Colin J. Brauner, Joshua Emerman, Victor Chan, Yuanchang Fang, Matt Gilbert, Kevin Stiller & Jeffrey Richards

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1 UBC InSEAS (Initiative for the Study of Environment and its Aquatic Systems) Optimal Salinity Conditions for Atlantic and Coho salmon growth in RAS Colin J. Brauner, Joshua Emerman, Victor Chan, Yuanchang Fang, Matt Gilbert, Kevin Stiller & Jeffrey Richards Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia

2 Issues to Address in RAS Small profit margins Profitability depends on maimizing growth and/or increasing feed conversion efficiency Optimal conditions for growth of salmon are unknown Temperature, photoperiod, salinity, oygen, ph, ammonia, etc Other issues with Atlantic salmon in RAS Early maturation Development of cataracts

3 InSEAS RAS Research Facility 7 high-density independent recirculation systems (120 kg/m 3 ) Each system has 2 5m 3 tanks and m 3 tanks Automatic feeders on large tanks Environmental control and monitoring systems 5 m m 3 5 m 3

4 InSEAS Regression Approach Adult Coho Performance/Growth Low High Salinity

5 InSEAS Regression Approach Adult Coho Performance/Growth Coho post-smolt Low High Salinity

6 InSEAS Regression Approach Adult Coho Adult Atlantic Performance/Growth Atlantic post-smolt Coho post-smolt Low High Salinity In a single eperiment, we can determine the optimal value for a given parameter in two species across multiple life stages.

7 Effects of Salinity on Salmon Growth Specific Research Goals: Determine optimal salinity for growth and performance of coho salmon and Altantic salmon reared in RAS from smolt to adult. i) Growth ii) Performance: Is there are tradeoff between growth and physiological performance (low O 2, swimming speed, high T) ie Biological Safety Factor? iii) Effect of salinity on early maturation and cataract formation

8 Effects of Salinity on Salmon Growth Salmon in fresh water (0 ppt) Na +, Cl - Na +, Cl - salts Salmon in sea water (30 ppt) Na +, Cl - salts Na +, Cl - Osmoregulation can account for 10-50% of standard metabolic rate (Bœuf & Payan, 2001)

9 Effects of Salinity on Salmon Growth Salmon at intermediate salinity (~10 ppt) Na +, Cl - Na +, Cl - salts

10 Salinity Effects of Salinity on Salmon Growth Salmon at intermediate salinity Na +, Cl - Na +, Cl - salts Cost of osmoregulation Low High

11 Salinity Effects of Salinity on Salmon Growth Salmon at intermediate salinity Na +, Cl - Na +, Cl - salts Cost of osmoregulation Growth Low High

12 Is fish growth affected by system? Coho salmon were reared in FW at 10 C for 5 months 14:10 photoperiod Fed to satiation with automatic feeders A B A B A B A B System 1 System 3 System 4 System 5

13 Is fish growth affected by system? Growth rate is similar in all systems (0.7 %/day) And consistent with industry (0.8%/day) A B A B A B A B System 1 System 3 System 4 System 5

14 Defining Optimal Salinity Coho & Atlantic salmon were reared for months at 5 salinities ranging from FW to SW at 13 C (0, 5, 10, 20, and 30ppt) Stocking density of 40 kg/m 3 Fed to satiation Reared under 24 h light Monitored growth, feed conversion, physiological performance, maturation and cataracts

15 Coho Salmon Growth in 5 m 3 tanks Starting mass = 128±1.4 g Day 59 Day 0

16 Coho Salmon Growth in 5 m 3 tanks Starting mass = 128±1.4 g Day 50 Day 0

17 Coho Salmon Growth in 5 m 3 tanks Specific Growth Rate (%/day) Economic Feed Conversion Ratio Day 50 Day 0 Starting mass = 128±1.4 g

18 Coho Salmon Growth in 5 m 3 tanks Day 150 Starting mass = 128±1.4 g Day 50 Day 0

19 Coho Salmon Growth in 5 m 3 tanks Day Specific Growth Rate (%/day) Day 50 Day 0 Starting mass = 128±1.4 g

20 Coho Salmon Growth in 5 m 3 tanks

21 Coho Salmon Performance Hypoia Tolerance All performance measures (low O 2, swimming speed, high T) are made between day of growth. No difference in time to loss of equilibrium (LOE) during eposure to low O 2.

22 Coho Salmon Performance Swimming Performance Uma 1 Uma BL/s ppt Salinity 10ppt No difference in swimming performance.

23 Summary Coho Salmon in RAS At small sizes, growth is enhanced by up to 50% at 10 ppt compared with other salinities Better feed conversion at intermediate salinities No difference in hypoia tolerance or swimming performance No early maturation (all female strain) or cataracts detected.

24 Atlantic Salmon Growth in 5 m 3 tanks a a a a a Day 99 a a a a a Day 0

25 Atlantic Salmon Growth in 5 m 3 tanks a a a a a Day 100 a a a a a Day 0

26 Atlantic Salmon Growth in 5 m 3 tanks a a a a a Day 100 Specific Growth Rate = 1.3 %/day in all treatments Economic Feed Conversion Ratios = 0.71 to 0.73 a a a a a Day 0

27 Atlantic Salmon Growth in 5 m 3 tanks Day 296 Day 200 Day 100 Day 0

28 Atlantic Salmon Growth in 5 m 3 tanks Day 300 Day 200 Day 100 Day 0

29 Atlantic Salmon Growth in 5 m 3 tanks Day 300 At Day 300: Day 201 Enhanced growth at 10 ppt confirmed in pit tagged fish Day 99 Day 0

30 Atlantic Salmon Growth in 5 m 3 tanks Growth is enhanced at intermediate salinities beyond day 200.

31 Atlantic Salmon Performance Hypoia Tolerance No difference in time to loss of equilibrium (LOE) during low O 2 despite differences in growth rate.

32 Atlantic Salmon Performance Swimming Performance Uma 1 Uma BL/s ppt 10ppt 30ppt Salinity No difference in swimming performance despite differences in growth rate.

33 Atlantic Salmon Performance Upper Thermal Tolerance Cardiac collapse Peak heart rate Cardiac arrhythmia

34 Atlantic Salmon Performance Upper Thermal Tolerance Temperature at arrhythmia ( C) B AB A Salinity (ppt) Heart rate becomes irregular at a lower T in 10 ppt fish indicating lower T tolerance.

35 Atlantic Salmon Performance Upper Thermal Tolerance A AB Peak fh ma (beats per min.) B Salinity (ppt) Maimum heart rate during increasing T is reduced at 10 ppt.

36 Atlantic Salmon Performance Upper Thermal Tolerance A Atrium Mass (% body mass) B AB Salinity (ppt) Fish reared at 10 ppt have a lower heart (atrium) mass.

37 Atlantic Salmon Early Maturation and Cataracts Maturation rate (%) Cataract (%) Salinity (ppt) Salinity (ppt) Maturation is reduced at 5 ppt (when growth is greatly enhanced) and 30 ppt. Cataracts are reduced at 30 ppt.

38 Atlantic Salmon Conclusions Coho & Atlantic Salmon Up to ~600 g, salinity does not appear to affect growth. Above ~600 g, intermediate salinities enhance growth. No effect of salinity on hypoia tolerance or swimming performance. Intermediate salinities (10 ppt) may affect cardiovascular function at high temperature. Thus some evidence of trade-offs between growth and performance. Higher salinity appears to reduce early maturation and cataracts. Maturation may be reduced at 5 ppt.

39 Coho Salmon Conclusions Coho & Atlantic Salmon At a small size (<350 g), intermediate salinities appear to improve growth and feed conversion compared with freshwater and seawater. Effects persist over a year of growth. No effect of salinity on hypoia tolerance or swimming performance. Thus, there is no trade-off between growth and performance. Minimal effects on early maturation (all female strain) and cataracts. The latter differs greatly from Atlantics.

40 Thank you Aquatic Technicians Patrick Tamkee and Neil Fowler Collaborators Additional Researchers Wendy Vandersteen, Tara McBryan and Andrew Thompson BSc Students Gadwyn Gan, Yuchen Li, Bill Chen and Julia Liou Funding and Support

41 Coho Salmon Oygen Consumption Rates

42 Coho Salmon Oygen Consumption Rates

43 Atlantic Salmon Oygen Consumption Rates

44 Atlantic Salmon Oygen Consumption Rates

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