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4 Diet and Human Evolution Diet and Human Evolution Exploring the Diets of Extinct Humans Through Paleontology Teeth Skulls and Jaws The Postcranial Skeleton What Is Adaptation? Using Chemistry to Infer the Diets of Extinct Hominids Our Place in Nature A Brief Who's Who of the Early Hominids What Did Early Hominids Eat? What Can We Say About the Diets of Fossil Homo? Summary Highlight: Lactose Intolerance

5 Diet and Human Evolution Diet and Human Evolution Exploring the Diets of Extinct Humans Through Paleontology Teeth Skulls and Jaws The Postcranial Skeleton What Is Adaptation? paleontologists study fossilized remains Using Chemistry to Infer the Diets of Extinct Hominids Our Place in of Nature extinct animals and plants A Brief Who's Who of the Early Hominids What Did Early Hominids Eat? What Can We Say About the Diets of Fossil Homo? Summary fossilized remains of plants Highlight: Lactose Intolerance paleobotanists specialize in the study of

6 you ve seen paleontology on the chart earlier...

7 Diet and Human Evolution Diet and Human Evolution Exploring the Diets of Extinct Humans Through Paleontology Teeth Skulls and Jaws The Postcranial Skeleton What Is Adaptation? Using Chemistry to Infer the Diets of Extinct Hominids Our Place in Nature A Brief Who's Who of the Early Hominids What Did Early Hominids Eat? What Can We Say About the Diets of Fossil Homo? Summary Highlight: Lactose Intolerance

8 NOTE: hominids are now generally reclassified as hominins The Cultural Feast, 2 nd Ed., p. 17

9 NOTE: hominids are now generally reclassified as hominins -- We are what they ate The Cultural Feast, 2 nd Ed., p. 17

10 Diet and Human Evolution Diet and Human Evolution Exploring the Diets of Extinct Humans Through Paleontology Teeth Skulls and Jaws The Postcranial Skeleton Through Paleontology What Is Adaptation? Using Chemistry to Infer the Diets of Extinct Hominids Our Place in Nature A Brief Who's Who of the Early Hominids What Did Early Hominids Eat? What Can We Say About the Diets of Fossil Homo? Summary Highlight: Lactose Intolerance Exploring the Diets of Extinct Humans

11 Diet and Human Evolution Diet and Human Evolution Exploring the Diets of Extinct Humans Through Paleontology Teeth Skulls and Jaws The Postcranial Skeleton Through Paleontology What Is Adaptation? Using Chemistry paleontology Infer the Diets of Extinct Hominids Our Place in Nature paleobotanists A Brief Who's Who of the Early Hominids paleontologists What Did Early Hominids Eat? What Can primates We Say About the Diets of Fossil Homo? Summary prosimians Highlight: Lactose Intolerance Exploring the Diets of Extinct Humans

12 REM paleontologists study fossilized remains of extinct animals and plants paleobotanists specialize in the study of fossilized remains of plants

13 Diet and Human Evolution Diet and Human Evolution Exploring the Diets of Extinct Humans Through Paleontology Teeth Skulls and Jaws The Postcranial Skeleton Through Paleontology What Is Adaptation? Using Chemistry paleontology Infer the Diets of Extinct Hominids paleobotanists Our Place in Nature A Brief Who's paleontologists Who of the Early Hominids What Did primates Early Hominids Eat? What Can We Say About the Diets of Fossil Homo? Summary prosimians... Highlight: Lactose Intolerance Exploring the Diets of Extinct Humans

14 Primates are a biological Order comprised of prosimians ( pre-monkeys ) monkeys apes humans

15 hominids now hominins are two-legged primates prehistoric and contemporary The Cultural Feast, 2 nd Ed., p. 20

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18 pre-monkeys (aka prosimians )

19 monkeys prosimians

20 prosimians monkeys apes

21 prosimians monkeys apes bipedal apes

22 prosimians monkeys apes apes that walk habitually on two legs, like you do bipedal apes

23 prosimians monkeys apes bipedal apes humans

24 prosimians monkeys apes bipedal apes humans

25 Anthropoids = all living and extinct monkeys, apes and humans

26 Anthropoids prosimians monkeys apes bipedal apes humans

27 Hominoids = all living and extinct apes and humans aka Hominoidea The Cultural Feast, 2 nd Ed., p. 20

28 prosimians Hominoids monkeys apes bipedal apes humans

29 gibbons humans bonobos chimps orangutans gorillas Campbell and Loy, Humankind Emerging, 8 th Ed., pp. 138 ff.

30 Hominids = modern humans and their nearest predecessors aka Hominidae The Cultural Feast, 2 nd Ed., p. 20

31 prosimians TRADITIONAL CLASSIFICATION Hominids monkeys apes bipedal apes humans

32 prosimians monkeys Hominids apes bipedal apes humans

33 Understanding Humans: Introduction to Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 11 th ed. NEW CLASSIFICATION Barry Lewis, Robert Jurmain, and Lynn Kilgore Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing 2012

34 NEW CLASSIFICATION Hominin = colloquial term for members of the tribe Hominini, the evolutionary group that includes modern human and now-extinct bipedal relatives (like Lucy )

35 prosimians monkeys Hominin apes bipedal apes humans

36 prosimians monkeys Hominins apes bipedal apes humans

37 example Lucy and The First Family Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 9th Ed., p. 206

38 example Lucy and The First Family Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 9 th Ed., p. 206

39 useful markers of the earliest hominids / hominins: adaptations for bipedalism... reduced canine length...

40 useful markers of the earliest hominids / hominins: adaptations for bipedalism reduced canine length...

41 useful markers of the earliest hominids / hominins: adaptations for bipedalism reduced canine length which is walking habitually on two legs, like you do

42 useful markers of the earliest hominids / hominins: adaptations for bipedalism... reduced canine length

43 useful markers of the earliest hominids / hominins: adaptations for bipedalism... reduced canine length and canine length brings us to teeth...

44 Diet and Human Evolution Diet and Human Evolution Exploring the Diets of Extinct Humans Through Paleontology Teeth Skulls and Jaws The Postcranial Skeleton Through Paleontology What Is Adaptation? Using Teeth Chemistry to Infer the Diets of Extinct Hominids Our Place Skulls in Nature and Jaws A Brief Who's Who of the Early Hominids What The Did Early Postcranial Hominids Eat? Skeleton What Can We Say About the Diets of Fossil Homo? Summary Highlight: Lactose Intolerance Exploring the Diets of Extinct Humans

45

46 useful markers of the earliest hominids / hominins: adaptations for bipedalism reduced canine length and this is though mostly to relate to a change in diet

47 useful markers of the earliest hominids / hominins: adaptations for bipedalism reduced canine length and this is though mostly to relate to a change in diet

48 REM: diet classifications herbivorous (principally plants) insectivorous (principally insects) frugivorous (principally fruits) graminivorous (principally grasses) folivorous (principally leaf eating) proteinivorous (principally protein eating) carnivorous (chiefly meats) omnivorous ( devours all ) locavore (principally locally available foods)

49 diet classifications herbivorous (principally plants) from... insectivorous (principally insects) frugivorous (principally fruits) graminivorous (principally grasses) folivorous (principally leaf eating) proteinivorous (principally protein eating) carnivorous (chiefly meats) omnivorous ( devours all ) locavore (principally locally available foods)

50 apes (and monkeys) still possess conical, daggerish canines which project well beyond the surface of the opposite teeth...

51 Teeth of a male patas monkey Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 9 th Ed., p. 205

52 diastema = a space in the tooth row that accommodates one or more teeth from the opposite jaw

53

54 Diet and Human Evolution Diet and Human Evolution Exploring the Diets of Extinct Humans Through Paleontology Teeth Skulls and Jaws Through The Postcranial Paleontology Skeleton What Is Adaptation? Teeth Using Chemistry to Infer the Diets of Extinct Skulls Hominids and Jaws Our Place in Nature A Brief The Who's Postcranial Who of the Early Skeleton Hominids What Did Early Hominids Eat? What Can We Say About the Diets of Fossil Homo? Summary Highlight: Lactose Intolerance Exploring the Diets of Extinct Humans

55 Diet and Human Evolution Diet and Human Evolution Exploring the Diets of Extinct Humans Through Paleontology Teeth Skulls and Jaws Through The Postcranial Paleontology Skeleton What Is Adaptation? Teeth Using Chemistry to Infer the Diets of Extinct Skulls Hominids and Jaws Our Place in Nature A Brief The Who's Postcranial Who of the Early Skeleton Hominids What Did Early Hominids Eat? What Can We Say About the Diets of Fossil Homo? Summary Highlight: Lactose Intolerance Exploring the Diets of Extinct Humans

56 Diet and Human Evolution Diet and Human Evolution Exploring the Diets of Extinct Humans Through Paleontology Teeth Skulls and Jaws Through The Postcranial Paleontology Skeleton What Is Adaptation? Teeth Using Chemistry to Infer the Diets of Extinct Skull Hominids = and cranium Jaws Our Place in Nature A Brief The Who's Postcranial Who of the Early Skeleton Hominids What Did Early Hominids Eat? What Can We Say About the Diets of Fossil Homo? Summary Highlight: Lactose Intolerance Exploring the Diets of Extinct Humans

57 Modern human cranium Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 9 th Ed., p. 432

58 Diet and Human Evolution Diet and Human Evolution Exploring the Diets of Extinct Humans Through Paleontology Teeth Skulls and Jaws Through The Postcranial Paleontology Skeleton What Is Adaptation? Teeth Using Chemistry to Infer the Diets of Extinct Hominids Skulls and Jaws Our Place in Nature A Brief The Who's Postcranial Who of the Early Skeleton Hominids What Did Early Hominids Eat? What Can We Say About the Diets of Fossil Homo? Summary Highlight: Lactose Intolerance Exploring the Diets of Extinct Humans

59 the lower jaw = mandible and the little bony ridge inside running alongside the tongue is a mandibular torus

60 Modern human cranium Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 9 th Ed., p. 432

61 Diet and Human Evolution Diet and Human Evolution Exploring the Diets of Extinct Humans Through Paleontology Teeth Skulls and Jaws The Postcranial Skeleton Through Paleontology What Is Adaptation? Using Teeth Chemistry to Infer the Diets of Extinct Hominids Skulls and Jaws Our Place in Nature A Brief Who's saggital Who of the crest Early Hominids What Did Early Hominids Eat? What The Can We Postcranial Say About the Diets Skeleton of Fossil Homo? Summary Highlight: Lactose Intolerance Exploring the Diets of Extinct Humans

62 Pongid Prognathism (Line of greatest muscle force is shown in red) Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 8 th Ed., p. 245

63 Satittal crests and temporal muscle orientations Hominid compared to pongid (Line of greatest muscle force is shown in red) Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 8 th Ed., p. 245

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65

66 Diet and Human Evolution Diet and Human Evolution Exploring the Diets of Extinct Humans Through Paleontology Teeth Skulls and Jaws The Postcranial Skeleton Through Paleontology What Is Adaptation? Using Teeth Chemistry to Infer the Diets of Extinct Hominids Our Place Skulls in Nature and Jaws A Brief The Who's Postcranial Who of the Early Hominids Skeleton What Did Early Hominids Eat? What Can We Say About the Diets of Fossil Homo? Summary Highlight: Lactose Intolerance Exploring the Diets of Extinct Humans

67 Postcranial = below the head (with bipeds) behind the head (with quadrupeds)

68 Postcrania Modern human New World monkey Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 8 th Ed., pp. 223, 128

69 Homo sapiens Moderns (Cro-magnon ) Premoderns (Neandertal ) Homo erectus Homo habilis Paranthropus Australopithecus 165,000 ybp-present 500,000-28,000 ybp 1.8 mya 25,000 ybp mya mya mya Sivapithecus 15-7 mya dates are approximate and follow Understanding Humans 2009

70 Homo sapiens Moderns (Cro-magnon ) Premoderns (Neandertal ) Homo erectus Homo habilis Paranthropus Australopithecus 165,000 ybp-present 500,000-28,000 ybp 1.8 mya 25,000 ybp mya mya mya Sivapithecus 15-7 mya dates are approximate and follow Understanding Humans 2009

71 Homo sapiens Moderns (Cro-magnon ) 165,000 ybp-present Premoderns (Neandertal ) Homo erectus Homo habilis Paranthropus Australopithecus Sivapithecus 500,000-28,000 ybp anything called pithecus is an ape 1.8 mya 25,000 ybp mya mya mya 15-7 mya dates are approximate and follow Understanding Humans 2009

72 Spring 2003

73 Homo sapiens Moderns (Cro-magnon ) 165,000 ybp-present Premoderns (Neandertal ) 500,000-28,000 ybp Homo erectus Homo habilis Paranthropus Australopithecus Sivapithecus 1.8 mya 25,000 ybp apes are not bipeds mya they re brachiators (p. 23) mya mya 15-7 mya dates are approximate and follow Understanding Humans 2009

74 Why bipedalism? there are a lot of theories several of them related to food procurement and use

75 Why bipedalism? there are a lot of theories... several of them related to food procurement and use...

76 Why bipedalism? Owen Lovejoy for example, thinks it s ALL about food...

77 Why bipedalism? Owen Lovejoy for example, thinks it s ALL about food... provisioning hypothesis

78 bipedalism relates to long-distance walking... including carrying food

79 Possible Factors Influencing the Initial Evolution of Bipedal Locomotion in Hominids Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 8th Ed., p. 217

80 ... and even non-bipeds carry food...

81 Chimpanzee The Primates, Time-Life (1974) p. 71

82 Lovejoy s ideas on bipedalism specifically relate to male help in carrying food back to the home base... known as provisioning

83 Lovejoy s ideas on bipedalism specifically relate to male help in carrying food back to the home base... this is known as provisioning

84 ... note male help in provisioning in Owen Lovejoy s provisioning hypothesis

85 bipedalism is also related to tool use... including such simple tools as a digging stick (dibble / coa)

86 bipedalism is also related to tool use... including such simple tools as a digging stick (dibble / coa)

87 Possible Factors Influencing the Initial Evolution of Bipedal Locomotion in Hominids Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 8th Ed., p. 217

88 bipedalism is related to hunting

89 Possible Factors Influencing the Initial Evolution of Bipedal Locomotion in Hominids Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 8th Ed., p. 217

90 Hunting / Gathering / Collecting (foraging)

91 bipedalism is related to seed and nut gathering and feeding from bushes

92 Possible Factors Influencing the Initial Evolution of Bipedal Locomotion in Hominids Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 8th Ed., p. 217

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94 The Emergence of Humankind 4 th Ed., p. 105

95 New York University Press 2005

96 another consequence of our primate heritage and enlarged brain is that we are blessed and cursed with an insensate craving for sweets and fats we seem especially fond of sweetsour foods in nature, ripe fruits and berries we love animal fats and vegetable fats equally nuts, seeds, oily fruits Everyone Eats pp

97 these are high-calorie, easily digestible foods that are most easily found in a rich patch following a burn Everyone Eats pp

98 So the human tendency to crave certain foods is biologically grounded Everyone Eats pp

99 bipedalism and vision (visual surveillance)

100 Possible Factors Influencing the Initial Evolution of Bipedal Locomotion in Hominids Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 8th Ed., p. 217

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103 Eye Level and Sight Humankind Emerging, 7th Ed., p. 114

104 and if you are a hunter, this difference makes a great difference in your hunting success rate... and maybe Eye even Level your and own Sight survival rate Humankind Emerging, 7th Ed., p. 114

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Human Evolution - Skull Analysis

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