) 46 m (150 ft) Minimum (urban) 214 m (700 ft) Maximum (rural) 9.7 m (32 ft) W16-7p 46 m (150 ft) Minimum (urban) 214 m (700 ft) Maximum (rural) W16-7p Figure B-1 Examples of Signing and Pavement Marking for Senior Citizen and Disabled Person Crossings B-3 December, 2011

4 however, to allow for slower walking speeds and longer perception/reaction times. In general, the types of locations to be considered for flashers should include the following: 1. At crossings where some type of control is needed, but it is anticipated that standard signing and pavement marking would be inadequate to provide a safe crossing for senior citizens and disabled persons. 2. At crossings where standard signing and pavement markings are inplace, but have proven to be ineffective in providing for the safety of senior citizens and disabled persons. In the design and operation of flashers installed to accommodate senior citizens and disabled persons, the applicable provisions of Chapter 4L - Flashing Beacons shall govern. B.5 Traffic Signals A traffic control signal may be justified at an established senior citizen and/or disabled person crossing when a traffic engineering study is done and the requirements of the Section 4C-5 Warrant 4, Pedestrian Volume are met. This warrant takes into consideration the predominant pedestrian crossing speed and adequate gaps in traffic. A recommended practice for determining the frequency and adequacy of gaps in the vehicular traffic stream is given in the ITE publication, "A Program for School Crossing Protection" (Revised, 1971). The equation for computing Adequate Gap Time as contained in Appendix A of this publication is herein modified as follows: G = W/S + PR + {(N - 1) TI} Where: G is Adequate Gap Time in seconds. W is Pavement Width in feet (as defined in the ITE publication). S is Walking Speed based on the 15th percentile group speed (minimum value to be 2.5 ft./sec.). PR is Perception/Reaction Time in seconds as defined in the ITE publication (applying to senior citizens and disabled persons). Interval is variable from 4 to 6 seconds depending on field observations. N is number of rows. TI is Time Interval between rows of pedestrians. Interval is variable from 2 to 3 seconds depending upon field study data. (N - 1)TI is Pedestrian Clearance Time in seconds defined in the ITE publication on school crossing protection (applying to senior citizens and disabled persons). When traffic control signals are installed at an established senior citizen and/or disabled person crossing: 1. Pedestrian indications shall be provided at least for each crosswalk established as a senior citizen and/or disabled person crossing. 2. At an intersection, the signal normally should be traffic-actuated. As a minimum, it should be semitraffic-actuated, but full actuation with detectors on all approaches may be desirable. Intersection installations that can be fitted into progressive signal systems may have pretimed control. Installation of this type of signal may include suitable standard signing and pavement marking. 3. At nonintersection crossings, the signal should be pedestrian actuated. Parking and other obstructions to view should be prohibited for at least 100 feet in advance of and 20 feet beyond the crosswalk. The installation should include suitable standard senior citizen and/or disabled person signs and pavement markings. Special police supervision and/or enforcement should be provided for a new nonintersection installation. Adequate trial of other remedial measures which cause less delay and inconvenience to traffic should precede the installation of traffic control signals. B.6 Operation Techniques at Signalized Intersections Traffic signals installed at senior citizen and handicapped pedestrian crossings should have pedestrian indications, and should be pedestrian actuated, with the push buttons conveniently located. The recommended pedestrian timing for this type of crossing, where practicable, is as follows: "WALK" = 7 seconds (minimum) Flashing "DON'T WALK" = Distance from curb or refuge area to the center of the farthest traveled lane in ft., divided by the 15th percentile walking speed in ft./sec. (2.5 ft./sec. minimum). December, 2011 B-4

5 The crossing should be identified with suitable standard signing which displays the international symbol for disabled persons, and standard crosswalk pavement marking. Convenient curb ramps should be provided, and all approaches to the crossing should be via the sidewalk system, with refuge areas provided if possible. In the winter, snow should be removed from approach sidewalks and crossings, and around push buttons so that they are accessible. The local road authority's empowerment under this statute to determine pedestrian signal timing is in addition to any other control which it may have over the timing of pedestrian signals. In addition to the standard operational techniques developed for senior citizens and disabled persons, it may be necessary to utilize special techniques if pedestrians are encountering problems at signalized intersections. These techniques could include banning right-turn-on-red movements, use of police supervision, or elimination of a troublesome crosswalk. To determine if these techniques are needed, Appendix B of the ITE publication on school crossing protection may be used. To allow for slower walking speeds and longer perception/reaction times, the equations for "D" and "Da" should be modified using the values presented earlier in this report. B.7 Pedestrian Safety Crossing The normal pedestrian walking speed has been determined to be 4 feet per second (2.7 mph). Disabled persons, elderly and children might require more time to cross a street. To accommodate these pedestrians, a lower walking speed can be used. The minimum allowable walking speed is 2.5 feet per second. Where a demonstrated need exists, the pedestrian signal timing may be adjusted to reflect this decreased walking speed. Even where a need can not be demonstrated by an engineering study, according to State Statute , cities with a population of 100,000 or more may designate, by ordinance, a pedestrian safety crossing on highways under their jurisdiction. Such a crossing may use a slower walking speed or other pedestrian amenities as described in this appendix. Cities with populations of less than 100,000 may designate a pedestrian safety crossing on a highway only after receiving approval from the road authority responsible for the highway. B-5 December, 2011

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