1 1 THE PHYSICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL VALUE OF 5-A-SIDE SOCCER TRAINING TO 11-A-SIDE MATCH PLAY Jason D. Allen 1, Ronald Butterly 2, Michael A. Welsch 1, and Robert Wood 1 1 Department of Kinesiology, Louisiana State University, Baton rouge, LA 70803, USA 2 Leeds Metropolitan University, Beckett Park Campus, Leeds, LS6-3QS, England CORRESPONDENCE: Jason D. Allen Department of Kinesiology Louisiana State University Baton rouge LA USA Fax: (504) SUMMARY The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical and physiological demands of 5-aside and 11-a-side soccer. Four English collegiate players were filmed during actual game play. An observational time-motion analysis technique was developed and five 5-minute game sections were used to determine physical playing components, such as movement intensity, distance traveled, and ball contacts. Telemeted heart rates were collected during game situations and compared to laboratory treadmill values to give a profile of physiological work done. Data generated for the five minute sections for both the 5-a-side and 11-a-side games were analyzed using a two-way Analysis of Variance with repeated measures on both factors. Results indicate that total distances covered were similar for the 5 and 11-a-side game conditions. In contrast, the ratio of high-intensity to low/moderate-intensity work, and the corresponding heart rate values,
2 2 were significantly higher during 5-a-side soccer. Furthermore, there was a significant increase in ball contacts during 5-a-side soccer. These data indicate that 5-a-side soccer results in a higher overall intensity of play and may allow for greater skill development. Thus, 5-a-side soccer is an excellent training method to prepare players for the physical and physiological demands of higher levels of 11-a-side match play. Keywords: soccer, intensity, heart rate, physical, physiological
3 3 INTRODUCTION Soccer is probably the most popular team sport in the world with over 60 million licensed players (Ekblom, 1986). Although the game is normally played with eleven people per team, in some youth soccer competitions and during training, reduced numbers are often employed. The primary requirements of soccer include endurance and speed. Simultaneously there are demands for coordination and mental processing to perform techniques such as, passing and controlling movements in continuously changing tactical situations. These skills are liable to disruption with increasing physiological fatigue (Carroll, 1988). Increased knowledge regarding the physical and physiological requirements of soccer is essential for the development of safe and effective training prescriptions for the general population and may improve the physical conditioning regimen of more elite players. Video recording techniques and analyses of movement patterns (Withers, Maricic, Wasilewski, & Kelly, 1982; Mayhew & Wenger, 1985; Ekblom, 1986), along with measures of telemetered heart rates (HR) (Smodlaka, 1978; Ekblom & Goldbarg, 1981) and lactates (Ekblom & Goldbarg, 1981; Ekblom, 1986; Sharp, 1986) have been used to quantify the physical and physiological demands of 11-a-side soccer. Distances covered during play were found to range between 7,000 and 11,500 meters (m), at work intensities of 70 to 85% of maximal heart rates. Interestingly one study found differences between players of different standards, with the better players achieving higher intensities of movement throughout the game. This suggests, that implementation of a training regimen which employs higher intensities may serve as a greater stimulus to prepare players for higher levels of competition. We hypothesized that 5-a-side soccer results in higher work intensities compared to 11-aside soccer and may provide a real training stimulus for higher levels of 11-a-side play. Thus,
4 4 the purpose of this study was to investigate the physical and physiological demands of 11 and 5- a-side soccer. METHODS Participants Four English collegiate first team soccer players were studied. Informed consent was obtained from all participants. The dimensions of the playing fields used for 11-a-side and 5-aside were 102 by 64 m and 36 by 21 m, respectively. Exercise Capacity Exercise capacity was estimated using a Power-Jog (M-30) treadmill. A continuous protocol with increments of 2 mph at a 5% gradient was used. HR was measured using a Polar Electro-Sports Tester (PE300) every 30 seconds (sec). Metabolic measures were obtained using an open circuit system. The subjects breathed through a Hans-Rudolph Valve down a 1.75 inch delivery tube. A nose clip was used to prevent any nasal ventilation. The exhaled gas passed through a silica gel drying agent followed by a Harvard Digital Dry Gas Meter (506162), then a Servomex Infra-red carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) Gas Analyzer (PA-404), and finally a Servomex oxygen (O 2 ) analyzer (570A). Values for expired O 2 and CO 2 were measured every 30 sec and ventilation every minute (min). The measures were corrected for nitrogen and to standard temperature, pressure, dry using the Carnegie Institute of Washington Tables (1964). Field Tests Each player was video-recorded for a full game (90 min in 11-a-side and 60 min in 5-aside),using a Phillips Explorer, autofocus, CCD, videocamera-recorder (VKR6850). Motion
5 5 analysis was facilitated by utilization of a Panasonic editing controller (AG-A750), video cassette player (AG-7510) and television monitor. Videotapes were analyzed in five 5-min sections in both the 11 and 5-a-side games. The first four sections were taken at random within each respective quarter of each game. The fifth section was taken in the final 5 min of each game. Recordings were analyzed for movement of walking, walking backwards, moving sideways, jogging, jogging backwards, striding (a pace of running in between jogging and sprinting), and sprinting. The number of ball contacts with both the head and feet were also noted, as was the number of jumps occurring. On a separate occasion each of the players were video-taped covering a marked distance of 10 m (with 5 m start) in each of the movement intensities. From this data, the distances covered and times taken per stride could be estimated. The total distances covered during the games were extrapolated from the analysis of the five 5- min sections. Heart rates were measured during each game by means of telemetry. Electrodes were attached to a Hewlett Packard (HP) telemetry transmitter (78100A), positioned on the subjects lower back, in a padded pouch. The HR information was received on a HP telemetry receiver (78101A), linked to a Cranley Cardio-Rater (CR7) Electrocardiogram. HR were recorded every 60 sec in the 11-a-side games and every 30 sec in the 5-a-side games. Statistical Analysis The data generated for the 5-minute sections for both the 11-a-side and the 5-a-side games for movement intensity, total distance covered, ball contacts, number of jumps, and HR were analyzed using a two-way Analysis of Variance with repeated measures on both factors. Data generated for individual subjects for each of the 5-minute sections were compared in a one-
6 6 way Analysis of Variance for the 5-a-side and then the 11-a-side game conditions. Subsequent post-hoc tests were performed as necessary. RESULTS Exercise Capacity Individual and mean values for the cardiorespiratory variables obtained during the exercise test are summarized in table 1. The mean VO 2, Ve, HR, and workload values were ml/kg/min; L/min; beats/min; and 14km/hr at 5% gradient, respectively (table 1). Field Tests The movement data were categorized into high intensity (HI) activity (striding and sprinting) and low to moderate intensity (LMI) activity (walking, walking backwards, moving sideways, jogging, and jogging backwards). There were no significant trends in distances covered or ratio of high to low intensity work performed for any of the participants across the 5- minute observation periods, in the 11 and 5-a-side modalities. The data generated in these measurement periods are therefore assumed to be representative of the whole game. The percentages of time spent and distances covered in HI and LMI activity are shown in tables 2 and 3. The total distances covered were extrapolated from the five sections analyzed to estimate 90-min values. The 11-a-side Game
7 7 The players averaged 6.7% of their playing time in HI activity (see table 2), with a mean distance of 1931m. Approximately 70.95% of the time was spent in LMI activity, with a mean distance of 8299m. An average of 22.4% of the playing time was spent standing still. The HR response for the whole game ranged from 65 to 187 beats per min (bpm), with an average of 120bpm. Approximately 5% of the game time the HR was greater than 165bpm, 54% of the time between 117 and 165bpm, and 44% of the time below 117bpm. This indicated that players exercised an average of 4.5 min above 85% of HRmax (as measured on a maximal graded exercise test), 48.5 min at 60 to 85% HRmax, and 37 minutes below 60% HRmax (see figure 1). The players averaged 82 foot contacts with the ball per game. The 5-a-Side Game The players averaged 9.2% of their playing time in HI activity (see table 3), with a mean distance of 2731m. Approximately 72% of the time was spent in LMI activity, with a mean distance of 9176m. An average of 18.8% of the playing time was spent standing still. The HR response for the whole game ranged from 55 to 179bpm with an average of 139bpm. Approximately 20% of the time the HR was above 165bpm, 55% of the time between bpm, and 25% of the time below 117bpm. This indicated that players exercised an average of 18 min above 85% of HRmax, 49.5min at 60 to 85% HRmax, and 22.5 min below 60% HRmax (see figure 1). The players averaged 366 foot contacts with the ball per game. 11-a-side v. s 5-a-side There was significantly more walking in the 11-a-side game (3528m) than in the 5-a-side game (2990m),(p<0.05). There was significantly more sideways movement in the 5-a-side game (1826m v. s 956m, (p<0.05)). There was significantly more sprinting in the 5-a-side game (812m v. s 469m, p<0.05) and therefore more HI work (2731m v. s 1931m, p<0.05). There were
8 8 significantly more foot contacts with the ball per player in 5-a-side soccer (548 v. s 82, p<0.01). During the 11-a-side game players tended to touch the ball once or twice at a time, whereas in 5- a-side they had upto five or six touches at a time in addition to one-touch play. DISCUSSION The 11-a-side Game Players covered an average of 10230m/game. These values are in agreement with Ekblom (1986), who observed 10400m/game in the most comprehensive study involving over observations, thirteen teams, four countries and several standards of play. Additionally Reilly and Thomas (1976), with 8600m/game and, Withers et al. (1982) with 11500m/game, have similar findings. Interestingly the overall heart rate data in the present study were lower than those reported by Ekblom (1981), and Smodlaka (1987). In this study the majority of time (54%) was spent in the 60-85% HRmax range (see figure 1), whereas the previous works reported an average of approximately 80% of maximal HR. These differences may be due to analysis techniques between the studies. The current study extends previous data by quantifying a range of intensities and their associated time intervals. Differences may have also occurred in the representations of the playing positions across the studies. Our work, although limited by the number of subjects observed, had equal representation from the major playing positions, to give an overall profile of 11-a-side soccer match play. Furthermore, mode, duration, and intensity of activity are essential components of an exercise or training prescription (ACSM, 1995). Thus, the knowledge of distances and percentages of time spent in specific types of activity and the associated HR response provides a quantifiable guideline for training routines.
9 9 The 5-a-side Game The current research is the only one to have investigated distances covered during 5-aside soccer game play. McLaren, Davids, Isokawa, Meller, and Reilly (1988), conducted a study of 4-a-side play, but did not report movement data, the size of the area of play, or the length of playing time involved. They reported a mean work intensity of 82% Vo 2peak, which is slightly higher than the profile in the current data, but may be related to the even lower number of players involved. 11-a-side v. s 5-a-side The results of this study advocate the use of 5-a-side soccer as a training method for the 11-a-side game or as a recreational activity in it s own right. The total distances covered were comparable to full game play, but the increased ratio of HI to LMI work and higher HR responses would suggest a higher overall intensity of play, placing a greater demand on the cardiovascular and skeletal muscle systems of the body. The significantly higher number of contacts with the ball would support a claim for superior practice of ball skills during 5-a-side play. The implications for this study may be best described by Ekblom (1986), in his summary of the physical requirement variations of different standards of soccer game play. In higher levels of competition there are a greater number of tackles and headings plus a greater percentage of the game is performed at maximum speed. The present findings indicate this statement could also be applied to the difference between 5-a-side and 11-a-side play within the same group of players. Thus, 5-a-side soccer is an excellent training method to prepare players for the physical and physiological demands of higher levels of 11-a-side match play.
10 10 In conclusion, 5-a-side soccer involves a greater percentage of HI to LMI work, higher HR responses and more frequent ball contacts, than the 11-a-side game. Therefore this study finds 5-a-side soccer to be an excellent method of training for the physical and physiological demands of 11-a-side match play
11 11 Table 1. Subjects Graded Exercise Test Data Exercise Capacity Average/S D VO 2 (L/min) /0.14 VO 2 (ml/kg/min) /0.66 V E (L) /4.5 HR (bpm) /10.7 RPE Wk Load 14km/hr5% 14km/hr5% 14km/hr5% 14km/hr5%
12 12 Table a-side Soccer Game Play Movement Results 11-a-side Participants Average/SD Total Dst (m) /401 Dst LMI (m) /699 Dst HI (m) /333* % Time Still 6.5% 27.5% 33.8% 12.7% 22.4% % Time LMI 86.5% 67.5% 58.6% 80.3% 70.9% % Time HI 7% 5% 7.6% 7% 6.7%* #Ball Contacts /32** * p<0.05 ** p<0.01
13 13 Table 3. 5-a-side Soccer Game Play Movement Results 5-a-side Participants Average/SD Total Dst (m) /1810 Dst LMI (m) /1373 Dst HI (m) /521* % Time Still 16% 12.5% 29.5% 17.2% 18.8% % Time LMI 75.5% 77.5% 61.9% 73.6% 72% % Time HI 8.5% 10% 8.6% 9.2% 9.2%* #Ball Contacts /133** * p<0.05 ** p<0.01
14 14 REFERENCES American College of Sports Medicine. (1995). ACSM s Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription (5th ed.) Williams and Wilkins,.Philadelphia. Carnegie Institution of Washington. (1964). Tables, factors, and formulas for computing respiratory exchange and biological transformations of energy. Carnegie Instituation of Washington Publication 303C. Washington, D.C. Carroll, S. (1988). The physiological demands and ratings of perceived exertion in college soccer players. Unpublished undergraduate dissertation, Carnegie Department, Leeds Polytechnic, England Ekblom, B., and Goldbarg, A. N. (1981). The influence of training and other factors on the subjective rating of perceived exertion. Acta Physiologica Scandinavia, 83: Ekblom, B. (1986). Applied physiology of soccer. Journal of Sports Medicine, 3: Maclaren, D., Davids, K. M., Isokana, M., Mellor, S., and Reilly, T. (1988). Physiological Strain In 4-A-Side Soccer. Proceedings of the First World Congress of Science and Football.. (April 1987). Liverpool, England. Mayhew, S.R., and Wenger, H. A. (1985).
15 15 Time-motion analysis of professional soccer. Journal Of Human Movement Studies, 11: Reilly, T., and Thomas, V. (1976). A motion analysis of work-rate in different positional roles in professional football matchplay. Journal of Human Movement Studies, 2: Sharp, C. (1986). Fit for 90 minutes. Running Magazine, 7: 52-54, 78. Smodlaka, V. N. (1978). Cardiovascular aspects of soccer. Physician and Sports Medicine, 6: Withers, R. T., Maricic, Z., Wasilewski, S., and Kelly, L. (1982). Match analysis of Australian professional soccer players. Journal of Human Movement Studies, 8:
16 Time a-side 5-a-side <60% HRmax 60-85% HRmax >85% HRmax
17 17 Table 1. Subjects GXT Data Exercise Capacity Average/S D VO 2 (L/min) /0.14 VO 2 (ml/kg/min) /0.66 VE (L) /4.5 HR (bpm) /10.7 RPE Wk Load 14km/hr5% 14km/hr5% 14km/hr5% 14km/hr5% Table a-side Soccer Game Play Movement Results 11-a-side Participants Average/SD Total Dist (m) /401 Dst LMI (m) /699 Dst HI (m) /333* % Time Still 6.5% 27.5% 33.8% 12.7% 22.4% % Time LMI 86.5% 67.5% 58.6% 80.3% 70.9% % Time HI 7% 5% 7.6% 7% 6.7%* #Ball Contacts /32** * p<0.05 ** p<0.01 Table 3. 5-a-side Soccer Game Play Movement Results 5-a-side Participants Average/SD Total Dist (m) /1810 Dst LMI (m) /1373 Dist HI (m) /521* % Time Still 16% 12.5% 29.5% 17.2% 18.8% % Time LMI 75.5% 77.5% 61.9% 73.6% 72% % Time HI 8.5% 10% 8.6% 9.2% 9.2%* #Ball Contacts /133** * p<0.05 ** p<0.01
18 18 TABLE LEGENDS Table 1. Subjects Graded Exercise Test Data Table a-side Soccer Game Play Movement Results Table 3. 5-a-side Soccer Game Play Movement Results FIGURE LEGEND Figure 1. Average Time Spent per 90 min in each of the HRmax Intensities JASON D. ALLEN Figure 1. Average Time Spent per 90 min in each of the HRmax Intensities