SOCCER STUDY GUIDE. Soccer is played in 132 countries all over the world. It is the world s number one sport, played for both fun and fitness.

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1 Page 1 of 6 HISTORY: SOCCER STUDY GUIDE Soccer is the fasted growing sport in the world, and the most popular. Attempts have been made to trace soccer, known worldwide as football, to Greek and Roman origins. However, there is little evidence to support this. Soccer is as much an English game as baseball is an American one. The first rules for soccer were developed in England in the 1800 s. Soccer is played in 132 countries all over the world. It is the world s number one sport, played for both fun and fitness. In some parts of the world it is also called Futball (pronounced football ). The origins of football are vague. The Greeks played a game which loosely resembles its modern counterpart, as did the Romans. By the 14th century it was so popular in England that King Edward II issued a proclamation on 13 April 1314, forbidding the game "forasmuch as there is great noise in the city caused by hustling over large balls from which many evils may arise which God forbid; we command and forbid, on behalf of the King, on pain of imprisonment, such game to be used in the city in the future." In 1349, Edward III objected to the game because it prevented the practice of archery, necessary for the military strength of the country. Banning the game had little effect, however, as similar edicts had to be given in 1389 (Richard II), 1401 (Henry IV), 1457 (James II), and right up to Henry VIII. Gradually, despite the attempts to ban it, football spread throughout the world, becoming popular almost everywhere, with the United States being a notable exception. It all began in Great Britain, then called Association Football and spread throughout the world in no time. The governing body we know as the F.I.F.A. was formed in 1904, the same year that the first International match was played between Belgium and France. The first World Cup was played in 1930 in Uruguay. Soccer came to the United States in 1918 at the Bethlehem Pennsylvania Steel Company. Youth soccer began in the early 1940 s. Today, thousands of adults and children play soccer at various levels. World Cup is played every four years BASIC RULES: Each team may have 11 players including a goalie. You may score from anywhere on the field. The ball may not touch a player from the shoulders to the fingertips. The game begins with one team gaining possession in the center circle as a result of a coin toss. An official game is divided into halves. There are no time-outs in soccer. Penalties include tripping, aggressive play, handballs, etc. If an offensive player is fouled in the box, the result is a penalty kick. Penalties result in free kicks (direct, indirect) and the defense must stand 10 yards away.

2 Page 2 of 6 TERMS: Assist- Making a pass to a teammate that allows them to score. Corner kick - Putting the ball back into play when it goes out over the end line by the defensive team. Direct kick - A free kick that may directly enter the goal. Dribbling- Moving the ball with your feet. Goalie box- The area in which the goalkeeper may use his/her hands. Goal kick - Putting the ball back into play when it goes out over the end line by the offensive team. Hand ball- When the ball touches a player from the shoulder to the fingertips. The opponent receives a free kick. Heading- Contacting the ball with your head; usually to win the ball in the air. Indirect kick - A free kick that must touch another player before entering the goal. Off-sides- You must have at least 2 opponents goal side of you when not in possession of the ball, and you are on your offensive half of the field. Penalty kick- As a result of a flagrant foul or overtime play. It is a free kick taken from the penalty mark, 12 yards in front of the goal. Passing- Moving the ball from one player to another. Square Pass- passing to the player across from you. Trail Pass- passing to the player behind you. Lead Pass- passing to the player ahead of you. Punt- A method of putting the ball back into play by the goalie after a save. Throw-in- Putting the ball back into play when it goes out of bounds on the sideline. Both. Hands must be holding the ball, and both feet must be touching the ground during the throw. Trapping- Stopping and/or controlling the ball. STRATEGIES: Stay spread out on offense and tight on defense. Communicate with teammates. Be responsible for covering your area or player while playing defense. Always work to get open when on offense. Try to keep your head up and not look down at the ball. When shooting, you should plant your opposite foot next to the ball and get your kicking knee over the ball. You should use the inside of your foot for better control and the instep (laces) for more power. FIELD OF PLAY A regulation field measures yards in length and yards in width. 1. End line- when the ball goes out of play over this line it is put in play with either (a) goal kick (offense last touched the ball or (b) corner kick (defense last touched the ball). 2. Goal area- the area where the ball is placed for the defending team to take a goal kick. It is placed on the front line of the area in that half of the field in which the ball went out of play. 3. Penalty area- restriction area where (a) a goalie is allowed to play the ball with the hands; (b) the offensive team has to stay out of when the defending team is taking a goal kick; (c) on the goal kick the ball to be legally in play; (d) if a foul is committed in this area by the defending team results in a direct free kick, then a penalty kick is awarded to the team fouled; (e) players from

3 Page 3 of 6 both teams must stay outside this area on the penalty person taking the penalty kick. 4. Side or Touch line- a ball going out of bounds over this line is put in play with a throw-in by the opposite team which last touched the ball. 5. Penalty kick mark- a spot where the ball is placed when a penalty kick results. 6. Penalty kick arc- this arc is a ten-yard radius from the ball and players from both teams must stay behind it. On a penalty kick both teams (except one offensive player and the goalie) must be out of the penalty area and at least ten yards from the ball. 7. Center, Mid, or Halfway line- this line (a) insures that both teams are in their own half of the field on the kickoff, and (b) is used to help regulate the offside rule. 8. Center Circle- a ten-yard radius circle to restrict players of the defending team on the kick-off. They must stay out of the circle until the ball is contacted. 9. Corner Arc- one yard from each corner there is a corner arc. The ball is placed on this arc when the offensive team is taking a corner kick. 10. Goal line- the line between the uprights of the goal. When the whole ball crosses it below the crossbar, either on the ground or in the air, a goal results. 11. Corner flag- the flag is at least five feet high and located in each of the four corners to assist in locating boundary lines. POSITIONS and FORMATIONS For more information on other formations, check out this site Soccer Formations The following formations are used in soccer. The formations are flexible allowing tailoring to the needs of a team, as well as to the players available. Variations of any given formation include changes in positioning of players, as well as replacement of a traditional defender by a sweeper (the sweeper is the last defender before the goalie or otherwise known as the goalie), Forward also known as strikers and attackers, are the players on a team in soccer in the row nearest to the opposing team's goal, who are therefore principally responsible for scoring goals Midfielder Their main functions are to gain and keep possession of the ball, and to feed it to the strikers.

4 Page 4 of 6 Full Back/Defender is a player whose position of play is behind the midfielders and first and foremost provide support to the goalkeeper. FIELD DIAGRAM OFFSIDES

5 Page 5 of 6 TAKE ON-LINE SOCCER QUIZ FOR PRACTICE Bibliography Encyclopedia: Formation (football) 28football%29#Early_days

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