# How predictable are the FIFA worldcup football outcomes? An empirical analysis

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2 1172 S. Paul and R. Mitra Although a large body of literature is available on economics of sports, 2 amount of research related to football is relatively small. The empirical works on economics of football have mainly examined the determinants of the football performance based on economic, demographic and climatic factors (Houston and Wilson, 2002). Torgler (2004b) found that countries with a stronger football tradition have not only strong men s teams, but also women s teams. We examine performances of the teams from number of goals scored and matches won in the final round of FIFA worldcup football to see how close they perform to their reputation, which is measured by the FIFA world football ranking system. II. Data and Empirical Model We consider four FIFA worldcup match outcomes from 1994 to the most recent one in In the 1994 FIFA worldcup, 24 teams participated in the final round, and the total number of matches played were 51 (excluding the third place match). From 1998 onwards FIFA increased the number of participants in the final round from 24 to 32. There were 63 matches played in the final round of each FIFA worldcup since For the empirical purpose we consider only the matches played in the final round not the regional elimination rounds where more than 200 teams (nations) participate to qualify for the final round. The data for all these 240 matches in four FIFA worldcups is taken from the official website 3 for FIFA. The FIFA world rankings for the month of May 4 in 1994, 1998, 2002 and 2006 are also taken from the same official website. We propose two econometric base models. First a probit model where the dependent variable is a dummy that measures whether a team wins (1 ¼ win) the game or not. This model finds the probability of winning for each team with respect to its rank. Our main independent variable is the FIFA world cup football ranking of the month, 1 month before the worldcup final round is held. We also control for number of goals scored by each team, number of yellow cards (cautions) and number of red cards (expulsions) shown to the players. The model takes the following form: Win i t, m ¼ þ Ranki t, m 1 þ Xi t, m þ "i t, m ð1þ where Win is a dummy (takes 1 if win, 0 otherwise), Rank is the FIFA world football rank of each team i in the year t, from previous month (m 1) of the final round of worldcup in month m and X is the vector of control variables including number goals, yellow card etc., i ¼ 1,..., 476, t ¼ 1994, 1998, 2002 and 2006 and m stands for months. For the recent 2006 FIFA worldcup we also control for the number of corner kicks taken by each side, number of fouls, percentage of ball possession by each team, number of shots at goal under the same probit model specification. Our second empirical model specifies an ordinary least square (OLS) method considering the scored goal difference as the dependent variable. The aim of this model is to see whether higher ranked teams are winning with a considerable margin of goals. The goal difference measures the degree of performance. The rank difference, which is the difference of rank of the two teams played in one match, is the main independent variable. A negative coefficient of rank difference in this model means that higher ranked teams win with a considerable margin, since higher ranked teams have lower values. For example in 2006 worldcup Brazil was the highest ranked team, with a value of 1. We control for goals scored by each team, number of yellow cards (cautions), number of red cards (expulsions) shown to the players and the size of the crowd (attendance). The model takes the following form: Goal i t, m ¼ þ Ranki t, m 1 þ Xi t, m þ Attendence i t, m þ "i t, m ð2þ where Goal is the goal difference in match i; Rank is the rank difference of two teams measured in (m 1), that is one month before the final round of FIFA worldcup month m, in match i; X is the vector of all control variables in difference form and Attendance refers to the number of people that attended the game; i ¼ 1, 2,..., 236; t ¼ 1994, 1998, 2002 and We also run the same OLS model on 2006 FIFA worldcup outcomes separately controlling for number of corner kicks taken by each side, 2 Gratton et al. (2000) reported that major sports events a part of tourism strategy for major cities; see Jones et al. (2000) analysed the attendance in British Rugby league; (Guis and Johnson, 2000) discussed wage discrimination in professional basketball; (Guis and Johnson, 2000) analysed the effect of race on compensation in professional football. 3 Previous FIFA world cup links: The official site for FIFA world cup in Germany: 4 Since the final round FIFA worldcup usually starts in the month of June, we considered the rank in May. Please refer to Appendix for rankings of all the teams participated in the final round of FIFA worldcup.

3 Table 1. Determinants of winning performance (probit model results) Dependent variable: win dummy Independent variables 1.1 Marg. 1.2 Marg. 1.3 Marg. 1.4 Marg. 1.5 Marg. 1.6 Marg. Rank 0.01** (0.01) (0.002) 0.01 (0.01) (0.005) 0.00 (0.01) (0.003) 0.01 (0.01) (0.004) 0.03*** (0.01) 0.01 (0.004) 0.03*** (0.01) 0.01 (0.005) Goal 1.02*** (0.09) 0.38 (0.04) 0.99*** (0.22) 0.38 (0.09) 1.04*** (0.15) 0.37 (0.06) 1.04*** (0.17) 0.39 (0.07) 1.33*** (0.20) 0.50 (0.08) 1.39*** (0.24) 0.51 (0.10) Yellow 0.01* (0.05) 0.00 (0.02) 0.10 (0.11) 0.04 (0.04) 0.02 (0.13) 0.01 (0.05) 0.16* (0.10) 0.06 (0.04) 0.22** (0.12) 0.08 (0.04) 0.18* (0.11) 0.06 (0.04) Red 0.42** (0.21) 0.16 (0.08) 0.36 (0.47) 0.14 (0.18) 0.85** (0.44) 0.30 (0.16) 0.17 (0.30) 0.06 (0.11) 1.09*** (0.44) 0.41 (0.16) 0.99*** (0.40) 0.36 (0.15) Shot at goal 0.24*** (0.09) 0.09 (0.04) Corners 0.13* (0.09) 0.05 (0.03) Fouls 0.01 (0.02) (0.01) Ball possession 0.01 (0.03) (0.01) Constant 1.43*** (0.20) 1.34*** (0.45) 1.79*** (0.45) 1.18*** (0.34) 1.83*** (0.42) 1.96 (1.39) Pseudo R Chi-square Observations Notes: Values within parenthesis indicate white heteroscedastic SEs. *, ** and *** indicate significance at 10, 5 and 1% levels, respectively.

4 1174 S. Paul and R. Mitra Table 2. Determinants of Win (goal) margin (OLS model results) Dependent variable: Goal Independent variables (Rank) 0.03*** (0.01) 0.04*** (0.01) 0.02** (0.01) 0.04*** (0.01) 0.03*** (0.01) 0.01 (0.01) (Yellow) 0.00 (0.06) 0.03 (0.16) 0.04 (0.12) 0.01** (0.11) 0.09 (0.12) 0.06 (0.10) (Red) 0.68*** (0.22) 0.03 (0.53) 0.53 (0.62) 0.61 (0.29) 1.45*** (0.45) 0.86** (0.40) Attendance 0.02 (0.06) 0.07 (0.15) 0.05 (0.18) 0.26 (0.18) 0.10 (0.19) 0.02 (0.15) (Shot at goal) 0.26*** (0.05) (Fouls) 0.04* (0.03) (Ball possession) 0.03*** (0.01) (Corners) 0.03 (0.05) Constant 0.29 (0.34) 0.76 (1.06) 0.08 (0.75) 1.22 (0.83) 0.52 (1.02) 0.14 (0.86) R Observations Notes: Values within parenthesis indicate white heteroscedastic SEs. *, ** and *** indicate significance at 10, 5 and 1% levels, respectively.

5 How predictable are the FIFA worldcup football outcomes? 1175 number of fouls, percentage of ball possession by each team and number of shots at goal. possession on the ground and more number of corner kicks are negatively related with goal difference. III. Empirical Results The Results for probit model Equation 1 are presented in Table 1. The outcomes in six different model versions of Equation 1 indicate that overall a higher ranked team has higher probability of winning the game. We found significant positive coefficient for goals scored, which is obvious as scoring more goals increases the chance of winning. Teams having a higher number of cautions (yellow cards) or expulsions (red cards) are less likely to win the game. But in 2002 FIFA worldcup and 2006 FIFA worldcup football, countries with more yellow cards were more likely to win the game. Similarly the teams which saw more red cards in 1998 FIFA worldcup were more likely to win the game. In order to have the quantitative effects for probit estimation, we show the marginal effects in the right column of each model. The model 1.6 shows the result for 2006 FIFA worldcup with some additional controls as mentioned earlier. Teams who had more shots on goal were more likely to win the game; this is expected since more attempts on goal are likely to be positively associated with actual goals scored. Surprisingly more corner kicks and more control over the ball (ball possession) on the ground were associated with losing the game. Winning teams were found to play less roughly than the losers. Overall, with little exceptions results are expected and robust. Higher ranking is significantly associated with higher probability of winning the game. Table 2 shows the OLS runs for six different model versions of Equation 2. The significant negative coefficient of rank difference indicates that teams with higher rank scored more goals. On average each model explains roughly 24% of the variation in the dependent variable. The more people attending the match, the worse the performance of the higher ranked teams. In other words, it can be said that on average favourites tend to choke in front of bigger crowds with the only exception of 1994 FIFA worldcup. Teams who scored more on average had lesser number of red cards or expulsions. In model 2.6, shots on goal is positively related with goal difference, but surprisingly again more ball IV. Conclusion In 2006 FIFA worldcup Brazil, the top seeded and five time winner, lost to France, seeded 8th, in the quarterfinal round. None of the top five teams in the FIFA world ranking in May 2006 became semifinalists in 2006 FIFA worldcup. All these facts, along with the number of unexpected match outcomes in the past four FIFA worldcups may throw the reliability of the FIFA world ranking system into question. Or it may make the FIFA worldcup outcomes look uncertain. But the empirical findings in this article suggest that overall the favourites or the higher ranked teams have the winning trend in their favour. Since its introduction in 1993, the FIFA world rankings have been the subject of much debate, particularly regarding the calculation procedure and the resulting disparity between generally perceived quality and world ranking of some teams. The empirical findings in this article defend the FIFA world ranking system by proving the fact that in general FIFA worldcup outcomes do not conform to any uncertain trend. References Gratton, C., Dobson, N. and Shibli, S. (2000) The economic importance of major sports events: a case study of six events, Managing Leisure, 5, Guis, M. and Johnson, D. (1998) An empirical analysis of wage discrimination in professional basketball, Applied Economics Letter, 5, Guis, M. and Johnson, D. (2000) Race and compensation in professional football, Applied Economics Letters, 7, Houston, Jr. R. G. and Wilson, D. P. (2002) Income, leisure and proficiency: an economic study of football performance, Applied Economics Letters, 9, Jones, J. C. H., Schofield, J. A. and Giles, D. E. A. (2000) Our fans in the north: the demand for British rugby league, Applied Economics, 32, Torgler, B. (2004a) The economics of the FIFA football worldcup, KYKLOS, 57, Torgler, B. (2004b) The determinants of women s international soccer performances, Center for Research in Economics, Management and the Arts, Working Paper No

6 1176 S. Paul and R. Mitra Appendix: FIFA World Rankings (countries in alphabetical order) May 2006 May 2002 May 1998 May 1994 Team Rank Team Rank Team Rank Team Rank Angola 57 Argentina 3 Argentina 6 Argentina 6 Argentina 9 Belgium 23 Austria 31 Belgium 34 Australia 42 Brazil 2 Belgium 36 Bolivia 43 Brazil 1 Cameroon 17 Brazil 1 Brazil 1 Costa Rica 26 China PR 50 Bulgaria 35 Bulgaria 29 Coˆte d Ivoire 32 Costa Rica 29 Cameroon 49 Cameroon 24 Croatia 23 Croatia 21 Chile 9 Colombia 18 Czech Republic 2 Denmark 20 Colombia 10 Germany 2 Ecuador 39 Ecuador 36 Croatia 19 Greece 32 England 10 England 12 Denmark 27 Italy 16 France 8 France 1 England 5 Korea Republic 37 Germany 19 Germany 11 France 18 Mexico 13 Ghana 48 Italy 6 Germany 2 Morocco 30 Iran 23 Japan 32 Iran 42 Netherlands 11 Italy 13 Korea Republic 40 Italy 14 Nigeria 7 Japan 18 Mexico 7 Jamaica 30 Norway 4 Korea Republic 29 Nigeria 27 Japan 12 Republic of Ireland 12 Mexico 4 Paraguay 18 Korea Republic 20 Romania 10 Netherlands 3 Poland 38 Mexico 4 Russia 20 Paraguay 33 Portugal 5 Morocco 13 Saudi Arabia 35 Poland 29 Republic of Ireland 15 Netherlands 25 Spain 9 Portugal 7 Russia 28 Nigeria 74 Sweden 3 Saudi Arabia 34 Saudi Arabia 34 Norway 7 Switzerland 8 Serbia and Montenegro 44 Senegal 42 Paraguay 29 USA 23 Spain 5 Slovenia 25 Romania 22 Sweden 16 South Africa 37 Saudi Arabia 34 Switzerland 35 Spain 8 Scotland 41 Togo 61 Sweden 19 South Africa 24 Trinidad and Tobago 47 Tunisia 31 Spain 15 Tunisia 21 Turkey 22 Tunisia 21 Ukraine 45 Uruguay 24 USA 11 USA 5 USA 13 Yugoslavia?

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