The Discussion of this exercise covers the following points: Range with an elevated or suppressed zero Suppressed-zero range Elevated-zero range

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "The Discussion of this exercise covers the following points: Range with an elevated or suppressed zero Suppressed-zero range Elevated-zero range"

Transcription

1 Exercise 4-3 Zero Suppression and Zero Elevation EXERCISE OBJECTIVE In this exercise, you will learn the effect that mounting a pressure transmitter above or below the reference level has on the hydrostatic pressure sensed by this element. You will also learn how zero suppression and zero elevation can be achieved. DISCUSSION OUTLINE The Discussion of this exercise covers the following points: Range with an elevated or suppressed zero Suppressed-zero range Elevated-zero range DISCUSSION Range with an elevated or suppressed zero As mentioned in Ex. 4-2, hydrostatic pressure measurement allows the level of liquid in a vessel to be inferred. In many applications, the reference level is at the bottom of the vessel. However, it may be impossible to position the primary sensing element of the pressure transmitter at exactly the same height as the reference level. For example, if the vessel is an elevated water storage tank, it may be better for maintenance reasons to position the transmitter below the tank. If, instead of an elevated tank, it is an underground tank, the transmitter must be positioned above the bottom of the tank. In either case, the transmitter is not at the same level as the bottom of the vessel. This difference between the reference level and the position of the transmitter must be compensated for by setting a suppressed-zero range or an elevated-zero range (also known as zero elevation and zero suppression respectively). The suppressed-zero range and the elevated-zero range are frequently confused or misunderstood. Many alternative terms are used to describe these two ranges. These terms only tend to further confuse the distinction between the two types of ranges and you should avoid using them. Suppressed-zero range By definition, a suppressed-zero range is a range where the value of the measured variable zero is less than the lower-range value. That is, the zero does not appear on the scale. For example, if the differential-pressure transmitter reads 30% when the measured variable (i.e., the level) is zero, the range is a suppressed-zero range. A suppressed-zero range is required if the pressure transmitter used to measure a gauge pressure is installed under the highpressure tap of the vessel as Figure 4-12 shows. Festo Didactic

2 Ex. 4-3 Zero Suppression and Zero Elevation Discussion High-pressure tap Minimum measurable level Open to atmosphere Figure Set up where a transmitter is installed below the high-pressure tap. Be careful. In many installations, the fluid in the impulse line is not the process fluid, thus its density may differ from the density of the process fluid. If a pressure transmitter is installed under the high-pressure tap of the vessel, the fluid in the impulse line exerts a pressure on the transmitter sensor when the vessel is empty. Thus, even if the vessel is empty, the transmitter still reads a positive pressure. This pressure is constant and always present since the impulse line always stays filled. To compensate for this extra pressure, the transmitter must be set so that the extra pressure is suppressed. The pressure due to the liquid in the impulse line is proportional to the distance h between the transmitter and the vessel high-pressure tap as Figure 4-12 shows. This pressure also depends on the density of the fluid in the impulse line. Mathematically, the pressure on the primary element of the differential-pressure transmitter when the vessel is empty is: (4-2) where is the pressure that exerts the fluid in the impulse line on the transmitter sensor is the density of the fluid in the impulse line is the acceleration due to gravity is the distance between the transmitter and the high-pressure tap of the vessel 182 Festo Didactic

3 Ex. 4-3 Zero Suppression and Zero Elevation Discussion When the vessel is full, the pressure that the column of fluid exerts at the highpressure tap of the vessel depends on the distance H100% between the tap and the surface of the fluid. This pressure determines the span of the level measurement. The level is at 0% of the span when it is at the high-pressure tap of the vessel and it is at 100% span when it is at a distance H100% of the highpressure tap. The static pressure that the fluid exerts at the high-pressure tap of the vessel when the level is at 100% of the span is: (4-3) where is the static that the fluid exerts at the high-pressure tap when the level is at 100% of the span is the density of the fluid in vessel is the acceleration due to gravity is the distance between the high-pressure tap of the vessel and the surface of the fluid when the level is at 100% of the span To infer the level in a vessel from a pressure measurement, the differentialpressure transmitter must be connected as Figure 4-12 shows. With such a connection, the pressure at the low-pressure port of the transmitter is the atmospheric pressure : (4-4) The pressure at the high-pressure port of the transmitter is the sum of the static pressure due to the height of fluid above the high-pressure tap of the vessel, the pressure due to the fluid in the impulse line, and the atmospheric pressure. Equation (4-5) gives the pressure at the high-pressure port ( is the measured level). Other names for suppressed-zero range: zero suppression, elevation, elevated range, elevated span. (4-5) Therefore, the differential pressure read by the differential-pressure transmitter is: (4-6) It is clear from Equation (4-6) that the pressure due to the fluid in the impulse line must be suppressed to obtain the level of liquid from the differential pressure read by the transmitter. On modern equipment, this extra pressure is usually suppressed by setting the zero of the high-pressure port of the transmitter when the transmitter is in position and the impulse line is full of fluid. Elevated-zero range By definition, an elevated-zero range is a range where the value of the measured variable zero is greater than the lower-range value. An elevated-zero range is required if the pressure transmitter used to measure a gauge pressure is installed above the high-pressure tap of the vessel. In this case, the transmitter may read, for example, -30% when the level is zero. An elevated-zero range is also required if a differential-pressure transmitter is used to measure the level in Festo Didactic

4 Ex. 4-3 Zero Suppression and Zero Elevation Discussion a pressurized tank. Figure 4-13 shows a case where an elevated-zero range is required. Atmospheric pressure Open to atmosphere Minimum measurable level High-pressure tap Figure Set up where an elevated-zero range is required. Other names for elevatedzero range: zero elevation, suppression, suppressed range, suppressed span. When an elevated-zero range is required, the pressure transmitter reads a negative pressure when the vessel is empty. Depending on the set up, this negative pressure is caused by the liquid in the impulse line or by a pressure on the low-pressure port of the transmitter that is higher than the pressure on the high-pressure port of the transmitter ( ). To compensate for this negative pressure, the transmitter must be set so that the differential-pressure transmitter reads a pressure differential of zero if the vessel is empty. In other words, the zero must be elevated. For an installation where an elevated-zero range is required, such as with the set up shown in Figure 4-13, the pressure at the low-pressure port of the transmitter is proportional to the height. The negative pressure due to the zero elevation is expressed as: (4-7) The static pressure exerted by the fluid at the high-pressure tap of the vessel when the level is at 100% of the span is (4-8) Thus, the differential pressure read by the differential-pressure transmitter is: (4-9) To compensate for the negative pressure that the fluid in the impulse line exerts, the zero of the differential-pressure transmitter must be set so that the pressure differential is zero when the vessel is empty. 184 Festo Didactic

5 Ex. 4-3 Zero Suppression and Zero Elevation Procedure Outline PROCEDURE OUTLINE The Procedure is divided into the following sections: Set up and connections Purging the air from the bottom hose (column pressurization) Transmitter calibration Effect of lowering the transmitter on the measurable level range Zero suppression End of the exercise PROCEDURE Set up and connections This exercise can also be accomplished using the optional industrial differentialpressure transmitter (Model 46929). Should you choose this piece of equipment, refer to Appendix I for instructions on how to install and use the transmitter for level measurements. 1. Set up the system shown in Figure a Mount the DP transmitter so that the pressure ports are one row of perforations above the bottom of the column, and at least four rows of perforations above the bottom of the expanding work surface. Connect the rotameter outlet to the port of the column on which a pipe extends down into the column. Make sure the top cap of the column is tightened firmly. The column is first operated in the pressurized mode in order to purge air from the hose connecting the bottom of the column to the pumping unit. Failure to purge air from this hose can prevent the water in the column from decreasing below a certain level when the pump speed is decreased or the pump is stopped. Plug Plug Figure Zero-suppression application. Festo Didactic

6 Ex. 4-3 Zero Suppression and Zero Elevation Procedure 2. Make sure the reservoir of the pumping unit is filled with about 12 liters (3.2 gallons) of water. Make sure the baffle plate is properly installed at the bottom of the reservoir. 3. On the pumping unit, adjust pump valves HV1 to HV3 as follows: Open HV1 completely. Close HV2 completely. Set HV3 for directing the full reservoir flow to the pump inlet. 4. Turn on the pumping unit. Purging the air from the bottom hose (column pressurization) 5. Make the pump rotate at maximum speed. This causes the water level to rise in the column. 6. Close valve HV1 completely. This causes the water level to rise further in the column. 7. Bleed the high-pressure port of the DP transmitter. 8. Stop the pump. This causes part of the water in the column to siphon back out. 9. Remove the plug connected to the hose port at the top of the column. Connect this port to either of the auxiliary return ports of the pumping unit using an extra-long hose. This hose serves as an overflow if the column gets full. It also allows the column to be open to atmosphere through the reservoir of the pumping unit. 10. Set the pump speed to 50% to make the water level rise about halfway up the column. Then, open valve HV1 completely. The level should remain relatively stable. Transmitter calibration In steps 11 through 17, you will adjust the ZERO and SPAN knobs of the DP transmitter so that its output current varies between 4 ma and 20 ma when the level of the water in the column is varied between 5 cm and 55 cm (2 in and 22 in). 11. Connect a multimeter to the 4-20 ma output of the DP transmitter. 186 Festo Didactic

7 Ex. 4-3 Zero Suppression and Zero Elevation Procedure 12. Make the following settings on the DP transmitter: ZERO adjustment knob: MAX. SPAN adjustment knob: MAX. LOW PASS FILTER switch: I (ON) 13. Adjust the pump speed until the water level is stable at 5 cm (2 in) in the column. This is the reference level. a To prevent air from entering the hose that connects the bottom of the column to the pumping unit, do not allow the water level to fall below 4 cm (1.5 in) in the column throughout the exercise. 14. While observing the multimeter reading, turn the ZERO adjustment knob of the DP transmitter counterclockwise to decrease the current and stop turning it as soon as the multimeter reads 4.00 ma. 15. Readjust the pump speed to raise and stabilize the water level to 55 cm (22 in) in the column. 16. Adjust the SPAN knob of the DP transmitter until the multimeter reads 20.0 ma. 17. Due to interaction between the ZERO and SPAN adjustments, repeat steps 13 through 16 until the DP transmitter output actually varies between 4.00 ma and 20.0 ma when the level of the water is varied between 5 cm and 55 cm (2 in and 22 in). Effect of lowering the transmitter on the measurable level range 18. Now that the DP transmitter is calibrated, lower its mounting so that the pressure ports are approximately 3 rows of perforations below the bottom of the column. While doing this, be careful not to modify the setting of the ZERO and SPAN adjustment knobs. 19. By varying the pump speed, raise the water level in the column from 5 cm to 55 cm by steps of 5 cm (or from 2 in to 22 in by steps of 2 in). After each new level setting, measure the analog output generated by the DP transmitter and record it in Table 4-3. Festo Didactic

8 Ex. 4-3 Zero Suppression and Zero Elevation Procedure Table 4-3. DP transmitter output as a function of the level without zero suppression. Level cm (in) 5 (2) 10 (4) 15 (6) 20 (8) 25 (10) 30 (12) 35 (14) 40 (16) 45 (18) 50 (20) 55 (22) Analog output without zero suppression ma Analog output with zero suppression ma 20. Using Table 4-3, plot the relationship between the analog output and the level without zero suppression. 21. From the curve obtained, can the measurable level range for which the DP transmitter was initially calibrated [5 to 55 cm (2 to 22 in)] still be obtained? Explain. Zero suppression 22. Recalibrate the DP transmitter so as to take account of the depression of its sensing element with respect to the reference level of 5 cm (2 in). To do so, redo procedure steps 11 through Vary the pump speed to raise the water level from 5 cm to 55 cm by steps of 5 cm (or from 2 in to 22 in by steps of 2 in). After each new level setting, measure the analog output generated by the DP transmitter and record it in Table Using Table 4-3, plot the relationship between the analog output and the level with zero suppression on the graph of step Stop the pump and turn off the pumping unit. 188 Festo Didactic

9 Ex. 4-3 Zero Suppression and Zero Elevation Conclusion 26. Has zero suppression reestablished the measurable level range for which the DP transmitter was initially calibrated [5 to 55 cm (2 to 22 in)]? Explain. End of the exercise 27. Disconnect the circuit. Return the components and hoses to their storage location. 28. Wipe off any water from the floor and the training system. CONCLUSION In this exercise, you calibrated the DP transmitter in order to measure a specific level range in the open column. Then, you lowered the mounting of the DP transmitter with respect to the reference level. This caused the lower portion of the transmitter output range to become useless and the upper portion of the initial measurable range to become undetectable. You then performed zero suppression by recalibrating the DP transmitter so as to take account of the lower transmitter position. This allowed the proper measurement of the entire initial level range. REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. In applications where the level of liquid in a vessel is inferred using hydrostatic pressure measurement, what effect does mounting the primary sensing element of the pressure transmitter below the reference level have on the pressure sensed by this element? 2. What does "zero suppression" mean? 3. If the primary sensing element of the pressure transmitter is lowered with respect to the reference level and the transmitter is not recalibrated accordingly, what happens to the measurable level range? Festo Didactic

10 Ex. 4-3 Zero Suppression and Zero Elevation Review Questions 4. In applications where the level of liquid in the vessel cannot be seen and the primary sensing element of the pressure transmitter is located below the reference level, how can zero suppression of the transmitter output be achieved? 5. In applications where the level of liquid in the vessel can be seen and measured directly on a calibrated scale, as in the case of the column of the training system, how can zero suppression be achieved? 190 Festo Didactic

The Discussion of this exercise covers the following points:

The Discussion of this exercise covers the following points: Exercise 3-2 Orifice Plates EXERCISE OBJECTIVE In this exercise, you will study how differential pressure flowmeters operate. You will describe the relationship between the flow rate and the pressure drop

More information

Exercise 5-2. Bubblers EXERCISE OBJECTIVE DISCUSSION OUTLINE. Bubblers DISCUSSION. Learn to measure the level in a vessel using a bubbler.

Exercise 5-2. Bubblers EXERCISE OBJECTIVE DISCUSSION OUTLINE. Bubblers DISCUSSION. Learn to measure the level in a vessel using a bubbler. Exercise 5-2 Bubblers EXERCISE OBJECTIVE Learn to measure the level in a vessel using a bubbler. DISCUSSION OUTLINE The Discussion of this exercise covers the following points: Bubblers How to measure

More information

The Discussion of this exercise covers the following points:

The Discussion of this exercise covers the following points: Exercise 5-3 Wet Reference Leg EXERCISE OBJECTIVE Learn to measure the level in a vessel using a wet reference leg. DISCUSSION OUTLINE The Discussion of this exercise covers the following points: Measuring

More information

Exercise 2-2. Second-Order Interacting Processes EXERCISE OBJECTIVE DISCUSSION OUTLINE. The actual setup DISCUSSION

Exercise 2-2. Second-Order Interacting Processes EXERCISE OBJECTIVE DISCUSSION OUTLINE. The actual setup DISCUSSION Exercise 2-2 Second-Order Interacting Processes EXERCISE OBJECTIVE Familiarize yourself with second-order interacting processes and experiment with the finer points of controller tuning to gain a deeper

More information

The Discussion of this exercise covers the following points: Pumps Basic operation of a liquid pump Types of liquid pumps The centrifugal pump.

The Discussion of this exercise covers the following points: Pumps Basic operation of a liquid pump Types of liquid pumps The centrifugal pump. Exercise 2-3 Centrifugal Pumps EXERCISE OBJECTIVE In this exercise, you will become familiar with the operation of a centrifugal pump and read its performance chart. You will also observe the effect that

More information

The Discussion of this exercise covers the following points:

The Discussion of this exercise covers the following points: Exercise 4-1 Float Switches EXERCISE OBJECTIVE In this exercise, you will study the construction and operation of a magnetic reed float switch. You will use a float switch to limit the amount of liquid

More information

Heat Pump Connections and Interior Piping

Heat Pump Connections and Interior Piping Job Sheet 3 Heat Pump Connections and Interior Piping OBJECTIVES In this job sheet, you will observe how the presence of air in the ground loop affects the geothermal heat pump performance. You will also

More information

Exercise 4-2. Centrifugal Pumps EXERCISE OBJECTIVE DISCUSSION OUTLINE DISCUSSION. Pumps

Exercise 4-2. Centrifugal Pumps EXERCISE OBJECTIVE DISCUSSION OUTLINE DISCUSSION. Pumps Exercise 4-2 Centrifugal Pumps EXERCISE OBJECTIVE Familiarize yourself with the basics of liquid pumps, specifically with the basics of centrifugal pumps. DISCUSSION OUTLINE The Discussion of this exercise

More information

Exercise 2-3. Flow Rate and Velocity EXERCISE OBJECTIVE C C C

Exercise 2-3. Flow Rate and Velocity EXERCISE OBJECTIVE C C C Exercise 2-3 EXERCISE OBJECTIVE C C C To describe the operation of a flow control valve; To establish the relationship between flow rate and velocity; To operate meter-in, meter-out, and bypass flow control

More information

Introduction. Part one: Identify the Hydraulic Trainer Components

Introduction. Part one: Identify the Hydraulic Trainer Components The University Of Jordan School of Engineering Mechatronics Engineering Department Fluid Power Engineering Lab Experiments No.4 Introduction to Hydraulic Trainer Objective: Students will be able to identify

More information

Exercise 8. Closed-Loop Pressure Control, Proportional-Plus-Integral Mode EXERCISE OBJECTIVE

Exercise 8. Closed-Loop Pressure Control, Proportional-Plus-Integral Mode EXERCISE OBJECTIVE Exercise 8 Closed-Loop Pressure Control, EXERCISE OBJECTIVE To understand open and closed-loop pressure control; To learn how to sense the pressure in a pneumatic circuit; To control the pressure in a

More information

Experiment 8: Minor Losses

Experiment 8: Minor Losses Experiment 8: Minor Losses Purpose: To determine the loss factors for flow through a range of pipe fittings including bends, a contraction, an enlargement and a gate-valve. Introduction: Energy losses

More information

Gerald D. Anderson. Education Technical Specialist

Gerald D. Anderson. Education Technical Specialist Gerald D. Anderson Education Technical Specialist The factors which influence selection of equipment for a liquid level control loop interact significantly. Analyses of these factors and their interactions

More information

Liquid level measurement using hydrostatic pressure and buoyancy

Liquid level measurement using hydrostatic pressure and buoyancy iquid level measurement using hydrostatic pressure and buoyancy This worksheet and all related files are licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution icense, version 1.0. To view a copy of this license,

More information

Operating Instructions Model and Hydrostatic Test Pump

Operating Instructions Model and Hydrostatic Test Pump Operating Instructions Model 29200 and 2920 Hydrostatic Test Pump Dimension Weight Pump Pressure for 29200 Pump Pressure for 2920 Gauge for 29200 Gauge for 2920 Inlet Connection Outlet Connection Hose

More information

Process Control Measurement Pressure, Flow, and Level Courseware Sample

Process Control Measurement Pressure, Flow, and Level Courseware Sample Process Control Measurement Pressure, Flow, and Level Courseware Sample 85981-F0 Order no.: 85981-10 First Edition Revision level: 07/2015 By the staff of Festo Didactic Festo Didactic Ltée/Ltd, Quebec,

More information

Level MEASUREMENT 1/2016

Level MEASUREMENT 1/2016 Level MEASUREMENT 1/2016 AGENDA 2 A. Introduction B. Float method C. Displacer method D. Hydrostatic pressure method E. Capacitance method G. Ultrasonic method H. Radar method I. Laser method J. Level

More information

Liquid Level Measurement

Liquid Level Measurement Technical Article Liquid Level Measurement A pressure transmitter can be used to determine the liquid level in a tank, well, river or other body of liquid. The pressure at the bottom of a liquid filled

More information

Radar, Ultrasonic and RF Level Transmitters

Radar, Ultrasonic and RF Level Transmitters Radar, Ultrasonic and RF Level Transmitters Both measures the time it takes the wave to travel between the transmitter and that reflected wave off the surface of the material to reach the transmitter again.

More information

CONTROL and INSTRUMENTATION

CONTROL and INSTRUMENTATION CONTROL and INSTRUMENTATION COURSE 500: 5 DAYS: Max 8 Candidates This course covers the key aspects of current instrumentation and process control technology and is designed to enable maintenance personnel

More information

Bubble Tube Installations

Bubble Tube Installations Instruction MI 020-328 September 2013 Bubble Tube Installations For Liquid Level, Density, and Interface Level Measurements 2 Contents Introduction... 5 Abbreviations... 5 Principle of Operation... 5 Alternative

More information

Cover Page for Lab Report Group Portion. Pump Performance

Cover Page for Lab Report Group Portion. Pump Performance Cover Page for Lab Report Group Portion Pump Performance Prepared by Professor J. M. Cimbala, Penn State University Latest revision: 02 March 2012 Name 1: Name 2: Name 3: [Name 4: ] Date: Section number:

More information

L 100. Bubble-Tube Level System. Installation, Operation and Maintenance Instructions

L 100. Bubble-Tube Level System. Installation, Operation and Maintenance Instructions L 100 Bubble-Tube Level System Installation, Operation and Maintenance Instructions Figure 1 Contents Section Description Page 1.0 Introduction 2 2.0 Specifications 3 3.0 Installation 3 4.0 Warranty 6

More information

Successful completion of the course leads to the award of the Technical Training Solutions Certificate of Competence 510: Instrumentation.

Successful completion of the course leads to the award of the Technical Training Solutions Certificate of Competence 510: Instrumentation. INSTRUMENTATION COURSE 510: 3 DAYS: Max 8 Candidates This course covers the key aspects of industrial instrumentation and is designed to enable maintenance personnel to carry out commissioning, calibration

More information

InstrumentationTools.com

InstrumentationTools.com Author: Instrumentation Tools Categories: Level Measurement Basics of DP Level Measurement Level the parameters that exist in virtually every industrial process, there are many ways to measure the level,

More information

2600T Series Pressure Transmitter Models 264DC Differential and 264HC Gage Level Transmitters. Kent-Taylor

2600T Series Pressure Transmitter Models 264DC Differential and 264HC Gage Level Transmitters. Kent-Taylor INDUSTRIAL INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS SPECIALIST Kent-Taylor 2600T Series Pressure Transmitter Models 264DC Differential and 264HC Gage Level Transmitters Features Include Base accuracy : ±0.075% Span limits

More information

The Discussion of this exercise covers the following points: The open-loop Ziegler-Nichols method. The open-loop Ziegler-Nichols method

The Discussion of this exercise covers the following points: The open-loop Ziegler-Nichols method. The open-loop Ziegler-Nichols method Exercise 6-3 Level Process Control EXERCISE OBJECTIVE In this exercise, you will perform PID control of level process. You will use the open-loop step response method to tune the controller. DISCUSSION

More information

Instrumentation & Data Acquisition Systems

Instrumentation & Data Acquisition Systems Instrumentation & Data Acquisition Systems Section 3 -Level Robert W. Harrison, PE Bob@TheHarrisonHouse.com Made in USA 1 Level Section Question Which level measuring technology is the best solution when

More information

Operating Instructions Models and Hydrostatic Test Pumps

Operating Instructions Models and Hydrostatic Test Pumps Operating Instructions Models 46501 and 465010 Hydrostatic Test Pumps 46501 DIMENSIONS: WEIGHT: PUMP: ENGINE: CONTROL: GAUGE: DISCHARGE HOSE: INLET HOSE: 28 (70cm) L x 24 (60cm) W x 35 (87.5cm) H 136 lbs.

More information

TEK-SUB 4800B. Submersible Level Transmitter. Flow Level Temperature Pressure Valves Analyzers Accessories TekValSys LEVEL

TEK-SUB 4800B. Submersible Level Transmitter.   Flow Level Temperature Pressure Valves Analyzers Accessories TekValSys LEVEL Technology Solutions TEK-SUB 4800B Submersible Level Transmitter LEVEL Flow Level Temperature Pressure Valves Analyzers Accessories TekValSys Introduction The Tek-Sub 4800B Submersible Level Transmitter

More information

Model 130M Pneumatic Controller

Model 130M Pneumatic Controller Instruction MI 017-450 May 1978 Model 130M Pneumatic Controller Installation and Operation Manual Control Unit Controller Model 130M Controller is a pneumatic, shelf-mounted instrument with a separate

More information

MB-SP Series Solvent Purification System

MB-SP Series Solvent Purification System Operation Manual MB-SP Series Solvent Purification System Table of contents 1. System overview 2 2. Column activation.. 5 3. System purging.. 6 4. Glove box integration.... 7 5. Solvent reservoir installation....

More information

A centrifugal pump consists of an impeller attached to and rotating with the shaft and a casing that encloses the impeller.

A centrifugal pump consists of an impeller attached to and rotating with the shaft and a casing that encloses the impeller. Centrifugal pump How centrifugal pumps work A centrifugal pump consists of an impeller attached to and rotating with the shaft and a casing that encloses the impeller. In centrifugal pump, liquid is forced

More information

Experiment Instructions. Circulating Pumps Training Panel

Experiment Instructions. Circulating Pumps Training Panel Experiment Instructions Circulating Pumps Training Panel Experiment Instructions This manual must be kept by the unit. Before operating the unit: - Read this manual. - All participants must be instructed

More information

THE INNER WORKINGS OF A SIPHON Jacques Chaurette p. eng. January 2003

THE INNER WORKINGS OF A SIPHON Jacques Chaurette p. eng.  January 2003 THE INNER WORKINGS OF A SIPHON Jacques Chaurette p. eng. www.lightmypump.com January 2003 Synopsis The objective of this article is to explain how a siphon works. The difference between low pressure, atmospheric

More information

P-5215 Differential Pressure Transmitter

P-5215 Differential Pressure Transmitter P-5215 Differential Pressure Transmitter Pneumatic Control Manual 717.1 Pressure Section Product Bulletin P-5215 Issue Date 0891 Features and Benefits Ultra Sensitive Feedback Circuit - Enhances System

More information

Boyle s Law: Pressure-Volume. Relationship in Gases

Boyle s Law: Pressure-Volume. Relationship in Gases Boyle s Law: Pressure-Volume Relationship in Gases The primary objective of this experiment is to determine the relationship between the pressure and volume of a confined gas. The gas we use will be air,

More information

256 Pneumatic Pressure Indicator

256 Pneumatic Pressure Indicator 256 Pneumatic Pressure Indicator 51425699 Copyright 2002 Slope Indicator Company. All Rights Reserved. This equipment should be installed, maintained, and operated by technically qualified personnel. Any

More information

FX134, FX1234, FX3030 Problem and Solutions

FX134, FX1234, FX3030 Problem and Solutions FX134, FX1234, FX3030 Problem and Solutions Unit Will Not Power Up Turn the power switch on. The unit LCD will display revision program and filter life within 3 to 5 seconds after turning on unit. If this

More information

Practical Guide. By Steven T. Taylor, P.E., Member ASHRAE

Practical Guide. By Steven T. Taylor, P.E., Member ASHRAE ractical Guide The following article was published in ASHRAE Journal, March 2003. Copyright 2003 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air- Conditioning Engineers, Inc. It is presented for educational

More information

Bulletin TCR-104 & 109 Filling and adding to the Glycol pressure system

Bulletin TCR-104 & 109 Filling and adding to the Glycol pressure system Bulletin 061013 TCR-104 & 109 Filling and adding to the Glycol pressure system 1. Glycol System and air On this model the glycol system is a closed system, the glycol is not exposed to the air. No external

More information

Armfield Distillation Column Operation Guidelines

Armfield Distillation Column Operation Guidelines Armfield Distillation Column Operation Guidelines 11-2016 R.Cox Safety SAFETY GLASSES ARE REQUIRED WHEN OPERATING THE DISTILLATION COLUMN Wear gloves when mixing alcohol feedstock The column will become

More information

Exercise 3. Power Versus Wind Speed EXERCISE OBJECTIVE DISCUSSION OUTLINE. Air density DISCUSSION

Exercise 3. Power Versus Wind Speed EXERCISE OBJECTIVE DISCUSSION OUTLINE. Air density DISCUSSION Exercise 3 Power Versus Wind Speed EXERCISE OBJECTIVE When you have completed this exercise, you will know how to calculate the power contained in the wind, and how wind power varies with wind speed. You

More information

Pressure Control. where: p is the pressure F is the normal component of the force A is the area

Pressure Control. where: p is the pressure F is the normal component of the force A is the area Pressure Control First of all, what is pressure, the property we want to control? From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Pressure is the application of force to a surface, and the concentration of that

More information

Operating Instructions

Operating Instructions Operating Instructions Note: 1. Never let the centrifugal pump run dry. 2. Make sure that there is at least one open path for water flow in the pipe network before turning the pump on. Never run the pump

More information

Multi-Process Station

Multi-Process Station Process Control Multi-Process Station Courseware Sample 85629-F0 Order no.: 85629-00 First Edition Revision level: 06/2015 By the staff of Festo Didactic Festo Didactic Ltée/Ltd, Quebec, Canada 2009 Internet:

More information

In the liquid phase, molecules can flow freely from position. another. A liquid takes the shape of its container. 19.

In the liquid phase, molecules can flow freely from position. another. A liquid takes the shape of its container. 19. In the liquid phase, molecules can flow freely from position to position by sliding over one another. A liquid takes the shape of its container. In the liquid phase, molecules can flow freely from position

More information

In the liquid phase, molecules can flow freely from position to position by sliding over one another. A liquid takes the shape of its container.

In the liquid phase, molecules can flow freely from position to position by sliding over one another. A liquid takes the shape of its container. In the liquid phase, molecules can flow freely from position to position by sliding over one another. A liquid takes the shape of its container. In the liquid phase, molecules can flow freely from position

More information

Operating Instructions Models 36200, , 46200, Hydrostatic Test Pumps

Operating Instructions Models 36200, , 46200, Hydrostatic Test Pumps Operating Instructions Models 36200, 362000, 46200, 462000 Hydrostatic Test Pumps 46200 DIMENSIONS: 28 (70cm) L x 24 (60cm) W x 38 (87.5cm) H WEIGHT: PUMP: ENGINE: CONTROL: GAUGE: DISCHARGE HOSE: INTAKE

More information

2. Determine how the mass transfer rate is affected by gas flow rate and liquid flow rate.

2. Determine how the mass transfer rate is affected by gas flow rate and liquid flow rate. Goals for Gas Absorption Experiment: 1. Evaluate the performance of packed gas-liquid absorption tower. 2. Determine how the mass transfer rate is affected by gas flow rate and liquid flow rate. 3. Consider

More information

Section 3- Repair and Calibration Procedures

Section 3- Repair and Calibration Procedures Section 3- Repair and Calibration Procedures 1. Refrigerant Removal Procedures 2. Scale/PC Board Recalibration Procedure 3. PC Board Configuration Procedure of AR400 4. Scale Tare Procedure 5. Gauge Calibration

More information

Basic Hydraulics. Module 4: Flow Control Valves & Pressure Relief Valves. Academic Services PREPARED BY. January 2012

Basic Hydraulics. Module 4: Flow Control Valves & Pressure Relief Valves. Academic Services PREPARED BY. January 2012 Basic Hydraulics Module 4: Flow Control Valves & Pressure Relief Valves PREPARED BY Academic Services January 2012 Applied Technology High Schools, 2011 ATM 1122 Basic Hydraulics Module 4: Flow control

More information

VACUUM REGULATORS CONTENTS

VACUUM REGULATORS CONTENTS CAD drawing data catalog is available. ACCESSORIES GENERAL CATALOG AIR TREATMENT, AUXILIARY, VACUUM, AND FLUORORESIN PRODUCTS CONTENTS Small Regulators Features 759 Specifications, Order Codes, Flow Rate

More information

product manual HM-4140, HM-4150, HM-4160 HM-4160A HM-4150 Humboldt FlexPanels

product manual HM-4140, HM-4150, HM-4160 HM-4160A HM-4150 Humboldt FlexPanels 12.09 product manual HM-4140, HM-4150, HM-4160 HM-4160A HM-4150 Humboldt FlexPanels Introduction: This manual covers the installation and operation of Humboldt FlexPanels for Triaxial and Permeability

More information

STREAMLINE SHOP SERIES MODEL 30040V OPERATION & PARTS MANUAL

STREAMLINE SHOP SERIES MODEL 30040V OPERATION & PARTS MANUAL STREAMLINE SHOP SERIES MODEL 30040V OPERATION & PARTS MANUAL Sage Oil Vac 360 North Lakeside Drive Amarillo, TX 79118 phone: 806.372.7559 fax: 806.372.7565 1 2 1.1 WARRANTY SERVICE OR RETURNS Call 1-877-645-8227

More information

Hydrostatic pressure Consider a tank of fluid which contains a very thin plate of (neutrally buoyant) material with area A. This situation is shown in Figure below. If the plate is in equilibrium (it does

More information

Operating Instructions Models and Hydrostatic Test Pumps

Operating Instructions Models and Hydrostatic Test Pumps Operating Instructions Models 33100 and 33101 Hydrostatic Test Pumps 33100 DIMENSIONS: WEIGHT: PUMP: MOTOR: CONTROL: GAUGE: DISCHARGE HOSE: 16 (40cm) L x 22 (55cm) W x 18 (45cm) H 87 lbs., 39.5 kg Triplex

More information

BUBBLER CONTROL SYSTEM

BUBBLER CONTROL SYSTEM BUBBLER CONTROL SYSTEM Description: The HDBCS is a fully automatic bubbler system, which does liquid level measurements in water and wastewater applications. It is a dual air compressor system with, air

More information

The University of Hong Kong Department of Physics Experimental Physics Laboratory

The University of Hong Kong Department of Physics Experimental Physics Laboratory The University of Hong Kong Department of Physics Experimental Physics Laboratory PHYS2260 Heat and Waves 2260-1 LABORATORY MANUAL Experiment 1: Adiabatic Gas Law Part A. Ideal Gas Law Equipment Required:

More information

Pressure Measurement

Pressure Measurement Pressure Measurement Manometers Sensors, Transducers Ashish J. Modi Lecturer, Dept. of Mech.Engg., Shri S.V.M. inst. Of Technology, Bharuch Pressure Pressure is a force per unit area exerted by a fluid

More information

COURSE NUMBER: ME 321 Fluid Mechanics I Fluid statics. Course teacher Dr. M. Mahbubur Razzaque Professor Department of Mechanical Engineering BUET

COURSE NUMBER: ME 321 Fluid Mechanics I Fluid statics. Course teacher Dr. M. Mahbubur Razzaque Professor Department of Mechanical Engineering BUET COURSE NUMBER: ME 321 Fluid Mechanics I Fluid statics Course teacher Dr. M. Mahbubur Razzaque Professor Department of Mechanical Engineering BUET 1 Fluid statics Fluid statics is the study of fluids in

More information

Model: 720-UL INSTALLATION OPERATION MAINTENANCE. Bermad Pressure Reducing Valve IOM. Model: FP -720-UL Sizes: 2"-12" BERMAD. Application Engineering

Model: 720-UL INSTALLATION OPERATION MAINTENANCE. Bermad Pressure Reducing Valve IOM. Model: FP -720-UL Sizes: 2-12 BERMAD. Application Engineering Bermad Pressure Reducing Valve Model: 720-UL INSTALLATION OPERATION MAINTENANCE Application Engineering BERMAD 1. Safety First BERMAD believes that the safety of personnel working with and around our equipment

More information

ACCURACY, PERFORMANCE, AND HANDLING OF OIL-FILLED DIGIQUARTZ PRESSURE INSTRUMENTATION

ACCURACY, PERFORMANCE, AND HANDLING OF OIL-FILLED DIGIQUARTZ PRESSURE INSTRUMENTATION Application Note Doc. G8108-001 Rev. A - 23-Jul-02 ACCURACY, PERFORMANCE, AND HANDLING OF OIL-FILLED DIGIQUARTZ PRESSURE INSTRUMENTATION For more information regarding Digiquartz products contact: Paroscientific,

More information

CSA Sample Draw Aspirator Adapter Operator s Manual

CSA Sample Draw Aspirator Adapter Operator s Manual 30-0951-CSA Sample Draw Aspirator Adapter Operator s Manual Part Number: 71-0367 Revision: 0 Released: 4/30/15 www.rkiinstruments.com WARNING Read and understand this instruction manual before operating

More information

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY CHEG 239W. Control of a Steam-Heated Mixing Tank with a Pneumatic Process Controller

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY CHEG 239W. Control of a Steam-Heated Mixing Tank with a Pneumatic Process Controller CHEMICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY CHEG 239W Control of a Steam-Heated Mixing Tank with a Pneumatic Process Controller Objective The experiment involves tuning a commercial process controller for temperature

More information

OPTIMA 7 - BIOGAS Calibrating the gas sensors SENSOR ADJUSTMENT. Diamond Scientific 625 Peachtree St., Cocoa, Florida /Tel:

OPTIMA 7 - BIOGAS Calibrating the gas sensors SENSOR ADJUSTMENT. Diamond Scientific 625 Peachtree St., Cocoa, Florida /Tel: SENSOR ADJUSTMENT The calibration of your OPTIMA 7 should be performed by experienced service personal only! MRU will not be responsible for any misuse or wrong interpretation of this calibration instruction.

More information

RD(H)20/25 Pressure-Reducing Regulator User Manual

RD(H)20/25 Pressure-Reducing Regulator User Manual RD(H)20/25 Pressure-Reducing Regulator User Manual Read the complete manual before installing and using the regulator. 2 Safe Product Selection When selecting a product, the total system design must be

More information

1 Overview. Pressure Measurement Single-range transmitters for general applications. 1/22 Siemens FI US Edition

1 Overview. Pressure Measurement Single-range transmitters for general applications. 1/22 Siemens FI US Edition Siemens AG 07 SITRANS LH00 Transmitter for hydrostatic level Overview Function U const. p U I EM The pressure transmitter SITRANS LH00 is a submersible sensor for hydrostatic level measurement. The pressure

More information

GETZ EQUIPMENT INNOVATORS PART NO.: 9G59554 MODEL: MS 36 SC-R HYDROSTATIC TEST PUMP

GETZ EQUIPMENT INNOVATORS PART NO.: 9G59554 MODEL: MS 36 SC-R HYDROSTATIC TEST PUMP GETZ EQUIPMENT INNOVATORS PART NO.: 9G59554 MODEL: MS 36 SC-R HYDROSTATIC TEST PUMP LIMITED WARRANTY Getz Equipment Innovators warrants its products, and component parts of any product manufactured by

More information

Boyle s Law. Pressure-Volume Relationship in Gases. Figure 1

Boyle s Law. Pressure-Volume Relationship in Gases. Figure 1 Boyle s Law Pressure-Volume Relationship in Gases The primary objective of this experiment is to determine the relationship between the pressure and volume of a confined gas. The gas we use will be air,

More information

INSTALLATION & MAINTENANCE INSTRUCTIONS

INSTALLATION & MAINTENANCE INSTRUCTIONS DESCRIPTION / IDENTIFICATION The QBX series valve uses Proportion-Air closed loop technology for Pressure control. It gives an output pressure proportional to an electrical command signal input. The QB1X

More information

Cover Page for Lab Report Group Portion. Head Losses in Pipes

Cover Page for Lab Report Group Portion. Head Losses in Pipes Cover Page for Lab Report Group Portion Head Losses in Pipes Prepared by Professor J. M. Cimbala, Penn State University Latest revision: 12 September 2017 Name 1: Name 2: Name 3: [Name 4: ] Date: Section

More information

Electropneumatic Transducer (I/P) Installation, Operation and

Electropneumatic Transducer (I/P) Installation, Operation and Nitra NCP1 Series Electropneumatic Transducer (I/P) Installation, Operation and Maintenance Instructions Ordering Information Contents Part Number I/P Transducers Output Range Input psig bar Section Description

More information

DS05C,D,G Dial Set Pressure Regulating Valves

DS05C,D,G Dial Set Pressure Regulating Valves DS05C,D,G Dial Set Pressure Regulating Valves APPLICATION The Honeywell DS05C,D,G Dial Set Pressure Regulating Valve is a high quality pressure regulating valve that maintains a constant outlet pressure

More information

Cover Page for Lab Report Group Portion. Drag on Spheres

Cover Page for Lab Report Group Portion. Drag on Spheres Cover Page for Lab Report Group Portion Drag on Spheres Prepared by Professor J. M. Cimbala, Penn State University Latest revision: 29 September 2017 Name 1: Name 2: Name 3: [Name 4: ] Date: Section number:

More information

Cover Page for Lab Report Group Portion. Head Losses in Pipes

Cover Page for Lab Report Group Portion. Head Losses in Pipes Cover Page for Lab Report Group Portion Head Losses in Pipes Prepared by Professor J. M. Cimbala, Penn State University Latest revision: 02 February 2012 Name 1: Name 2: Name 3: [Name 4: ] Date: Section

More information

EXPERIMENT 2 LEVEL CONTROL SYSTEM

EXPERIMENT 2 LEVEL CONTROL SYSTEM EXPERIMENT 2 LEVEL CONTROL SYSTEM 1.0 OBJECTIVE To study the response of level control process in open tank using the PID controller. 2.0 INTRODUCTION TO THE APPARATUS (MODEL WLF922). a) The process consists

More information

T EK-SUB 4800C 19 mm Submersible Level Transmitter

T EK-SUB 4800C 19 mm Submersible Level Transmitter Technology Solutions T EK-SUB 4800C 19 mm Submersible Level Transmitter Instruction Manual Document Number: IM-4800C www.tek-trol.com Table of Contents 1 Safety Instructions... 2 1.1 Intended Use... 2

More information

2600T Series Pressure Transmitters Plugged Impulse Line Detection Diagnostic. Pressure Measurement Engineered solutions for all applications

2600T Series Pressure Transmitters Plugged Impulse Line Detection Diagnostic. Pressure Measurement Engineered solutions for all applications Application Description AG/266PILD-EN Rev. C 2600T Series Pressure Transmitters Plugged Impulse Line Detection Diagnostic Pressure Measurement Engineered solutions for all applications Increase plant productivity

More information

DPC-30 DPC-100. Reference Manual

DPC-30 DPC-100. Reference Manual DPC-30 DPC-100 Reference Manual 1. Introduction 1.1 Description The Martel DPC Digital Pneumatic Calibrator improves upon traditional dial gauge pneumatic calibrators. The Martel DPC improves accuracy,

More information

Operation Manual - PN A MENSOR MODEL 73 SHOP AIR BOOSTER

Operation Manual - PN A MENSOR MODEL 73 SHOP AIR BOOSTER Operation Manual - PN 0017946001 A MENSOR MODEL 73 SHOP AIR BOOSTER Mensor Model 73 Shop Air Booster System (750 psi Version) April 23, 2012 Trademarks / Copyright Mensor is a registered trademark of Mensor

More information

WIDDER TOOLS. HPICAL Calibration Station 1 (203)

WIDDER TOOLS. HPICAL Calibration Station  1 (203) WIDDER TOOLS HPICAL-15000 Calibration Station WWW.WIDDERTOOLS.COM 1 1. TEST SET-UP a. Be sure air and water supply lines are installed per basic set-up & installation instructions supplied with calibration

More information

Wedge Type Flow Meter Installation and Operation Manual

Wedge Type Flow Meter Installation and Operation Manual Wedge Type Flow Meter Installation and Operation Manual 358-EN Please read and save these instructions. Wedge Type Flow Meter PLEASE READ THIS FIRST! The purpose of this document is to provide guidance

More information

User Manual for the Mars Calibration Bench

User Manual for the Mars Calibration Bench User Manual for the Mars Calibration Bench Fall 2013 Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents... iii Introduction... v Chapter 1: The Mars Calibration Bench... 1 What Is the Mars Calibration

More information

CDS-2000 CO 2 Sensor Verification, Calibration, and Troubleshooting Bulletin

CDS-2000 CO 2 Sensor Verification, Calibration, and Troubleshooting Bulletin Electronic Control Manual 216 Sensors and Stats Section S Technical Bulletin CDS-2000 Issue Date 0393 CDS-2000 CO 2 Sensor Verification, Calibration, and Troubleshooting Bulletin Introduction 3 Pre-Verification

More information

1 Overview. Pressure Measurement Single-range transmitters for general applications. 1/22 Siemens FI

1 Overview. Pressure Measurement Single-range transmitters for general applications. 1/22 Siemens FI Siemens AG 06 SITRANS LH00 Transmitter for hydrostatic level Overview Function U const. p U I EM The pressure transmitter SITRANS LH00 is a submersible sensor for hydrostatic level measurement. The pressure

More information

Hydronic Systems Balance

Hydronic Systems Balance Hydronic Systems Balance Balancing Is Misunderstood Balancing is application of fundamental hydronic system math Balance Adjustment of friction loss location Adjustment of pump to requirements By definition:

More information

OPERATING MANUAL LO-CROSS-FLOW CF M

OPERATING MANUAL LO-CROSS-FLOW CF M VA FILTRATION USA 110 Dodd Court American Canyon, CA 94503 Tel : (707) 552 2616 Fax :(707) 552 3871 Web : www.vafiltration.com OPERATING MANUAL LO-CROSS-FLOW CF8-2-200M January, 2017 TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

More information

FUNDAMENTALS OF PRESSURE REGULATORS ROBERT BENNETT MANAGER OF TRAINING ELSTER AMERICAN METER

FUNDAMENTALS OF PRESSURE REGULATORS ROBERT BENNETT MANAGER OF TRAINING ELSTER AMERICAN METER FUNDAMENTALS OF PRESSURE REGULATORS ROBERT BENNETT MANAGER OF TRAINING ELSTER AMERICAN METER SUPPLY = DEMAND FUNCTION OF A REGULATOR A regulator may be defined as a "mechanism for controlling or governing

More information

TECHNICAL MANUAL CALIBRATION PROCEDURE FOR PRESSURE GAUGE. This publication replaces T.O. 33K dated 30 January 2012.

TECHNICAL MANUAL CALIBRATION PROCEDURE FOR PRESSURE GAUGE. This publication replaces T.O. 33K dated 30 January 2012. TECHNICAL MANUAL CALIBRATION PROCEDURE FOR GAUGE This publication replaces T.O. 33K6-4-427-1 dated 30 January 2012. Distribution Statement C - Distribution authorized to U. S. Government agencies and their

More information

Third measurement MEASUREMENT OF PRESSURE

Third measurement MEASUREMENT OF PRESSURE 1. Pressure gauges using liquids Third measurement MEASUREMENT OF PRESSURE U tube manometers are the simplest instruments to measure pressure with. In Fig.22 there can be seen three kinds of U tube manometers

More information

Experiment (13): Flow channel

Experiment (13): Flow channel Experiment (13): Flow channel Introduction: An open channel is a duct in which the liquid flows with a free surface exposed to atmospheric pressure. Along the length of the duct, the pressure at the surface

More information

TECHNICAL DATA. Q = C v P S

TECHNICAL DATA. Q = C v P S Page 1 of 13 1. DESCRIPTION The Viking 6 Model G-6000 Dry Valve Riser Assembly consists of a small profile, light weight, pilot operated valve that is used to separate the water supply from the dry sprinkler

More information

BAPI Pressure Line of Products - FAQs

BAPI Pressure Line of Products - FAQs Table of Contents 1. Several manufacturers produce pressure transmitters, why should I purchase from BAPI?... p. 2 2. BAPI makes several styles of pressure transmitters. What are the features of each?...

More information