Development Team. Physical/Biological Anthropology. Anthropology. Principal Investigator. Paper Coordinator. Content Writer.

Save this PDF as:
Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Development Team. Physical/Biological Anthropology. Anthropology. Principal Investigator. Paper Coordinator. Content Writer."

Transcription

1 Paper No. : 01 Physical/ Biological Module : 15 Development Team Principal Investigator Prof. Anup Kumar Kapoor Department of, University of Delhi Paper Coordinator Prof. Subho Roy Department of,university of Calcutta Content Writer Prof. Subho Roy Department Of, University of Calcutta Content Reviewer Prof. Barun Mukhopadhyay Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata 1 Physical/Biological

2 Description Of Module Subject Name Paper Name 01 Physical/Biological Module Name/Title Module Id 15 2 Physical/Biological

3 Contents of this unit Introduction The Fossil types of Sahelanthropus tchadensis Orrorion tugenensis Ardipithecus ramidus afarensis Kenyanthropus platyops africanus garhi aethiopicus/paranthropus aethiopicus robustus boisei Phylogenetic Position Summary Learning Objectives Context of studying Human Evolution Who are? What are their Spatial and Temporal Distributions? What are the Varieties of? What is the Sequence of Appearance of all these Varieties? 3 Physical/Biological

4 Introduction All of us are quite aware about Charles Darwin and his works. After the publication of two of his famous books origin of species by means of natural selection or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life (1859) and descent of man, and selection in relation to sex (1871), the concept of biological evolution in general and human evolution in particular took a new turn. The later publication specifically speaks about how human beings evolved from lower order animals. From that time onwards scholars across the world were in search of the fossil of ancestors of present day human who were apes or ape-like. A number of pre-hominid fossils like, parapithecus, aegyptopithecus, dryopithecus, ramapithecus, shivapithecus, and hominid fossils like australopithecus and homo were discovered and/or restudied in this new light. The scholars also made attempt to analyse and interpret those in order to understand the evolution of human from its ape ancestry. But, no consensus has yet been formed about the sequence of human evolution because of the gaps in the fossil records. Further, the interpretation of hominid phylogeny keeps on changing with the discovery of new fossils and development of new techniques of analysis of human remains. Despite contested views, at the moment, we have an outline of the course of human evolution. The trajectory of hominid development is not straight, i.e. one species or genus subsequently gave rise to the next developed form. There were times when several species of humans and other hominids cohabited in this world. In course of evolution, a number of varieties of hominid species became extinct without evolving into a new form, while others evolved into developed form. Thus, the phylogenetic branching appears like a tree with many branches. The word australopithecus means southern apes. The fossils of this genus have been found only from different sites of south africa like Sterkfontein, Taung, Kromdraai and from east Africa like Olduvai, Laetoli and lake Turkana. appeared in this world around 4 my or might be even before, has a spectrum of varieties, all of which are extinct. This group of hominids used to live in this world before pleistocene. The members of this group were biped with reduced teeth size, especially the canine. These two characteristic features place the group in hominid category. It is believed that one of the species of the genus australopithecus evolved into homo. 4 Physical/Biological

5 There have been some recent discoveries of fossils from Africa (like sahelanthropus, orrorin and ardipithecus), that claim to be of the family hominidae. These varieties arrived in the world before the appearance of typical variants of australopithecus, i.e. shortly after the divergence from our common ancestor with chimpanzee. They were biped, but retain a number of ape like characteristic features. Probably from one of these new genera, australopithecus evolved. Now we will discuss on the fossil hominids discovered so far in the chronological order of appearance in the record (note that this ordering is not meant to represent an evolutionary sequence), except that the robust australopithecines are kept together. Sahelanthropus tchadensis a) facial view (b) lateral view, (c) dorsal view, (d) basal view (Source: Brunet et al. 2002) This species was discovered in 2001 from Chad in central Africa (brunet et al. 2002). The word sahel is derived from the name of the region of Africa bordering the south of Sahara, and the fossil was unearthed from this place. It is the oldest known hominid dated between 6 and 7 million years. The discovery of this fossil remains made the world to belief that hominid of Miocene period is not restricted in east and south Africa. However, Wolpoff et al. (2002) challenged the hominid status of this fossil. This species is known from a nearly complete cranium (of a male) and a number of fragmentary lower jaws and teeth. The brain size similar to that of an ape, but with reduced subnasal prognathism is popularly known as toumai (hope of life). This individual has many primitive ape like features, such as the small brain size, along with some characteristic of later hominids such as the position of foramen magnum and small canine teeth. This mixture, along with the fact that it comes 5 Physical/Biological

6 from around the time when the hominids are thought to have diverged from chimpanzees, suggests its closeness to the common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees. Orrorin tugenensis This species was named in July 2001 from fossils discovered in western Kenya (Senut et al. 2001), dated 6 my. The fossils include fragmentary arm and thigh bones, lower jaws, and teeth. The limb bones are about the size of a female chimpanzee. Its finders have claimed that orrorin was a human ancestor adapted to both bipedality and tree climbing, and that the australopithecines are an extinct offshoot. A later study (Galik et al. 2004) has found further evidence of bipedality in the fossil femur. Ardipithecus ramidus (Source: Senut et al. 2004) This species was discovered by a team led by Tim white, Berhane Asfaw and Gen Suwa in 1994 (White et al. 1994). Most remains are skull fragments. It has been dated 4.4 to 5.8 million years. Evidence suggests that they were possibly bipedal, and that some individuals were about 122 cm (4'0") tall. The teeth are intermediate between those of earlier apes and A. afarensis (the earliest form of australopithecus), but one baby tooth is very primitive which resembles a chimpanzee tooth more than 6 Physical/Biological

7 any other known hominid tooth (more recently, a number of fragmentary fossils discovered between 1997 and 2001, and dating from 5.2 to 5.8 million years, have been assigned first to a new subspecies, ardipithecus ramidus kadabba (Haile-selassie 2001), and then later as a new species, ardipithecus kadabba (Haile-selassie et al. 2004). (One of these fossils is a toe bone belonging to a bipedal creature, but is a few hundred thousand years younger than the rest of the fossils and so its identification with kadabba is not as firm as the other fossils. anamensis (Source: American Association for the Advancement of Science) In 1965, Bryan Patterson and other scholars from Harvard University discovered a single arm bone (knm-kp 271) of an early human at the site of Kanapoi in northern Kenya. They could not conclude anything from this discovery since there was no supportive evidence. Later, in the year 1994, Meave Leakey discovered some more fossil remains from the same site of lake Turkana (Leakey 1995). The material consists of skull fragments, teeth and long bones. The word anam means lake in the Turkana language. Anamensis existed between 4.2 and 3.9 million years ago, and has a mixture of primitive features in the skull, and advanced features in the body. The teeth and jaws are very similar to those of older fossil apes. A partial tibia (the larger of the two lower leg bones) shows strong evidence of bipedality, and a humerus (the upper arm bone) which is extremely humanlike (note that although the skull and skeletal bones are thought to be from the same species, this is not confirmed). 7 Physical/Biological

8 Fossil remains of australopithecus anamensis (knm-kp 271) Source: retrieved on march 13, 2015) afarensis A number of fossils of this type have been discovered at different times (between ) by Johanson, Johanson and Gray, Abell, and Kimbell and Rak from different places of east Africa like Hadar (Ethiopia) and Laetoli (Tanzania). Of these fossil remains, the one discovered from Hadar is nicknamed as Lucy, an adult female skeleton of 25 years old (al 288-1) (Johanson 1978). A. afarensis existed between 3.9 and 3.0 million years ago. They had an ape-like face with a low forehead, a bony ridge over the eyes, a flat nose, and no chin. They had protruding jaws with large back teeth. Cranial capacity varied from about 375 to 550 cc. The skull is similar to that of a chimpanzee, except for the more human like teeth. The canine teeth are much smaller than those of modern apes, but larger and more pointed than those of humans, and shape of the jaw is between the rectangular shape of apes and the parabolic shape of humans. However their pelvis and leg bone closely resemble modern human, and leave no doubt that they were bipedal (although adapted to walking rather than running (Leakey 1994). A foot print in the volcanic ashes from laetoli is the oldest evidence of bipedalism among the. Females were substantially smaller than males, a condition known as sexual dimorphism. Height varied between about 107 cm (3'6") and 152 cm (5'0"). The finger and toe bones are curved and proportionally longer than humans, but the hands are similar to humans in most other details (Johanson and Edey 1981). Most scientists consider this evidence that afarensis was still partially adapted to climbing in trees, others consider it evolutionary baggage. 8 Physical/Biological

9 Lucy (al 288-1) Source: retrieved on march 15, 2015) Kenyanthropus platyops (flat faced man of Kenya) A partial skull was discovered from Lomekwi in Kenya (Leakey 2001), dated about 3.5 million years. The size of the skull is similar to A. afarensis and A. africanus, and has a large, flat face and small teeth. This variety is contemporary to Lucy. Tim White (2003) rejected the genus Kenyanthropus and considered it as a variant of A. afarensis. Kenyapithecus platyops (er 1470) Source: retrieved on march 14, 2015 africanus All the fossils of this variety have been discovered from South Africa from sites like Taung and Sterkfontein. Of these, the discovery of Taung child, a skull of a child made by Raymond Dart in 1924 marks the beginning of the discovery of (Dart 1925). This 3-year-old child's skull is the first early human skull ever discovered in Africa. It took 20 years after this discovery 9 Physical/Biological

10 before scientists accepted the importance of Africa as a major source of human evolution. Dart claimed this fossil as an ancestor to human from its position of foramen magnum which is like modern human. A. Africanus existed between 3 and 2 million years ago. It is similar to Afarensis, and was also bipedal but body size was slightly greater. Brain size may also have been slightly larger, ranging between 420 and 500 cc. This is a little larger than chimp brains (despite a similar body size), but still not advanced in the areas necessary for speech. The back teeth were a little bigger than in Afarensis. Although the teeth and jaws of Africanus are much larger than those of humans, they are far more similar to human teeth than they are those to apes (Johanson and Edey 1981). The shape of the jaw is now fully parabolic, like that of humans, and the size of the canine teeth is further reduced compared to Afarensis. The average height of the males is 4 ft 6 inch (138 cm); and that of females is 3 ft 9 inch (115 cm). The average weight of the males is 90 lbs (41 kg) and that of the females is 66 lb (30 kg). Taung child Source: retrieved on march 10, 2015 garhi This species was discovered at Bouri in Ethiopia (studied by Asfaw et al. 1999). It is a partial skull dated 2.5 my. The skull differs from previous australopithecine species in the combination of its features, notably the extremely large size of its teeth, especially the rear ones, and primitive skull morphology. Some nearby skeletal remains may belong to the same species. They show a humanlike ratio of the humerus and femur, but an ape-like ratio of the lower and upper arm. All these varieties of australopithecus discussed till now are considered as the gracile forms because of their lighter body built compared to the robust varieties (which we will discuss now). The robust varieties like, A. robustus, A aethiopicus and A. boisei had a gorilla-like bony crest down the midline of the skull, serving to anchor the enormous jaw muscles needed to chew their fibrous diet. They had huge, broad cheek teeth with thick enamel, relatively small incisor teeth, large zygomatic arches that 10 Physical/Biological

11 allowed the passage of large chewing muscles. They also have very heavy brows making them look far from human. Some prefer to club these three under the genus paranthropus and consider them as offshoot diverging from the ancestral line leading to humanity (Aiello & Dean, 1990). aethiopicus/paranthropus aethiopicus Discovered by Alan Walker in 1985 near west Turkana in Kenya. A. aethiopicus existed between 2.6 and 2.3 million years ago. This species is popularly known as the black skull. It is so called because the manganese deposit in the soil deposit where the skull was located stained it black and it may be an ancestor of other two robust varieties of, i.e. robustus and boisei, but it has a baffling mixture of primitive and advanced traits. The brain size is very small (410 cc), parts of the skull particularly the hind portions are very primitive, most resembling afarensis. Other characteristics are massiveness of the face, jaws and single tooth found, and the largest sagittal crest (Walker et al. 1986). aethiopicus/paranthropus aethiopicus or black skull Source: retrieved on march 10, 2015 robustus Discovered from Kromdraai (Broom, 1938), from Swartkrans (Johanson and Edgar 1996) and Drimolen cave (Keysser, 2000). All these sites are in south Africa. A. robustus had a body similar to that of africanus, but a larger and more robust skull and teeth. It existed between 2 and 1.5 million years ago. The massive face is flat or dished, with no forehead and large brow ridges. It has relatively small front teeth, but massive grinding teeth in a large lower jaw. Its diet would have been mostly coarse, tough food that needed a lot of chewing. The average brain size is about 530 cc. Bones excavated with robustus skeletons indicate that they may have been used as digging tools. 11 Physical/Biological

12 robustus Source: retrieved on march 10, 2015 boisei /Paranthropus boisei/ Zinjanthropus boisei) This is the most robust form of australopithecus. Discovered by Mary Leakey 1959, from olduvai gorge (Tanzania), by Richard Leakey in 1969 &70 from lake turkana (Kenya) and by Swua (1997) from Konso (Ethiopia). A. boisei existed between 1.8 and 1.1 million years ago. It was similar to robustus, but the face and cheek teeth were even more massive, some molars being up to 2 cm across. The brain size is very similar to robustus, about 530 cc. Some scholars opine boisei and robust us to be variants of the same species. boisei Source: retrieved on march 10, Physical/Biological

13 Sequence of appearance Thus, we see a spectrum of varieties of. They appeared in this world during pliopliestocene epoch and were distributed mostly in south and east africa. The question that why the distribution of is restricted to East and South Africa still needs to be answered. Moreover, how these widely diversified members are related to each other and with different species of genus homo are yet to reach any consensus. Even though they have been divided by some investigators into several genera (sahelanthropus, ardipithecus, australopithecus, and paranthropus), it is still unclear whether the early hominids were simply diverse within a widely-distributed group (for example, like modern humans), or they represent more than one evolutionary line. The sequence of appearance of these fossil records reveals that sahelanthropus came around 6-7 my, orrorion around 6 my, ardipithecus my, the gracile forms of (afarensis, africanus, garhi) between my, Kenyanthropus around 3.5 my and paranathropus (both robustus and boisei) between 2.6 and 1.0 my. Despite these varieties, palaeoanthropologists (scientists who study human fossils) identify two major forms of australopithecus gracile and robust. Some of the scholars prefer to keep them in two different genera- australopithecus (gracile form) and paranthropus (robust form). It is believed that one of the species of the gracile forms of australopithecus evolved into genus homo, though the robust forms appeared later than the gracile forms. Summary The word means southern apes. Different sites of South Africa like Sterkfontein, Taung, Kromdraai and from East Africa like Olduvai, Laetoli and lake Turkana. Around 4 my or might be even before. The members of this group were biped with reduced teeth size, especially the canine. Earliest varieties: sahelanthropus tchadensis, orrorin, ardipithecus. Later varieties: (a) afarensis, africanus (gracile forms) (b) robustus and boisei (robust forms) Sahelanthropus came around 6-7 my, Orrorion around 6 my. 13 Physical/Biological

14 Ardipithecus my Gracile forms of (afarensis, africanus, garhi) between my Kenyanthropus around 3.5 my Paranthropus (both robust and boisie) between 2.6 and 1.0 my. It is believed that one of the species of the gracile forms of evolved into genus homo, though the robust forms appeared later than the gracile forms. 14 Physical/Biological

Lecture 10-1 Early Fossil Hominids: Bipedal Anatomy & Pre- Australopithecines and Australopithecines

Lecture 10-1 Early Fossil Hominids: Bipedal Anatomy & Pre- Australopithecines and Australopithecines Lecture 10-1 Early Fossil Hominids: Bipedal Anatomy & Pre- Australopithecines and Australopithecines Big Questions 1. What is a hominid? 2. Why did hominids evolve from an apelike primate? 3. Who were

More information

Mammals Grew 1,000 Times Larger After the Demise of the Dinosaurs

Mammals Grew 1,000 Times Larger After the Demise of the Dinosaurs Mammals Grew 1,000 Times Larger After the Demise of the Dinosaurs The largest land mammals that ever lived, Indricotherium and Deinotherium, would have towered over the living African Elephant. Indricotherium

More information

Hominid! Evolution: On The Origin of Humans

Hominid! Evolution: On The Origin of Humans What is a Hominid? Hominid! Evolution: On The Origin of Humans The term hominid is also used in the more restricted sense as hominins Humans and relatives of humans closer than chimpanzees Bipedal Modern

More information

4/20/2008. Overview. Early Human Evolution. Chronology of Hominid Evolution. Overview of Species. Epochs of the Cenozoic Era

4/20/2008. Overview. Early Human Evolution. Chronology of Hominid Evolution. Overview of Species. Epochs of the Cenozoic Era Early Human Evolution Overview and Chronology What makes us human? Ardipithecus and early Australopithecus Robust and gracile australopithecines Oldowan tools Overview First hominins appeared late in the

More information

The Human Animal. The Human Timescale. Geological Timescale. Millions of Years. Periods Jurassic. Major events

The Human Animal. The Human Timescale. Geological Timescale. Millions of Years. Periods Jurassic. Major events The Human Animal The Human Timescale Geological Timescale Millions of Years Periods Permian Triassic Jurassic Cretaceous Tertiary Quat. Major events Dinosaurs Evolve and Expand Start of Age of Reptiles

More information

The Human Animal. The Human Timescale. Geological Timescale. Millions of Years. Periods Permian Triassic Jurassic Cretaceous Tertiary Quat.

The Human Animal. The Human Timescale. Geological Timescale. Millions of Years. Periods Permian Triassic Jurassic Cretaceous Tertiary Quat. The Human Animal 1 The Human Timescale 2 Geological Timescale Millions of Years Periods Permian Triassic Jurassic Cretaceous Tertiary Quat. Major events Start of Age of Reptiles Dinosaurs Evolve and Expand

More information

The Human Animal. Species. The Human Timescale. Geological Timescale. Primate Evolution Primate Ancestor

The Human Animal. Species. The Human Timescale. Geological Timescale. Primate Evolution Primate Ancestor The Human Animal The Human Timescale 1 2 Geological Timescale Species Millions of Years Periods Permian Triassic Jurassic Cretaceous Tertiary Quat. Major events Dinosaurs Evolve and Expand Start of Age

More information

Internet Assignment: Early Hominids

Internet Assignment: Early Hominids ANTHRO 1-L: Biological Anthropology Lab R. Mitchell, Instructor Name: Internet Assignment: Early Hominids From the late Miocene (10-5.5 mya) to the early Pliocene (5.5-4 mya), a major adaptive shift was

More information

Human evolution. Fascinating subject - where did we come from? History of Primates:

Human evolution. Fascinating subject - where did we come from? History of Primates: Human evolution. Fascinating subject - where did we come from? History of Primates: - evolved from shrews during Cretaceous (so an older order) about 65 mya. - Some characteristics of primates: - clavicle

More information

A n t h r o p o l o g y

A n t h r o p o l o g y A n t h r o p o l o g y Appreciating Human Diversity Fifteenth Edition Conrad Phillip Kottak University of Michigan McGraw-Hill 2013 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved. C H A P T E R EARLY HOMININS

More information

Outline. Evolution: Human Evolution. Primates reflect a treedwelling. Key Concepts:

Outline. Evolution: Human Evolution. Primates reflect a treedwelling. Key Concepts: Evolution: Human Evolution Primates reflect a treedwelling heritage Outline 1. Key concepts 2. Characteristics of primates 3. Prosimians and anthropoids 4. The first hominids: Ardipithecus 5. The first

More information

Introduction to Biological Anthropology: Notes 17 The first hominins Copyright Bruce Owen 2008 Last time we saw how apes radiated (diversified) in

Introduction to Biological Anthropology: Notes 17 The first hominins Copyright Bruce Owen 2008 Last time we saw how apes radiated (diversified) in Introduction to Biological Anthropology: Notes 17 The first hominins Copyright Bruce Owen 2008 Last time we saw how apes radiated (diversified) in the middle Miocene some shifted from quadrupedal to more

More information

Clavicle well developed (allows increase flexibility, supports arms). Five digits, front and rear. Often thumb (and big toe) opposable.

Clavicle well developed (allows increase flexibility, supports arms). Five digits, front and rear. Often thumb (and big toe) opposable. Human evolution. It d be nice to spend some time with some other groups (e.g. dinosaurs), but this just isn t possible in a survey course like this. BUT, we will spend a little time on human evolution!

More information

What do the Bones tell us?

What do the Bones tell us? What do the Bones tell us? The scientific study of bones. Comes from the Greek word Osteon, meaning bone Sub-discipline of archaeology and physical anthropology, anatomy, forensics etc. Age at death Height/stature

More information

Study Guide Primates and Human Evolution. Where do you fit into the natural world? Characteristics of Primates

Study Guide Primates and Human Evolution. Where do you fit into the natural world? Characteristics of Primates Study Guide Primates and Human Evolution Describe the traits of primates.! Classify yourself taxonomically.! What traits make you human?! Describe the evolutionary trends in hominin species over the past

More information

Introduction to Biological Anthropology: Notes 21 Apes and early hominins Copyright Bruce Owen 2011 the first known hominoids (apes) appeared in the

Introduction to Biological Anthropology: Notes 21 Apes and early hominins Copyright Bruce Owen 2011 the first known hominoids (apes) appeared in the Introduction to Biological Anthropology: Notes 21 Apes and early hominins Copyright Bruce Owen 2011 the first known hominoids (apes) appeared in the late Oligocene, 27 mya example Oligocene ape: genus

More information

Hominins ultimately distinguished by brain size, bipedal locomotion and toolmaking behavior

Hominins ultimately distinguished by brain size, bipedal locomotion and toolmaking behavior Early Hominins Hominins ultimately distinguished by brain size, bipedal locomotion and toolmaking behavior But these did not develop simultaneously: mosaic evolution The only reliable indicator of earliest

More information

Evolution-Human Evolution. Biology: Fezza Miami Arts Charter

Evolution-Human Evolution. Biology: Fezza Miami Arts Charter EvolutionHuman Evolution Biology: Fezza Miami Arts Charter Biogeography the study of the distribution of species and ecosystems in geographic space and through (geological) time Evolution is modification

More information

Introduction to Biological Anthropology: Notes 20 Apes and early hominins Copyright Bruce Owen 2010 the first known hominoids (apes) appeared in the

Introduction to Biological Anthropology: Notes 20 Apes and early hominins Copyright Bruce Owen 2010 the first known hominoids (apes) appeared in the Introduction to Biological Anthropology: Notes 20 Apes and early hominins Copyright Bruce Owen 2010 the first known hominoids (apes) appeared in the late Oligocene, 27 mya example Oligocene ape: genus

More information

Anthro 101: Human Biological Evolution. Lecture 13: Early Hominins. Prof. Kenneth Feldmeier

Anthro 101: Human Biological Evolution. Lecture 13: Early Hominins. Prof. Kenneth Feldmeier Anthro 101: Human Biological Evolution Lecture 13: Early Hominins Prof. Kenneth Feldmeier Biological Anthropology Hominoid = Apes Orangutan Humans, Gorillas, Chimpanzees, Orangutans, Gibbons and Siamangs

More information

Student Exploration: Human Evolution - Skull Analysis

Student Exploration: Human Evolution - Skull Analysis Name: Date: Student Exploration: Human Evolution - Skull Analysis Prior Knowledge Questions 1. Label one of the skulls below as human and the other as a chimpanzee skull. 2. What features did you use to

More information

1. Primate evolution provides a context for understanding human origins

1. Primate evolution provides a context for understanding human origins 1. Primate evolution provides a context for understanding human origins Primates are monkeys, lemurs, tarsiers and apes (including us!). Compared to other mammals Most primates have hands and feet adapted

More information

NOTES: Ch 34 - Mammals & Primate / Human Evolution ( )

NOTES: Ch 34 - Mammals & Primate / Human Evolution ( ) NOTES: Ch 34 - Mammals & Primate / Human Evolution (34.7-34.8) Class: MAMMALIA Mammals possess unique derived characteristics: 1) Provide young with milk (mammary glands) 2) Internal fertilization; some

More information

Anthro 101: Human Biological Evolution. Lecture 13: Early Hominins. Prof. Kenneth Feldmeier

Anthro 101: Human Biological Evolution. Lecture 13: Early Hominins. Prof. Kenneth Feldmeier Anthro 101: Human Biological Evolution Lecture 13: Early Hominins Prof. Kenneth Feldmeier Biological Anthropology Hominoid = Apes Humans, Gorillas, Chimpanzees, Orangutans, Gibbons and Siamangs Hominin

More information

Anthro 101: Human Biological Evolution. Lecture 13: Early Hominins. Prof. Kenneth Feldmeier

Anthro 101: Human Biological Evolution. Lecture 13: Early Hominins. Prof. Kenneth Feldmeier Anthro 101: Human Biological Evolution Lecture 13: Early Hominins Prof. Kenneth Feldmeier Biological Anthropology Hominoid = Apes Humans, Gorillas, Chimpanzees, Orangutans, Gibbons Orangutan and Siamangs

More information

early hominid fossils from AFRICA

early hominid fossils from AFRICA ORIGINS MATT MAHURIN (illustration); ROBERT CAMPBELL (left); ALAN WALKER; NATIONAL MUSEUMS OF KENYA (center and right) early hominid fossils from AFRICA The year was 1965. Bryan Patterson, a paleoanthropologist

More information

Hominid Skull Comparisons

Hominid Skull Comparisons Hominid Skull Comparisons Visit the following website: www.humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/human-family-tree Explore the interactive Human Family Tree. What can you conclude about the evolution of humans

More information

Chapter 14: PRIMATE EVOLUTION

Chapter 14: PRIMATE EVOLUTION Chapter 14: PRIMATE EVOLUTION PRIMATES What is a primate? Features that are unique to primates: -Present in primates -Absent in closely related groups Outgroup Ingroup Character A present Character A absent

More information

Human Evolution Chris Stringer The Natural History Museum London. Are we nearly there yet?

Human Evolution Chris Stringer The Natural History Museum London. Are we nearly there yet? Human Evolution Chris Stringer The Natural History Museum London Are we nearly there yet? Phases of human evolution Human phase 2 0 Ma: >>Global spread Human anatomy >>Encephalised >>Dietary range >>Behavioural

More information

CHAPTER 9: HOMININ ORIGINS (PGS.

CHAPTER 9: HOMININ ORIGINS (PGS. Learning Objectives Explain the general time depth for the earliest primates and explain how they may (or not) be related to living primates Define what a hominin is and explain what sort of evidence is

More information

Chapter 2 Human Origins: 7 Million to 1.9 Million Years Ago

Chapter 2 Human Origins: 7 Million to 1.9 Million Years Ago Chapter Overview Chapter 2 Human Origins: 7 Million to 1.9 Million Years Ago The chapter begins with a description of the Pleistocene epoch, which is also known as the Great Ice Age or the Ice Age. The

More information

Human Evolution - Skull Analysis

Human Evolution - Skull Analysis Name: Date: Human Evolution - Skull Analysis Prior Knowledge Questions (Do these BEFORE using the Gizmo.) 1. Label one of the skulls below as human and the other as a chimpanzee skull. 2. What features

More information

Lecture Human Evolution

Lecture Human Evolution Lecture Human Evolution I. Although modern human behavior is almost totally learned and cultural, it rests on a biological basis A. The processes of human evolution shaped humans brain and body 1. Accurate

More information

Overview of Hominin Evolution

Overview of Hominin Evolution Overview of Hominin Evolution Lead Editor: Jessica Rothman, Katy Gonder, Holly Dunsworth, Kieran McNulty BIOLOGICAL ANTHROPOLOGY By: Herman Pontzer (Dept. of Anthropology, Hunter College; New York Consortium

More information

As we review the fossil evidence for early hominins, keep in mind the importance of identifying derived traits Ancestral traits are traits that have

As we review the fossil evidence for early hominins, keep in mind the importance of identifying derived traits Ancestral traits are traits that have As we review the fossil evidence for early hominins, keep in mind the importance of identifying derived traits Ancestral traits are traits that have not changed from the earlier ancestral form Derived

More information

Primate Evolution. Section 1. Primates

Primate Evolution. Section 1. Primates Section 1 Primates Characteristics of Primates! Manual dexterity! Five digits on each hand and foot! Flat nails and sensitive areas on the ends of their digits! The first digits are opposable. Section

More information

Chapter 17: Human Evolution

Chapter 17: Human Evolution Chapter 17: Human Evolution Classification Hierarchy Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Animal Chordate Mammal Primates Hominids Homo Sapiens Important Vocabulary Scientist who studies fossil

More information

THE EARLIEST HUMANS. Student Handouts, Inc.

THE EARLIEST HUMANS. Student Handouts, Inc. THE EARLIEST HUMANS Student Handouts, Inc. HOMINID EVOLUTION Hominids = great apes Chimpanzees, gorillas, humans, and orangutans Numerous intermediary fossils have been found But scientists disagree on

More information

12/1/14. Speciation and Human Evolution. The Time Course of Speciation. Speciation Rates

12/1/14. Speciation and Human Evolution. The Time Course of Speciation. Speciation Rates Speciation and Human Evolution References: chapters 24 (first few slides) 34 (last few pages of chapter) Speciation can occur rapidly or slowly, and can result from changes in few or many genes Many questions

More information

Homework. Guided Reading Hominids Through Time (#12-21)

Homework. Guided Reading Hominids Through Time (#12-21) Homework Guided Reading Hominids Through Time (#12-21) Learning Target I can explain how hominids evolved and what caused them to evolve. What characteristics do they have in common? What characteristics

More information

EARLY HUMANS COMPARE AND CONTRAST CHART

EARLY HUMANS COMPARE AND CONTRAST CHART Name: KEY Period: Date: World History Mrs. Schenck Early Human/ Nickname Ardipithecus ramidus Ardi Where they lived/ When Where: Eastern Africa (Ethiopia) When: 4.4 million years ago Very apelike, hairy

More information

The Evolutionary History of the Australopiths

The Evolutionary History of the Australopiths Evo Edu Outreach (2010) 3:341 352 DOI 10.1007/s12052-010-0249-6 ORIGINAL SCIENTIFIC ARTICLE The Evolutionary History of the Australopiths David S. Strait Published online: 27 July 2010 # Springer Science+Business

More information

Our own species, Homo sapiens, belongs to the order that also

Our own species, Homo sapiens, belongs to the order that also 32 3 Primates and Human Origins Section 32 3 Our own species, Homo sapiens, belongs to the order that also includes lemurs, monkeys, and apes. Carolus Linnaeus named our order Primates, which means first

More information

BIOL 1010 Introduction to Biology: The Evolution and Diversity of Life. Spring 2011 Sections A & B

BIOL 1010 Introduction to Biology: The Evolution and Diversity of Life. Spring 2011 Sections A & B BIOL 1010 Introduction to Biology: The Evolution and Diversity of Life. Spring 2011 Sections A & B Steve Thompson: stthompson@valdosta.edu http://www.bioinfo4u.net 1 Human evolution where we came from

More information

8 Studying Hominids In ac t i v i t y 5, Using Fossil Evidence to Investigate Whale Evolution, you

8 Studying Hominids In ac t i v i t y 5, Using Fossil Evidence to Investigate Whale Evolution, you 8 Studying Hominids In ac t i v i t y 5, Using Fossil Evidence to Investigate Whale Evolution, you were working with evidence for the evolution of the whale lineage. A lineage is a series of populations

More information

A New Kind of Ancestor: Ardipithecus Unveiled

A New Kind of Ancestor: Ardipithecus Unveiled A New Kind of Ancestor: Ardipithecus Unveiled The oldest known hominin skeleton reveals the body plan of our very early ancestors and the upright origins of humankind Every day, scientists add new pages

More information

Sahelanthropus tchadensis the ambiguous ape

Sahelanthropus tchadensis the ambiguous ape Papers Sahelanthropus tchadensis the ambiguous ape Matthew Murdock Sahelanthropus tchadensis has been the centre of much controversy since its announcement in July 2002. Some claim this genus is a common

More information

Cenozoic Climates. Human Evolution and Adaptation

Cenozoic Climates. Human Evolution and Adaptation Cenozoic Climates Human Evolution and Adaptation Life Styles of the Merely Hominid Miocene Climates Miocene Habitats The increase in climate variability would have been evident in many regions as increased

More information

ROBUST AUSTRALOPITHECINES, OUR FAMILY TREE,

ROBUST AUSTRALOPITHECINES, OUR FAMILY TREE, Research TOC ROBUST AUSTRALOPITHECINES, OUR FAMILY TREE, AND HOMOPLASY Henry M. McHenry Darwin never predicted the existence of the robust australopithecines. 1 In his 1872 book The Descent of Man he foretold

More information

Uncovering Ardipithecus Ramidus

Uncovering Ardipithecus Ramidus Uncovering Ardipithecus Ramidus Kristopher Jordan Krohn Mesa Community College/ Arizona State University 8 million years ago a tremendous even occurred; a new branch of primates split off from the chimpanzee

More information

Short Film Great Transitions: The Origin of Humans IN-DEPTH FILM GUIDE

Short Film Great Transitions: The Origin of Humans IN-DEPTH FILM GUIDE DESCRIPTION IN-DEPTH FILM GUIDE Paleontologists have studied the fossil record of human evolution just as they have done for that of other major transitions including the transition from fish to tetrapods

More information

b44 Australopithecenes < southern ape, root hominin, forest >

b44 Australopithecenes < southern ape, root hominin, forest > 149 b44 Australopithecenes < southern ape, root hominin, forest > We think back with repugnance to that ancient biological pre-human scene whence we came; there no life was a sacred thing. There, millions

More information

The Mystery of the Skulls What Old Bones Can Tell Us About Hominins

The Mystery of the Skulls What Old Bones Can Tell Us About Hominins Cornell Institute for Biology Teachers Copyright CIBT This work may be copied by the original recipient from CIBT to provide copies for users working under the direction of the original recipient. All

More information

Human Ancestry (Learning Objectives)

Human Ancestry (Learning Objectives) Human Ancestry (Learning Objectives) 1. Identify the characters shared by all primates and relate them to the function they served in their common ancestor. 2. Learn the fields study of Human evolution

More information

New fossil discoveries complicate the already devilish task of identifying HUMAN EVOLUTION Scientific American

New fossil discoveries complicate the already devilish task of identifying HUMAN EVOLUTION Scientific American HUMAN EVOLUTION SHATTERED New fossil discoveries complicate the already devilish task of identifying 42 Scientific American, February 2013 ANCESTRY our most ancient progenitors By Katherine Harmon liest

More information

Science Tear Sheet #4. Human Evolution: The Story, the Legend, and the Myth

Science Tear Sheet #4. Human Evolution: The Story, the Legend, and the Myth Science Tear Sheet #4. Human Evolution: The Story, the Legend, and the Myth The man who pleads his case first seems to be in the right; then his opponent comes and puts him to the test. Proverbs 18:17

More information

History matters: - personal basis - group basis

History matters: - personal basis - group basis Human Evolution History matters: - personal basis - group basis HISTORY GEOGRAPHY/CONTEXT humanity The recognition of the power of context and history motivates creationists Their concern: If we accept

More information

2010-2014 www.d.umn.edu/cla/faculty/troufs/anthfood/aftexts.html#title 2010-2014 www.d.umn.edu/cla/faculty/troufs/anthfood/aftexts.html#title 2010-2014 www.d.umn.edu/cla/faculty/troufs/anthfood/aftexts.html#title

More information

Student Wrap-up. Topic: Investigating Hominoid Fossils: Evidence of Evolution

Student Wrap-up. Topic: Investigating Hominoid Fossils: Evidence of Evolution Student Wrap-up Topic: Investigating Hominoid Fossils: Evidence of Evolution Benchmark: SC.912.L.15.10 Identify basic trends in hominid evolution from early ancestors six million years ago to modern humans,

More information

The search for Adam's ancestors

The search for Adam's ancestors 341 by Elaine Kennedy : 12 E volutionary biologists are convinced that humans are descendants of ape-like creatures. n spite of a number of disputes over theories of apehuman lineages, paleoanthropologists

More information

(01) Ardipithecus kadabba The Smithsonian Institution's Human Origins Program

(01) Ardipithecus kadabba The Smithsonian Institution's Human Origins Program (01) Ardipithecus kadabba The Smithsonian Institution's Human Origins Program Ardipithecus kadabba Where Lived: Eastern Africa (Middle Awash Valley, Ethiopia) When Lived: Between about 5.8 and 5.2 million

More information

2010-2014 www.d.umn.edu/cla/faculty/troufs/anthfood/aftexts.html#title 2010-2014 www.d.umn.edu/cla/faculty/troufs/anthfood/aftexts.html#title 2010-2014 www.d.umn.edu/cla/faculty/troufs/anthfood/aftexts.html#title

More information

Page 1 of 9. Website: Mobile:

Page 1 of 9. Website:    Mobile: Question 1: Explain antibiotic resistance observed in bacteria in light of Darwinian selection theory. Darwinian selection theory states that individuals with favourable variations are better adapted than

More information

Class XII Chapter 7 Evolution Biology

Class XII Chapter 7 Evolution Biology Question 1: Explain antibiotic resistance observed in bacteria in light of Darwinian selection theory. Darwinian selection theory states that individuals with favourable variations are better adapted than

More information

Ch. 2 Summative Assessment

Ch. 2 Summative Assessment Name Block # Ch. 2 Summative Assessment Matching: Match each of the abilities or characteristics below with the hominid group it is associated with from the word bank. Write the letter in the blank provided.

More information

Investigating Hominoid Fossils Laboratory

Investigating Hominoid Fossils Laboratory Biology I Unit V: Zoology Chapter 25-28 & DOL: Vertebrates Investigating Hominoid Fossils Laboratory Name: Date: Hour: Investigating Hominoid Fossils Laboratory Pre-Lab Discussion Because hominoid fossils

More information

Bipedalism. Bipedalism - on two feet. The single most distinctive feature of Hominids. Hominid bipedalism is habitual and required

Bipedalism. Bipedalism - on two feet. The single most distinctive feature of Hominids. Hominid bipedalism is habitual and required Bipedalism Bipedalism Bipedalism - on two feet. The single most distinctive feature of Hominids Hominid bipedalism is habitual and required Body Changes: knuckle walkers vs. bipedalists Body Changes: knuckle

More information

Sahelanthropus tchadensis: An Examination of its Hominin Affinities and Possible Phylogenetic Placement

Sahelanthropus tchadensis: An Examination of its Hominin Affinities and Possible Phylogenetic Placement Totem: The University of Western Ontario Journal of Anthropology Volume 16 Issue 1 Article 5 6-21-2011 Sahelanthropus tchadensis: An Examination of its Hominin Affinities and Possible Phylogenetic Placement

More information

Session 16: Episode 5(1) Introducing Episode 5, our ancient ancestors and their relatives

Session 16: Episode 5(1) Introducing Episode 5, our ancient ancestors and their relatives Session 16: Episode 5(1) Introducing Episode 5, our ancient ancestors and their relatives William P. Hall President Kororoit Institute Proponents and Supporters Assoc., Inc. - http://kororoit.org william-hall@bigpond.com

More information

1. Use the diagrams below to investigate the pelvis and scapula models and identify anatomical structures. Articulated Pelvis

1. Use the diagrams below to investigate the pelvis and scapula models and identify anatomical structures. Articulated Pelvis LSO Pelvis/Scapula Activity Activity 1: Pelvis and Scapula Anatomy 1. Use the diagrams below to investigate the pelvis and scapula models and identify anatomical structures. Articulated Pelvis (anterior

More information

extinct southern apes of Africa: a fresh light on their status?

extinct southern apes of Africa: a fresh light on their status? Australopithecines the extinct southern apes of Africa: a fresh light on their status? A.W. (Bill) Mehlert The now-extinct hominid subfamily Australopithecinae has long been a hot and contentious topic

More information

Walking Upright The cost of human evolution

Walking Upright The cost of human evolution LENScience Senior Biology Seminar Series 2010 Walking Upright The cost of human evolution Peter Gluckman, Alan Beedle, Tatjana Buklijas, Jacquie Bay 14 th October 2010 Human Evolution ????? Walking Upright

More information

The Origin and Evolution of Human Communication: If We Were Walking the Walk, Were We Walking the Talk?

The Origin and Evolution of Human Communication: If We Were Walking the Walk, Were We Walking the Talk? La Salle University La Salle University Digital Commons Explorer Café Explorer Connection 9-26-2018 The Origin and Evolution of Human Communication: If We Were Walking the Walk, Were We Walking the Talk?

More information

AS IWILLATTEMPT to show in this article, we already know a lot about

AS IWILLATTEMPT to show in this article, we already know a lot about In the beginning was the monkey! WALTER A. NEVES Introduction AS IWILLATTEMPT to show in this article, we already know a lot about the evolution of our line, the hominins a (Figure 1). Moreover, I will

More information

Build Vocabulary Students will have a more successful lab experience if they understand these terms.

Build Vocabulary Students will have a more successful lab experience if they understand these terms. Guided Inquiry Forensics Lab hapter 26 Lab Investigating Hominoid Fossils Problem What can a comparison of skulls and hands reveal about the evolution of humans? Introduction paleontologist takes photographs

More information

Lucy Redux: A Review of Research on Australopithecus afarensis

Lucy Redux: A Review of Research on Australopithecus afarensis YEARBOOK OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 52:2 48 (2009) Lucy Redux: A Review of Research on Australopithecus afarensis William H. Kimbel* and Lucas K. Delezene Institute of Human Origins, School of Human Evolution

More information

The Pliocene hominin diversity conundrum: Do more fossils mean less clarity?

The Pliocene hominin diversity conundrum: Do more fossils mean less clarity? SPECIAL FEATURE: PERSPECTIVE SPECIAL FEATURE: PERSPECTIVE The Pliocene hominin diversity conundrum: Do more fossils mean less clarity? Yohannes Haile-Selassie a,b,1, Stephanie M. Melillo c, and Denise

More information

REMEMBER YOU WILL NOT BE ABLE TO ANSWER THE QUESTIONS ABOUT ISLAND BIOGEOGRAPHY UNTIL AFTER THE 12/1 LECTURE

REMEMBER YOU WILL NOT BE ABLE TO ANSWER THE QUESTIONS ABOUT ISLAND BIOGEOGRAPHY UNTIL AFTER THE 12/1 LECTURE REMEMBER YOU WILL NOT BE ABLE TO ANSWER THE QUESTIONS ABOUT ISLAND BIOGEOGRAPHY UNTIL AFTER THE 12/1 LECTURE Answers to Practice questions week 14 and 15 (Answers are in BOLD): 1) The above is the generally

More information

AUSTRALOPITHECUS TO HOMO: Transformations in Body and Mind

AUSTRALOPITHECUS TO HOMO: Transformations in Body and Mind Annu. Rev. Anthropol. 2000. 29:125 46 Copyright c 2000 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved AUSTRALOPITHECUS TO HOMO: Transformations in Body and Mind Henry M. McHenry and Katherine Coffing Department

More information

Introduction to Biological Anthropology: Notes 19 Lifestyles of the toolmaking Oldowan hominins Copyright Bruce Owen 2008 The earliest stone tools

Introduction to Biological Anthropology: Notes 19 Lifestyles of the toolmaking Oldowan hominins Copyright Bruce Owen 2008 The earliest stone tools Introduction to Biological Anthropology: Notes 19 Lifestyles of the toolmaking Oldowan hominins Copyright Bruce Owen 2008 The earliest stone tools appear in East Africa around 2.5 mya the Oldowan tool

More information

Comparing Indexes Among Primates

Comparing Indexes Among Primates CHAPTER 12 ADDITIONAL INVESTIGATION Comparing Indexes Among Primates Background Humans have the largest brains of all primates. In order to accommodate this large brain, the skull of a human has a vertical

More information

The Deuterostomes and the rise of the Vertebrates: from Echinoderms to Man

The Deuterostomes and the rise of the Vertebrates: from Echinoderms to Man The Deuterostomes and the rise of the Vertebrates: from Echinoderms to Man 1 The Deuterostomes Calcarea and Silicea Cnidaria Lophotrochozoa Ecdysozoa Deuterostomia 2 The Ancestral Deuterostome Bilateral

More information

Looking a fossil horse in the mouth! Using teeth to examine fossil horses!

Looking a fossil horse in the mouth! Using teeth to examine fossil horses! Looking a fossil horse in the mouth Using teeth to examine fossil horses Virginia Museum of Natural History Paleontology Department Fossil Teaching Kit 1 Teacher s Guide In this activity students will

More information

Cenozoic Climates. Hominid Origins

Cenozoic Climates. Hominid Origins Cenozoic Climates First Prosimians Hominid Origins Ecology, Changing Social Patterns, and Bipedalism Anthropoids Hominids Miocene Climates Miocene Habitats The increase in climate variability would have

More information

The Origin of Humans. DVD Lesson Plan

The Origin of Humans. DVD Lesson Plan The Origin of Humans DVD Lesson Plan Purpose of the DVD The purpose of the DVD is to demonstrate that the credibility of the claims for transitional fossils between ape-like creatures and humans is very

More information

REGULAR readers of this journal will

REGULAR readers of this journal will Being Human, Again: Stories of Evolution Part 1 Tanmoy Bhattacharya Centre of Advanced Studies in Linguistics Faculty of Arts, University of Delhi Chief Editor of Indian Linguistics REGULAR readers of

More information

BIO 182 LAB SIGN OFF PAGE LESSON 10

BIO 182 LAB SIGN OFF PAGE LESSON 10 BIO 182 LAB SIGN OFF PAGE LESSON 10 Name Please staple all of your lab pages for this Lesson together with this page as the top. You will use this page to get your Labs for Lesson 10 signed off by the

More information

The Hominid Status of Sahelanthropus tchadensis and Orrorin tugenensis

The Hominid Status of Sahelanthropus tchadensis and Orrorin tugenensis Darshana Shapiro Biological Anthropology Senior Honors Thesis May 2009 The Hominid Status of Sahelanthropus tchadensis and Orrorin tugenensis Introduction Since the time when Charles Darwin first proposed

More information

Meet the New Human Family

Meet the New Human Family Meet the New Human Family Once we shared the planet with other human species, competing with them and interbreeding with them. Today we stand alone, but our rivals genes live on inside us even as their

More information

Lesson One What Makes a Bear a Bear? Objectives As part of this activity, students will: Key question How are bears different from other animals?

Lesson One What Makes a Bear a Bear? Objectives As part of this activity, students will: Key question How are bears different from other animals? Lesson One What Makes a Bear a Bear? Key question How are bears different from other animals? Conceptual frameworks topics I.A. I.B. I.C. IV.A. Subjects Distinguishing anatomical features of bears Distinguishing

More information

VERTEBRATE EVOLUTION & DIVERSITY

VERTEBRATE EVOLUTION & DIVERSITY VERTEBRATE EVOLUTION & DIVERSITY 1 ANIMAL DIVERSITY No true tissues Ancestral protist True tissues Radial symmetry True Animals Bilateral symmetry Bilateral Animals Deuterostomes Lophotrochophores Ecdysozoans

More information

ARTICLE. New species from Ethiopia further expands Middle Pliocene hominin diversity

ARTICLE. New species from Ethiopia further expands Middle Pliocene hominin diversity ARTICLE doi:10.1038/nature14448 New species from Ethiopia further expands Middle Pliocene hominin diversity Yohannes Haile-Selassie 1,2, Luis Gibert 3, Stephanie M. Melillo 4, Timothy M. Ryan 5, Mulugeta

More information

Journal of Human Evolution

Journal of Human Evolution Journal of Human Evolution 60 (2011) 711e730 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Journal of Human Evolution journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/jhevol Evolution of the mandibular third premolar

More information

Primate Evolution. Why It s Important Humans are primates. A knowledge of primates and their evolution can provide an understanding

Primate Evolution. Why It s Important Humans are primates. A knowledge of primates and their evolution can provide an understanding Primate Evolution What You ll Learn You will compare and contrast primates and their adaptations. You will analyze the evidence for the ancestry of humans. Why It s Important Humans are primates. A knowledge

More information

UDSM Researchers Discover 3.66 Million Years Old Hominid Footprints Frozen in the Ashes at Laetoli in Northern Tanzania

UDSM Researchers Discover 3.66 Million Years Old Hominid Footprints Frozen in the Ashes at Laetoli in Northern Tanzania UDSM Researchers Discover 3.66 Million Years Old Hominid Footprints Frozen in the Ashes at Laetoli in Northern Tanzania Summary Laetoli hominid footprints are the most persuasive evidence of habitual bipedal

More information

This is a repository copy of Middle Pliocene hominin diversity : Australopithecus deyiremeda and Kenyanthropus platyops.

This is a repository copy of Middle Pliocene hominin diversity : Australopithecus deyiremeda and Kenyanthropus platyops. This is a repository copy of Middle Pliocene hominin diversity : Australopithecus deyiremeda and Kenyanthropus platyops. White Rose Research Online URL for this paper: http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/104209/

More information

Human Evolution: One Step at a Time. Objectives

Human Evolution: One Step at a Time. Objectives TEACHER GUIDE Human Evolution: One Step at a Time 60-Minute Life Science Lesson Interactive Video Conferencing Grades: 6-12 Human Evolution: One Step at a Time Description Trace the development of modern

More information

Origin and Evolution of Human Postcranial Anatomy

Origin and Evolution of Human Postcranial Anatomy CHAPTER 10 Origin and Evolution of Human Postcranial Anatomy Brian G. Richmond and Kevin G. Hatala INTRODUCTION One of the oldest questions in paleoanthropology concerns what stages, or body shapes and

More information

Bipedalism and Tool Making. And the fascinating history of the extended phenotype

Bipedalism and Tool Making. And the fascinating history of the extended phenotype Bipedalism and Tool Making And the fascinating history of the extended phenotype What exactly does it mean for big toes to be abductible (opposable)? I was wondering how scientists were able to distinguish

More information

Level 3 Biology, 2017

Level 3 Biology, 2017 91606 916060 3SUPERVISOR S Level 3 Biology, 2017 91606 Demonstrate understanding of trends in human evolution 9.30 a.m. Thursday 16 November 2017 Credits: Four Achievement Achievement with Merit Achievement

More information