BASKETBALL. - Center line, sides lines and back lines. - Free throw line (4,6 m) and 3-point line (6,75 m). - Free throw lane: Key

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1 BASKETBALL HISTORY In 1981, James Naismith, a Physical Education teacher of the YMCA school (today, Springfield College) in Springfield, Massachusetts (USA) decided to invent a game to be played inside the gyms during the cold winter. The game couldn t be as rough as American Football but it had to be a physical activity with high intensity to keep his students fit. After a lot of thinking he invented a game, in which the players had to put the ball inside a basket, (the original baskets were used to store peaches!!!!). In this game, the players threw a soccer ball to each other. In the rules that Mr. Naismith invented, the teams had 9 players, the contact between players wasn t allowed and you couldn t walk without bouncing the ball. The game soon spread to other U.S. schools and universities. It was in 1896 when the 5 on 5 matches started. In the early twentieth century, basketball competitions and leagues were set up all over North America. The International Basketball Federation (FIBA) was founded in Geneva in The National Basketball Association (NBA) was formed in THE COURT (28m x 15m) The COURT is a flat, rectangular surface with baskets at opposite ends. The court is divided into two main sections by the midcourt or centre line. A regulation basketball court is 28 by 15 meters: - Center line, sides lines and back lines. - Free throw line (4,6 m) and 3-point line (6,75 m). - Free throw lane: Key

2 A steel basket with net and backboard hang over each end of the court. The top of the rim is 3.05 m above he court and 1.2 m inside the backline. THE BALL The size of the BASKETBALL depends on the category and gender. For men, the official ball is size 7, and for women the official basketball is size 6. MAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF THE GAME Basketball is a team sport. Teams include twelve players, but only five can be on court at one time. The team that makes more points wins. Points are scored by throwing the ball through the basket / hoop of the opposing team. When a team makes a basket, they score two points and the ball goes to the other team. If a basket is made outside of the three-point arc, then that basket is worth three points. A free throw is worth one point. If the score is tied at the end of the last quarter, then overtime periods (5 minutes) are played until one team wins. The game is played in four periods, each of 10 minutes of real playing time. (NBA games are played over four quarters of 12 minutes). 15 minutes are allowed for a half-time break, and 2 minutes are allowed at the other breaks. Teams exchange baskets for the second half (third quarter). The time allowed is actual playing time; the clock is stopped while the play is not active. Therefore, games generally take much longer to complete than the allotted game time, typically about two hours.

3 Players can be substituted as often as the coach likes. Substitutions are unlimited but can only be done when play is stopped. Each coach has a limited number of time-outs they can call during a game, and the game clock is stopped whenever play stops. 1 time-out is allowed in each quarter and 2 in the fourth (clock stoppages requested by a coach for a short meeting with the players). The game begins in the center of the court with a jump-ball between two players (one from each team). The team with the ball is called the offense and the team without the ball is called the defense. Each team is assigned a basket to defend. This means that the other basket is their scoring basket. At halftime, the teams switch baskets. The ball is moved down the court toward the basket by passing or dribbling. The referees (officials) control the game. PLAYER POSITIONS 1. Point guard or playmaker 2. Shooting guard 3. Small forward or forward 4. Power forward 5. Center or pivot VIOLATIONS AND FOULS The ball can be moved by throwing it to another player (passing) or by bouncing it with one hand while running or walking (dribbling). Double Dribble - When a player stops dribbling, holds the basketball, and then starts dribbling again (it is necessary to pass or shoot the ball). Also when a player dribbles the ball with two hands at the same time.

4 Traveling - If a player moves both feet without bouncing the ball. Also when you move your pivot foot once you've stopped dribbling. Jumping and landing without doing anything with the ball (you should shot or pass the ball) is traveling too. Over-and-Back - When a player crosses over the midcourt line into the frontcourt and then crosses back into the backcourt. Held ball - Occasionally, two or more opposing players will gain possession of the ball at the same time. In order to avoid a prolonged and/or violent tussle, the referee stops the action and awards the ball to one team or the other on a rotating basis. Carrying/palming - When a player dribbles the ball with his hand too far to the side off or, sometimes, even under the ball. Kick-ball - it is an infraction to intentionally touch the ball with your feet. * Fouls can be punished with a free inbound pass, free throws at goal, or with sending off. A player who commits five fouls (six in the NBA), cannot longer take part in the game and it is said to have been 'fouled out'. A personal foul is committed when a player challenges another player unfairly, such as pushing, slapping, holding, blocking their run or hitting their arms. A player or coach who argues with a referee commits a technical foul. *All of these fouls are penalized with your team losing possession of the ball, and giving it to the other team, from the closest side line.

5 TIMES A team, once having established ball control in the front half of the court, may not return the ball to the backcourt and have to pass the ball to the front half in no more than 8 seconds. There are 24 seconds for a team to attempt a shot. A player can t hold the ball more than 5 seconds. The offense can t remain in the Key for no more than 3 seconds. Possession go back to 14 seconds after offensive rebound BASKETBALL BASIC SKILLS DRIBBLING 1. Use your finger tips to dribble, never the palm. 2. Dribble on the side of your body, never bounce the ball in front repeatedly. 3. Get used to bouncing the ball hard off the ground. 4. Lower your body slightly so that the ball is bouncing rapidly at waist level. 5. Look up when you are dribbling, not on the ground or on the ball. 6. When switching the ball from one hand to another, bounce the ball across hard and quick. 7. When changing direction, shift the momentum of your body towards that direction. Finger tips gives you more control over the basketball. Dribbling on the side minimizes the possibility of getting your ball stolen. When situation allows, you can even use your back to shield the ball from your opponent. Bouncing the ball hard off the ground and lowering your body together allows you to reduce the time the ball is out of your control. Looking up while dribbling gives you the vision of the court and your defender while you dribble.

6 Control or Low Dribble Use this when a defender is guarding you closely. Keep your body between the ball and the defender. Keep the ball low to the floor and close to your body. Keep your free hand up to protect the ball. Keep your head up and eyes off the ball, so you'll be able to see open teammates or openings for you. Speed or High Dribble Use this when you need to advance the ball quickly. Push the ball forward, ahead of you several feet. Bounce the ball at waist high. Keep your head up, and visualize the whole court, so you can find the open teammate. Move as fast as you can, but never faster than you can control the ball. Change of direction - Crossover dribble You switch dribbling from one hand to the other, by bouncing the ball in front of you across to the other side. - Spin or Reverse Dribble - Behind the Back Dribble - Through the Legs Dribble PASSING Successful passing involves two parts, making the pass and receiving the pass. - The receiver should have "soft" (relaxed) hands, catch the ball with both hands and look the ball into his/her hands. - The receiver should, in most cases, be moving toward the pass... "meet the pass". -- Most of the time, the receiver should not be stationary. - The receiver must learn to get open.

7 Holding the ball -Between your chest and your waist. -Keep the fingers wide apart. -Touch the ball with your finger tips. -The elbows are close to the body. -The thumb and the index finger must for a T. Chest pass Bounce pass Overhead pass Baseball pass PIVOTING Pivoting, or turning, requires you to keep one foot, your "pivot foot", stationary, while you turn, or spin, your body around on the ball of your pivot foot. SHOOTING There are several skills that enable you to score in a basketball game. You can score by performing the basic basketball shots: doing a lay-up, free shot, bank shot, hook shot, jump shot or slam dunk.

8 SHOT TECHNIQUE 1. Half-bent your knees before shooting a basketball for more potential power. 2. Your dominant hand should have its fingers spread out. 3. Only the fingertips should be gripping onto the ball. 4. Your other hand should support the ball on the side. 5. The ball should be brought above the head in one motion. 6. At this point, the angles at your armpit, elbow, and wrist is at 90 degrees 7. While extending your knees, extend your forearm and snap your wrist to direct the basketball and add backspin to it. 8. Make sure you follow through with your wrist movement. 9. You can also make a jump shot. LAYUP A layup is a two- point shot attempt made by leaping from below, laying the ball up near the basket, and using one hand to bounce it off the backboard and into the basket. 1. Start by dribbling the basketball towards the right side of the basketball hoop with your right hand. 2. As you approach the basket, you may carry the ball and take 2 big strides starting with your right leg. 3. Leap towards the basketball hoop with your left foot and bring your right knee up. 4. Release the ball lightly on the back board with your right hand. (overarm or underarm)

9 DEFENSE Individual defense In order to stop the ball and avoid dribble penetration, you must begin with a good defensive stance. You must be ready to move in any direction quickly. Stand with your feet apart and your knees bent. Keep your weight balanced on the front part of your feet. At the same time you need to learn to watch the ball at the same time. You will want to be ready to still a pass or block a shot. When your player has the ball always stay between them and the basket. Hands should be widely spread on the side to increase horizontal coverage Place your hands forward so that you can reach to intercept or strip the ball on sight. Defensive strategies There are two main types of defensive basketball strategies: Zone: players have certain positions or areas of the court they cover. The guards usually play at the top of the key with the forwards playing closer to the basket and on opposite sides. The center usually plays in the middle of the key. Man-to-man: each player is responsible to cover one player on the other team. They follow this player wherever they go on the court. However, there are a wide variety of zone defenses and combinations of zone and manto-man that basketball teams play. Teams will often switch defenses around during a basketball game to see which works best against a particular opponent.

10 VOCABULARY Basket: Canasta Hoop: Aro Court: Pista Ball: Balón Referee: Árbitro Bounce, dribble: Bote Dribbling: Bote en carrera Low dribble, control dribble: Bote de protección Shot: tiro Shooting: Acción de tiro Free throw shot: Tiro libre Pass: Pase Change of direction: Cambio de dirección Rebound: Rebote Rules: Reglamento Center (Centre): Pivot (5). Forwards: Aleros. Guards: Base y escolta. Perimeter player: Jugador de perímetro. Point Guard: Base. Post Player: Poste. Power Forward: Alero alto. Shooting Guard: Escolta. Small Forward: Alero bajo Pivot: Pívot. Playmaker: Base. Shooter: Tirador. Sixth Man: Sexto jugador. Substitute: Sustituto. Backboard: Tablero. Backcourt: Pista defensiva. Frontcourt: Pista de ataque. Baseline: Línea de fondo. Basket: Canasta. Center circle: Círculo central. Court: Pista. Floor: Cancha. Foul lane: Zona. Foul line: Línea de tiro libre. Free Throw Line: Línea de tiro libre.

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