# Numerical study on the wrist action during the golf downswing

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

3 Chen et al Wrist action during the golf downswing l 1, Length from shoulder joint to c 1 and from wrist joint to c 2, respectively I Moment of inertia of arm about shoulder joint J Moment of inertia of club about c 2, θ 2 Angle of arm and club, respectively φ Inclination of plane of downswing g Acceleration due to gravity The values of arm and club parameters used in the calculation were those given by Lampsa (1975), as shown in Table 1, together with club data which was considered to be appropriate for a driver. Table 1 Parameter values of swing model m kg m 1 l m I kg m 2 m kg a m 2 l m J kg m 2 φ 60 The equations of motion of the model were derived using the Lagrangian method. The detailed equations in two phases are given as follows. In phase 1: (I + J 2 +m m 2 )θ 1 + ( J 2 )θ 2 (2θ 1 + θ 2 )m 2 sin θ 2 θ 2 + gsin φ[m 2 cos (ϑ 1 ) + (m 1 l 1 )cos ] = G 1 (1) ( J 2 )θ 2 = 0 (2) In phase 2: (I + J m 2 )θ 1 + ( J 2 )θ 2 (2θ 1 + θ 2 )m 2 sin θ 2 θ 2 + g sin φ[m 2 cos (ϑ 1 ) + (m 1 l 1 )cos ] = G 1 (3) ( J 2 )θ 1 + ( J + m 2 2 )θ 2 sin θ θ g sin φm 2 cos (ϑ 1 ) = G 2 (4) Simulation method Two criteria were used in our simulation: the maximum criterion and the impact criterion. First, the criterion of maximum horizontal club head speed at impact (maximum criterion) was used to investigate the effects of different kinds of wrist actions on the golf downswing. The following equation indicates the maximum criterion. (sin θ 1 + cos θ 12 ) a 2 [sin ( )(θ 1 + θ 2 ) + cos ( )(θ 1 + θ 2 )2 ] = 0 (5) Eqn. 5 was obtained by differentiating the equation of the horizontal club head speed, ν h, ν h = sin θ 1 a sin(θ + θ + ) (6) )(θ 1 θ 2 with respect to time, and then equated to zero. The function NDSolve in MATHEMATICA 5.2 was used to drive the simulation model. To obtain the swing motions of the arm and club at impact, including ), θ 2 ), θ 1 (t ), imp θ 2 (t ) by the maximum imp criterion, the root of eqn. 5 at the time of impact, t imp, was solved using the function of FindRoot which makes the left-hand side of eqn. 5 less than 10 6 in magnitude. The impact time t imp was then applied in the function NDSolve to achieve the angles and angular velocities of the arm and club at impact. After obtaining the swing motion of the arm and club at impact, the maximum horizontal club head speed ν m was determined from eqn. 7. ν m = sin [ )]θ 1 ) a 2 sin [ ) )][θ 1 (t ) + imp θ 2 (t )] (7) imp The optimum ball position dx at impact is given by dx = cos [ )] + a 2 cos [ ) )]. (8) The different patterns of wrist action (passive, active and passive active) were studied using the maximum criterion. Six positive constant wrist torques were employed: 5 N m; 10 N m; 15 N m; 20 N m; 25 N m and 30 N m. Here, the maximum wrist torque (30 N m) was given by Neal et al. (1999), who measured this from a low handicap amateur golfer, using inverse dynamics. For the passive wrist action (PW), the arm release angle, r, given by eqn. 9, which denotes when the wrist joint can be opened, was delayed in every degree 2007 isea Sports Engineering (2007) 10,

4 Wrist action during the golf downswing Chen et al. of freedom from the natural release point until the point at which the set negative wrist torque was reached. The absolute value of the regulated negative wrist torque is the same as that of the positive wrist torque but with the opposite sign. r = θ + p1, p1 = 1, 2, p (9) θ is the integer part of n, where n is the arm rotational angle when the natural release point is reached and p is the arm rotational angle when the regulated negative wrist torque is reached. For the active wrist action (AW), the onset and end of the positive wrist torque were determined when the arm rotational angle satisfied eqn. 10 and eqn. 11, respectively. o = θ + p2, p2 = 1, 2, ) 1 (10) t = o + p3, p3 = 1, 2, ) (11) where θ is the integer part of n. o and t are the arm rotational angles when the positive wrist torque is activated and deactivated respectively; ) is the arm rotational angle when impact occurs. For the passive active wrist action (PAW), the negative wrist torque was applied and then followed by a positive wrist torque. The application of the negative wrist torque was the same as that in the PW, in which the negative torque kept the wrist-cock angle constant until the desired arm release angle r was reached. The onset and termination of the positive wrist torque, following the passive wrist action, were given by eqns. 12 and 13, respectively. o1 = r + p4, p4 = 0, 1, ) 1 (12) t1 = ) (13) Where o1 and t1 are the arm rotational angles as the positive wrist torque is activated and deactivated respectively and ) is the arm rotational angle when impact occurs. The natural release wrist action (NW), where no wrist torque is employed after the natural release point, was also studied for the purpose of comparison with the three wrist actions as mentioned above. Concerning the club shaft position at impact, both observations made by Mclean (1999), an acclaimed professional golf instructor, and many swing photographs of professional golfers such as Dai Rees, Nicklaus and Woods, clearly indicate that the shaft is held vertical at impact when viewed face-on. Thus, in the second simulation we adopted the impact criterion (vertical club shaft at impact) to investigate the role of the wrist action. The impact criterion was given by ) ) 270 = 0. (14) The function FindRoot was used to obtain the impact time, t imp, by making the left-hand side of eqn. 14 less than 10 6 in magnitude. Then the club head speed and ball position at impact could be determined using the same method as that in the maximum criterion. We assumed that the simulation process commenced when the golfer had just completed his backswing and was about to begin his downswing. Lampsa (1975) believed that a pause usually occurs at this moment, indicating that the angular velocities of arm and club are zero. Thus the following initial conditions for the downswing were chosen: (0) = 90, θ 1 (0) = 0; θ (0) = 90, (0) = 0. (15) 2 θ 2 It has been noted that there are many different types of torque functions of the shoulder joint that have been applied in previous studies: Jorgensen (1994) and Pickering & Vickers (1999) considered that the shoulder input torque was constant during the downswing; Milne & Davis (1992) used a ramp torque function and Suzuki & Inooka (1999) set the torque function as a trapezoid. In the present study, the input torque of the shoulder joint G 1 was assumed to be constant during the downswing as in Jorgensen (1994) and Pickering & Vickers (1999). The value of G 1 was chosen as 110 N m which makes the swing similar to that of a professional golfer (the horizontal club head speed at impact can reach m s 1 using NW). Results and discussion Fig. 2 shows the maximum horizontal club head speed at impact using three patterns of wrist actions (PW, AW and PAW), plotted against the wrist torque by the maximum criterion. The figure clearly shows that the larger wrist torque gives the largest horizontal club head speed at impact. We also note that the increase in speed can be gained for all kinds of wrist action compared to NW. It is clear that PAW results in a higher club head speed at impact when compared to 26 Sports Engineering (2007) 10, isea

5 Chen et al Wrist action during the golf downswing PW and AW with the same wrist torque. For example, when the wrist torque is 15 N m, PAW gives the highest horizontal club head speed at impact, 50.3 m s 1, which is 6.9% greater than that of NW; while PW and AW result in increases of 1.4% and 5.6%, respectively. The optimum golf ball position at impact given by the maximum criterion is shown in Fig. 3. The ball position is defined for a right-handed golfer with horizontal displacement BC, as shown in Fig. 4. As we can see from Fig. 3, the optimum ball position is determined by the various types of wrist action and wrist torque. Figs. 2 3 show that for PW, an increase in the horizontal club head speed is achieved when the ball is far away from the centre of the golfer s stance (large ball position). This result is consistent with the conclusion of Pickering & Vickers (1999). It is known that the large ball position needs a relatively large arm release angle (the so-called late hit ) to achieve maximum club head speed when the passive wrist action is used (Pickering & Vickers, 1999). Fig. 5 shows that a large arm release angle requires a high wrist torque which even exceeds the limit of 30 N m (Neal et al., 1999). It therefore appears impractical for golfers using passive wrist action to obtain an improvement in horizontal club head speed when the ball position is too large, since it is not possible for humans to provide such a large wrist torque, which would be required to achieve the desired arm release Figure 2 Maximal horizontal club head speed at impact by maximum criterion. Figure 4 Golf ball position for a right-handed golfer when viewed overhead. Point C is the ball position and line AA goes through the centre of stance. Figure 3 Optimum golf ball position by maximum criterion. Figure 5 Required wrist torque when the arm release is delayed (the so-called late hit ) isea Sports Engineering (2007) 10,

7 Chen et al Wrist action during the golf downswing Figure 8 Optimum ball position by impact and maximum criteria (a) AW; (b) PAW. A set of comparisons in work and kinetic energy were undertaken among NW, PW, AW and PAW, using 5 N m wrist torque. It should be noted that other wrist torques give rise to different comparative results, but the qualitative manner in which the wrist action affects the club head speed is not altered. Table 2 shows the work and kinetic energy of the arm and club head at impact given by the maximum criterion. It can be seen that the total work for PW, AW and PAW are all increased compared to that for NW. For PW, the higher total work obviously results from the increase of work produced by the shoulder joint because the negative wrist torque maintains a constant wrist-cock angle and thus offers zero work. For AW and PAW, the sum of work exerted by the shoulder and wrist joints gives an increase in total work, although the work done by the shoulder joint is smaller than that for NW. The work done due to the gravitational force is almost the same, even though various patterns of wrist actions are employed. Table 2 also shows that the ratio of the club head kinetic energy to total work is enhanced for PW, AW and PAW. This means that the efficiency of the swing is improved, especially for AW and PAW where the positive wrist torque is used. Through analysing the energy transfer from the input joints of the shoulder and wrist to the club head, we find that two factors determine the club head speed at impact: (1) the work produced by the golfer; and (2) the energy transfer ratio (the ratio of club head kinetic energy to total work). It is evident that the larger the two factors, the faster the club head speed is at impact. For the wrist action using the positive torque (AW and PAW), both factors are enhanced as compared with those for NW, and thus an improvement of club head speed at impact can be achieved. Table 3 shows comparisons of the work and kinetic energy for the two criteria. It can be observed that there is only a small difference in kinetic energy, meaning that the energy flowing into the swing system and the energy distribution at impact are almost the same for the two criteria. Thus the club head speeds at impact are very similar for the two criteria. Table 2 Work and kinetic energy at impact (J). Work and energy NW PW with 15 N m AW with 15 N m PAW with 15 N m Total work %total %total %total %total Work by shoulder joint (89.5) (89.6) (85.3) (85.6) Work by wrist joint 0 (0) 0 (0) 18.2 (4.2) 18.2 (4.1) Work by gravity 45.5 (10.5) 45.5 (10.4) 46.3 (10.5) 45.9 (10.3) Kinetic energy of arm (33.1) (32.1) (27.1) (26.2) Kinetic energy of club head (52.7) (53.4) (57.8) (58.6) 2007 isea Sports Engineering (2007) 10,

9 Chen et al Wrist action during the golf downswing m s 1 and the maximum difference in ball position is only 4 mm. For PW, the maximum difference in speed and ball position are m s 1 and 6 mm, respectively. For AW and PAW, relatively large differences are exhibited but cannot influence the effectiveness of the impact criterion because the maximum difference in club head speed ( m s 1 ) is no more than 0.057% as compared to that of the maximum criterion. The same procedures were repeated when the initial angles of the arm and club were changed by 10% respectively [ (0) = 99 or θ 2 (0) = 99 ]. Similar results are observed: the maximum changes in club head speed and ball position are no more than m s 1 (2.5% compared to the original) and 35 mm, respectively; the maximum difference in club head speed between the two criteria is only m s 1. We should also note that the simulation results, including maximum club head speed and optimum ball position, depend on what is fed into the downswing model. So far, the simulation has been mainly concerned with a constant torque pattern. Different torque patterns were also carried out. For example, the shoulder torque was applied as a ramp function with a rise time of 110 ms and a maximum magnitude of 110 N m and the positive wrist torque was increased linearly in time from zero with a constant slope of 93.7 N m s 1 (the maximum wrist torque was 15 N m). The results are very similar to those of the constant torque pattern: the impact criterion still works well in determining the optimum ball position for various types of wrist action (the maximum difference in club head speed between the two criteria is only m s 1 ); PAW gives the highest club head speed compared to NW, PW and AW; the positive wrist torque enhances both factors in determining the club head speed. Conclusions Our simulations show that a properly timed wrist action with either passive, active or passive active torques, with consideration of the golf ball position, all provide an improvement of horizontal club head speed at impact. The passive active wrist action gives the maximum club head speed at impact. Golfers who turn wrists freely or use a negative wrist torque (the socalled late hit ) can achieve the optimum ball position by the impact criterion, where the club shaft is vertical at impact when viewed face-on. Golfers who apply negative or negative positive wrist torque can nearly achieve the optimum ball position by considering the impact criterion as a reference. The application of a positive wrist torque can increase two factors that facilitate the club head speed: (1) the work produced by the golfer; and (2) the energy transfer ratio. References Cochran, A. & Stobbs, J. (1999) Search for the perfect swing. Triumph Books, Chicago. Jorgensen, T. (1970) On the dynamics of the swing of a golf club. American Journal of Physics, 38, Jorgensen, T. (1994) The physics of golf. AIP Press. Springer- Verlag, New York. Lampsa, M.A. (1975) Maximising the distance of the golf drive: an optimal control study. Journal of Dynamic System, Measurement & Control, 4, Milne, R.D. and Davis, J.P. (1992) The role of the shaft in the golf swing. Journal of Biomechanics, 9, McLean, J. (1999) Will Sergio s swing hold up? Golf Digest, November, Neal, R., Burko, D., Sprigings, E. & Landeo, R. (1999) Segment interactions during the golf swing: 3 segments in 3D. In Herzog and Nigg (Eds.), Proceedings of the 17th Congress of ISB (pp. 690). Calgary: University of Calgary Press. Pickering, W. M. & Vickers, G. T. (1999) On the double pendulum model of the golf swing. Sports Engineering, 2, Sprigings, E. & Mackenzie, S. (2002) Examining the delayed release in the golf swing using computer simulation. Sports Engineering, 5, Sprigings, E. & Neal, R. (2000) An insight into the importance of wrist torque in driving the golfball: a simulation study. Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 16, Suzuki, S & Inooka, H. (1999) A new golf-swing robot model emulating golfer s skill. Sports Engineering, 2, Williams, D. (1967) The dynamics of the golf swing. Quarterly Journal of Mechanics & Applied Mathematics, 20, isea Sports Engineering (2007) 10,

### An Insight Into the Importance of Wrist Torque in Driving the Golfball: A Simulation Study

JOURNAL OF APPLIED BIOMECHANICS, 2000, 16, 356-366 2000 by Human Kinetics Publishers, Inc. An Insight Into the Importance of Wrist Torque in Driving the Golfball: A Simulation Study Eric J. Sprigings and

### Kinematic Differences between Set- and Jump-Shot Motions in Basketball

Proceedings Kinematic Differences between Set- and Jump-Shot Motions in Basketball Hiroki Okubo 1, * and Mont Hubbard 2 1 Department of Advanced Robotics, Chiba Institute of Technology, 2-17-1 Tsudanuma,

### How does shaft flexibility affect the delivery of the clubhead to the ball?

Issue (3) Summer 2011 ISSN 2161-3044 Research How does shaft flexibility affect the delivery of the clubhead to the ball? By Sasho James MacKenzie Sun, Jun 05, 2011 Introduction This paper summarizes my

### A three-dimensional examination of the planar nature of the golf swing

Journal of Sports Sciences, March 2005; 23(3): 227 234 A three-dimensional examination of the planar nature of the golf swing SIMON G. S. COLEMAN & ANDREW J. RANKIN PESLS Department, University of Edinburgh,

### Available online at ScienceDirect. Procedia Engineering 112 (2015 )

Available online at www.sciencedirect.com ciencedirect Procedia ngineering 112 (2015 ) 443 448 7th Asia-Pacific Congress on ports Technology, APCT 2015 Kinematics of arm joint motions in basketball shooting

### ScienceDirect. Rebounding strategies in basketball

Available online at www.sciencedirect.com ScienceDirect Procedia Engineering 72 ( 2014 ) 823 828 The 2014 conference of the International Sports Engineering Association Rebounding strategies in basketball

### A THREE DIMENSIONAL KINEMATIC AND KINETIC STUDY

Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2005) 4, 499-519 http://www.jssm.org Research article A THREE DIMENSIONAL KINEMATIC AND KINETIC STUDY OF THE GOLF SWING Steven M. Nesbit Department of Mechanical

### Golf Club Deflection Characteristics as a Function of the Swing Hub Path

The Open Sports Sciences Journal, 2010, 3, 155-164 155 Open Access Golf Club Deflection Characteristics as a Function of the Swing Hub Path Ryan S. McGinnis and Steven Nesbit * Department of Mechanical

### The validity of a rigid body model of a cricket ball-bat impact

Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Procedia Engineering 34 (2012 ) 682 687 9 th Conference of the International Sports Engineering Association (ISEA) The validity of a rigid body model of a cricket

### INTERACTION OF STEP LENGTH AND STEP RATE DURING SPRINT RUNNING

INTERACTION OF STEP LENGTH AND STEP RATE DURING SPRINT RUNNING Joseph P. Hunter 1, Robert N. Marshall 1,, and Peter J. McNair 3 1 Department of Sport and Exercise Science, The University of Auckland, Auckland,

### Biomechanics Sample Problems

Biomechanics Sample Problems Forces 1) A 90 kg ice hockey player collides head on with an 80 kg ice hockey player. If the first person exerts a force of 450 N on the second player, how much force does

### Available online at Prediction of energy efficient pedal forces in cycling using musculoskeletal simulation models

Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Engineering 2 00 (2010) (2009) 3211 3215 000 000 Engineering www.elsevier.com/locate/procedia 8 th Conference of the International Sports Engineering Association

### ZMP Trajectory Generation for Reduced Trunk Motions of Biped Robots

ZMP Trajectory Generation for Reduced Trunk Motions of Biped Robots Jong H. Park School of Mechanical Engineering Hanyang University Seoul, 33-79, Korea email:jong.park@ieee.org Yong K. Rhee School of

### A three-dimensional forward dynamics model of the golf swing

Sports Eng (2009) 11:165 175 DOI 10.1007/s12283-009-0020-9 ORIGINAL ARTICLE A three-dimensional forward dynamics model of the golf swing Sasho James MacKenzie Æ Eric J. Sprigings Published online: 2 July

Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Procedia Engineering 3 () 94 99 5 th Asia-Pacific Congress on Sports Technology (APCST) Basketball free-throw rebound motions Hiroki Okubo a*, Mont Hubbard b a

### The Effect of Driver Mass and Shaft Length on Initial Golf Ball Launch Conditions: A Designed Experimental Study

Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Procedia Engineering 34 (2012 ) 379 384 9 th Conference of the International Sports Engineering Association (ISEA) The Effect of Driver Mass and Shaft Length on

### Analysis of Swing Movement in Ballroom Dancing

Proceedings Analysis of Swing Movement in Ballroom Dancing Tadashi Shioya 3-0-6-504 Sugamo, Toshima-ku, Tokyo 170-000, Japan; tshioyal@gakushikai.jp; Tel.: +81-3-3949-7340 Presented at the 1th Conference

### A Three-dimensional Forward Dynamic Model of the Golf Swing

A Three-dimensional Forward Dynamic Model of the Golf Swing by Daniel Johnson A thesis presented to the University of Waterloo in fulfillment of the thesis requirement for the degree of Master of Applied

### INCLINOMETER DEVICE FOR SHIP STABILITY EVALUATION

Proceedings of COBEM 2009 Copyright 2009 by ABCM 20th International Congress of Mechanical Engineering November 15-20, 2009, Gramado, RS, Brazil INCLINOMETER DEVICE FOR SHIP STABILITY EVALUATION Helena

### Dynamics of the Golf Club-Grip Interaction

Proceedings Dynamics of the Golf Club-Grip Interaction Colin Brown* and John McPhee Systems Design Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave. W, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada; mcphee@uwaterloo.ca

### Motion Control of a Bipedal Walking Robot

Motion Control of a Bipedal Walking Robot Lai Wei Ying, Tang Howe Hing, Mohamed bin Hussein Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor, Malaysia. Wylai2@live.my

### Biomechanics Every Golf Instructor Should Know

Biomechanics Every Golf Instructor Should Know Dr. Phil Cheetham Senior Sport Technologist and Biomechanist United States Olympic Committee Olympic Training Center Chula Vista, CA LPGA Summit 2015 Australian

### OPTIMAL TRAJECTORY GENERATION OF COMPASS-GAIT BIPED BASED ON PASSIVE DYNAMIC WALKING

OPTIMAL TRAJECTORY GENERATION OF COMPASS-GAIT BIPED BASED ON PASSIVE DYNAMIC WALKING Minseung Kim Dept. of Computer Science Illinois Institute of Technology 3201 S. State St. Box 2082 Chicago IL 60616

### MOVEMENT QUALITY OF MARTIAL ART OUTSIDE KICKS. Manfred Vieten and Hartmut Riehle University of Konstanz, Konstanz, Germany

856 ISBS 2005 / Beijing, China MOVEMENT QUALITY OF MARTIAL ART OUTSIDE KICKS Manfred Vieten and Hartmut Riehle University of Konstanz, Konstanz, Germany KEY WORDS: martial arts, simulation, muscle energy,

### A Biomechanical Approach to Javelin. Blake Vajgrt. Concordia University. December 5 th, 2012

A Biomechanical Approach to Javelin Blake Vajgrt Concordia University December 5 th, 2012 The Biomechanical Approach to Javelin 2 The Biomechanical Approach to Javelin Javelin is one of the four throwing

### Agood tennis player knows instinctively how hard to hit a ball and at what angle to get the ball over the. Ball Trajectories

42 Ball Trajectories Factors Influencing the Flight of the Ball Nathalie Tauziat, France By Rod Cross Introduction Agood tennis player knows instinctively how hard to hit a ball and at what angle to get

### The stroke has only a minor influence on direction consistency in golf putting among elite players

Journal of Sports Sciences, February 1st 2008; 26(3): 243 250 The stroke has only a minor influence on direction consistency in golf putting among elite players JON KARLSEN 1, GERALD SMITH 1, & JOHNNY

### The Physics of Lateral Stability 1

The Physics of Lateral Stability 1 This analysis focuses on the basic physics of lateral stability. We ask Will a boat heeled over return to the vertical? If so, how long will it take? And what is the

### by Michael Young Human Performance Consulting

by Michael Young Human Performance Consulting The high performance division of USATF commissioned research to determine what variables were most critical to success in the shot put The objective of the

### Available online at ScienceDirect. The 2014 Conference of the International Sports Engineering Association

Available online at www.sciencedirect.com ScienceDirect Procedia Engineering 72 ( 2014 ) 435 440 The 2014 Conference of the International Sports Engineering Association Accuracy performance parameters

### 15/02/2013. Sports Biomechanics for Cricket Coaches. Context Overall Aim OVERVIEW. AIMS / Learning Outcomes

Sports Biomechanics for Cricket Coaches Level 4: Sports Biomechanics English & Wales Cricket Board Context Overall Aim The course structure and content will reflect the applied application of Sport Biomechanics,

### by John Bertges PGA Professional / PGTA Master Professional

by John Bertges PGA Professional / PGTA Master Professional His name may be overused in golf circles today, but Tiger Woods has taught us a lot in reference to the Modern Golf Swing. Many of his accomplishments

### An Investigation into the Capsizing Accident of a Pusher Tug Boat

An Investigation into the Capsizing Accident of a Pusher Tug Boat Harukuni Taguchi, National Maritime Research Institute (NMRI) taguchi@nmri.go.jp Tomihiro Haraguchi, National Maritime Research Institute

### The Influence of Face Angle and Club Path on the Resultant Launch Angle of a Golf Ball

Proceedings The Influence of Face Angle and Club Path on the Resultant Launch Angle of a Golf Ball Paul Wood *, Erik Henrikson * and Chris Broadie * Engineering Department, PING, Inc., Phoenix, AZ 85029,

### UNIVERSITY OF CALGARY SPEED GENERATION IN THE GOLF SWING: AN ANALYSIS OF ANGULAR KINEMATICS, KINETIC ENERGY AND ANGULAR MOMENTUM IN PLAYER

UNIVERSITY OF CALGARY SPEED GENERATION IN THE GOLF SWING: AN ANALYSIS OF ANGULAR KINEMATICS, KINETIC ENERGY AND ANGULAR MOMENTUM IN PLAYER BODY SEGMENTS by Brady C. Anderson A THESIS SUBMITTED TO THE FACULTY

### Available online at ScienceDirect. Procedia Engineering 112 (2015 )

Available online at www.sciencedirect.com ScienceDirect Procedia Engineering 112 (2015 ) 517 521 7th Asia-Pacific Congress on Sports Technology, APCST 2015 Improvement of crawl stroke for the swimming

### PROPER PITCHING MECHANICS

PROPER PITCHING MECHANICS While each pitcher is a different person and can display some individuality in his mechanics, everyone has similar anatomy (the same muscles, bones and ligaments in the same locations)

### Current issues regarding induced acceleration analysis of walking using the integration method to decompose the GRF

Current issues regarding induced acceleration analysis of walking using the integration method to decompose the GRF George Chen May 17, 2002 Stanford Neuromuscular Biomechanics Lab Group Muscle contribution

### QUESTION 1. Sketch graphs (on the axes below) to show: (1) the horizontal speed v x of the ball versus time, for the duration of its flight;

QUESTION 1 A ball is thrown horizontally from a cliff with a speed of 10 ms -1 shown in the diagram at right. Neglecting the effect of air resistance and taking gravitational acceleration to be g +9.8ms

### Georgian University GEOMEDI. Abstract. In this article we perform theoretical analysis of long jumps with the purpose to find

On the t Influence of Air Resistance and Wind during Long Jump Egoyan A. E. ( alex1cen@yahoo.com ), Khipashvili I. A. Georgian University GEOMEDI Abstract. In this article we perform theoretical analysis

### Chapter 11 Waves. Waves transport energy without transporting matter. The intensity is the average power per unit area. It is measured in W/m 2.

Chapter 11 Waves Energy can be transported by particles or waves A wave is characterized as some sort of disturbance that travels away from a source. The key difference between particles and waves is a

### Construction of a Finite Element Model of Golf Clubs and Influence of Shaft Stiffness on Its Dynamic Behavior

Proceedings onstruction of a Finite Element Model of Golf lubs and Influence of Shaft Stiffness on Its Dynamic ehavior Katsumasa Tanaka 1, * and Kazuhiro Sekizawa 2 1 Department of Mechanical Engineering,

### The effect of elbow hyperextension on ball speed in cricket fast bowling

Loughborough University Institutional Repository The effect of elbow hyperextension on ball speed in cricket fast bowling This item was submitted to Loughborough University's Institutional Repository by

### Analysis of stroke technique using acceleration sensor IC in freestyle swimming

Analysis of stroke technique using acceleration sensor IC in freestyle swimming Y. Ohgi, M. Yasumura Faculty of Environmental Information, Keio Univ., Japan H. Ichikawa Doctoral Prog. of Health and Sport

### Faster and Smoother Walking of Humanoid HRP-2 with Passive Toe Joints *

Faster and Smoother Walking of Humanoid HRP-2 with Passive Toe Joints * Ramzi Sellaouti *1, Olivier Stasse *2, Shuuji Kajita *3, Kazuhito Yokoi *1 and Abderrahmane Kheddar *2 *1 JRL, AIST *2 JRL, CNRS

### Two dimensional kinematics. Projectile Motion

Two dimensional kinematics Projectile Motion 1. You throw a ball straight upwards with a velocity of 40m/s. How long before it returns to your hand? A. 2s B. 4s C. 6s D. 8s E. 10s 1.You throw a ball straight

### Research on Goods and the Ship Interaction Based on ADAMS

Research on Goods and the Ship Interaction Based on ADAMS Fangzhen Song, Yanshi He and Haining Liu School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan, 250022, China Abstract. The equivalent method

### Ch06 Work and Energy.notebook November 10, 2017

Work and Energy 1 Work and Energy Force = push or pull Work = force*distance (//) Technically: Work = force*distance*cos θ 2 Sample 1: How much work is done lifting a 5 N weight 3m vertically? 3 Work is

### The Influence of Clubhead Mass on Clubhead and Golf Ball Kinematics

International Journal of Golf Sciences, 015, 4, 136-146 http://dx.doi.org/10.113/ijgs.015-0011 015 Human Kinetics, Inc. ARTICLE The Influence of Clubhead Mass on Clubhead and Golf Ball Kinematics Sasho

### 1. A tendency to roll or heel when turning (a known and typically constant disturbance) 2. Motion induced by surface waves of certain frequencies.

Department of Mechanical Engineering Massachusetts Institute of Technology 2.14 Analysis and Design of Feedback Control Systems Fall 2004 October 21, 2004 Case Study on Ship Roll Control Problem Statement:

### A MODIFIED DYNAMIC MODEL OF THE HUMAN LOWER LIMB DURING COMPLETE GAIT CYCLE

Int. J. Mech. Eng. & Rob. Res. 2013 S M Nacy et al., 2013 Research Paper ISSN 2278 0149 www.ijmerr.com Vol. 2, No. 2, April 2013 2013 IJMERR. All Rights Reserved A MODIFIED DYNAMI MODEL OF THE HUMAN LOWER

### Finding the optimal trajectory for your driver

Finding the optimal trajectory for your driver One of the more discussed topics involving Clubfitting is about what launch angle is best for any given golfer. With the increased awareness in golf periodicals

### Available online at ScienceDirect. Procedia Computer Science 76 (2015 )

Available online at www.sciencedirect.com ScienceDirect Procedia Computer Science 76 (2015 ) 257 263 2015 IEEE International Symposium on Robotics and Intelligent Sensors (IRIS 2015) Walking-Assisted Gait

### THE USE OF ENERGY BUILD UP TO IDENTIFY THE MOST CRITICAL HEELING AXIS DIRECTION FOR STABILITY CALCULATIONS FOR FLOATING OFFSHORE STRUCTURES

10 th International Conference 65 THE USE OF ENERGY BUILD UP TO IDENTIFY THE MOST CRITICAL HEELING AXIS DIRECTION FOR STABILITY CALCULATIONS FOR FLOATING OFFSHORE STRUCTURES Joost van Santen, GustoMSC,

### Forces that govern a baseball s flight path

Forces that govern a baseball s flight path Andrew W. Nowicki Physics Department, The College of Wooster, Wooster, Ohio 44691 April 21, 1999 The three major forces that affect the baseball while in flight

### Dynamic Component of Ship s Heeling Moment due to Sloshing vs. IMO IS-Code Recommendations

International Journal on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation Volume 4 Number 3 September 2010 Dynamic Component of Ship s Heeling Moment due to Sloshing vs. IMO IS-Code Recommendations P.

### Advanced Hydraulics Prof. Dr. Suresh A. Kartha Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati

Advanced Hydraulics Prof. Dr. Suresh A. Kartha Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati Module - 4 Hydraulics Jumps Lecture - 4 Features of Hydraulic Jumps (Refer Slide

### and its weight (in newtons) when located on a planet with an acceleration of gravity equal to 4.0 ft/s 2.

1.26. A certain object weighs 300 N at the earth's surface. Determine the mass of the object (in kilograms) and its weight (in newtons) when located on a planet with an acceleration of gravity equal to

### Routledge International Handbook of Golf Science

This article was downloaded by: 10.3.98.166 On: 21 Dec 2017 Access details: subscription number Publisher:Routledge Informa Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954 Registered office:

### ITF Coaches Education Programme Biomechanics of the forehand stroke

ITF Coaches Education Programme Biomechanics of the forehand stroke Original article: Bahamonde, R. (2001). ITF CSSR, 24, 6-8 Introduction The tennis forehand stroke has changed drastically over the last

### Biomechanics of Parkour: The Vertical Wall-Run Technique

University of Colorado, Boulder CU Scholar Undergraduate Honors Theses Honors Program Spring 2015 Biomechanics of Parkour: The Vertical Wall-Run Technique Integrative Physiology, Peter.Lawson@Colorado.EDU

### Structure (Down plane)

By Lauren Russell Structure (Down plane) The body (toes, knees, hips, wrists and shoulders) is aligned parallel to the intended target line. The torso is tilted over the ball from the hips whilst maintaining

### SPORTS BIOMECHANICS FOR CRICKET COACHES

SPORTS BIOMECHANICS FOR CRICKET COACHES Level 4: Sports Biomechanics English & Wales Cricket Board February 2013 Dr Paul Hurrion: ECB Level 4 - Sports Biomechanics OVERVIEW * SPORTS SCIE CE * SPORTS MEDICI

### 3D CDF MODELING OF SHIP S HEELING MOMENT DUE TO LIQUID SLOSHING IN TANKS A CASE STUDY

Journal of KONES Powertrain and Transport, Vol. 17, No. 4 21 3D CDF ODELING OF SHIP S HEELING OENT DUE TO LIQUID SLOSHING IN TANKS A CASE STUDY Przemysaw Krata, Jacek Jachowski Gdynia aritime University,

### A look at Loft. Natural Loft. The loft of the club as designed by the manufacturer.

F L I G H T S C O P E N E W S L E T T E R A look at Loft Welcome to a new era in golf shot analysis! Modern technology and 3D doppler radar has allowed a new description of ball flight behavior. Michael

### Activity P07: Acceleration of a Cart (Acceleration Sensor, Motion Sensor)

Activity P07: Acceleration of a Cart (Acceleration Sensor, Motion Sensor) Equipment Needed Qty Equipment Needed Qty Acceleration Sensor (CI-6558) 1 Dynamics Cart (inc. w/ Track) 1 Motion Sensor (CI-6742)

### Comparative Stability Analysis of a Frigate According to the Different Navy Rules in Waves

Comparative Stability Analysis of a Frigate According to the Different Navy Rules in Waves ABSTRACT Emre Kahramano lu, Technical University, emrek@yildiz.edu.tr Hüseyin Y lmaz,, hyilmaz@yildiz.edu.tr Burak

### Available online at ScienceDirect. Brendan Kays a, Lloyd Smith a *

Available online at www.sciencedirect.com ScienceDirect Procedia Engineering 72 ( 2014 ) 563 568 The 2014 conference of the International Sports Engineering Association Field Measurements of Ice Hockey

### BODY FORM INFLUENCES ON THE DRAG EXPERIENCED BY JUNIOR SWIMMERS. Australia, Perth, Australia

1 BODY FORM INFLUENCES ON THE DRAG EXPERIENCED BY JUNIOR SWIMMERS Andrew Lyttle 1, Nat Benjanuvatra 2, Brian A Blanksby 2, Bruce C Elliott 2 1 Western Australian Institute of Sport, Perth, Australia 2

### How to Swing a Driver

How to Swing a Driver Instruction set for beginning golfers By Mike Buzzell Pictured: John Daly, also known as Long John, was the first PGA Tour player to average 300 yards per drive. He won two Major

### Mathematical model to crouch start in athletics

Mathematical model to crouch start in athletics 1 Amr Soliman Mohamed, 1 Lecture in Department of kinesiology faculty of physical education - Minia University, Egypt 1. Introduction Science is the cause

### The Effects of the Deflection Point and Shaft Mass on Swing and Launch Parameters in the Golf Swing

Edith Cowan University Research Online ECU Publications 202 202 The Effects of the Deflection Point and Shaft Mass on Swing and Launch Parameters in the Golf Swing Christopher Joyce Edith Cowan University

### A Novel Gear-shifting Strategy Used on Smart Bicycles

2012 International Conference on Industrial and Intelligent Information (ICIII 2012) IPCSIT vol.31 (2012) (2012) IACSIT Press, Singapore A Novel Gear-shifting Strategy Used on Smart Bicycles Tsung-Yin

### Controlling Velocity In Bipedal Walking: A Dynamic Programming Approach

Controlling Velocity In Bipedal Walking: A Dynamic Programming Approach Thijs Mandersloot and Martijn Wisse Delft University of Technology Delft, Netherlands thijs.mandersloot@gmail.com, m.wisse@tudelft.nl

### THE IMPULSE-STEP IN THE JAVELIN THROW

THE IMPULSE-STEP IN THE JAVELIN THROW Terseus Liebenberg North-West University Potchefstroom South Africa The most important biomechanical principle ultimately determining throwing distance is the release

### Sprinting: A Biomechanical Approach By Tom Tellez

Sprinting: A Biomechanical Approach By Tom Tellez World class male sprinters stride approximately forty-three times for a 100 meter race. If a mechanical error costs one-one thousandth of a second per

### Effect of channel slope on flow characteristics of undular hydraulic jumps

River Basin Management III 33 Effect of channel slope on flow characteristics of undular hydraulic jumps H. Gotoh, Y. Yasuda & I. Ohtsu Department of Civil Engineering, College of Science and Technology,

### Optimizing the shape and speed performance of the boats

Optimizing the shape and speed performance of the boats A report submitted to Modelling Week and Study Group Meeting on Industrial Problems-2013 by AWL Pubudu Thilan 1, Baikuntha Nath Sahu 2, Darshan Lal

### Walking Control Algorithm of Biped Humanoid Robot on Uneven and Inclined Floor

J Intell Robot Syst (27) 48:457 484 DOI 1.17/s1846-6-917-8 Walking Control Algorithm of Biped Humanoid Robot on Uneven and Inclined Floor Jung-Yup Kim & Ill-Woo Park & Jun-Ho Oh Received: 31 July 26 /

### S0300-A6-MAN-010 CHAPTER 2 STABILITY

CHAPTER 2 STABILITY 2-1 INTRODUCTION This chapter discusses the stability of intact ships and how basic stability calculations are made. Definitions of the state of equilibrium and the quality of stability

### STABILITY OF MULTIHULLS Author: Jean Sans

STABILITY OF MULTIHULLS Author: Jean Sans (Translation of a paper dated 10/05/2006 by Simon Forbes) Introduction: The capsize of Multihulls requires a more exhaustive analysis than monohulls, even those

### Chapter 3 PRESSURE AND FLUID STATICS

Fluid Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications, 2nd Edition Yunus A. Cengel, John M. Cimbala McGraw-Hill, 2010 Chapter 3 PRESSURE AND FLUID STATICS Lecture slides by Hasan Hacışevki Copyright The McGraw-Hill

### QUALITYGOLFSTATS, LLC. Golf s Modern Ball Flight Laws

QUALITYGOLFSTATS, LLC Golf s Modern Ball Flight Laws Todd M. Kos 5/29/2017 /2017 This document reviews the current ball flight laws of golf and discusses an updated and modern version derived from new

### Available online at ScienceDirect. Procedia Engineering 112 (2015 )

Available online at www.sciencedirect.com ScienceDirect Procedia Engineering 112 (2015 ) 540 545 7th Asia-Pacific Congress on Sports Technology, APCST 2015 Movement variability of professional pool billiards

### THE EFFECT OF COUPLED HEAVE/HEAVE VELOCITY OR SWAY/SWAY VELOCITY INITIAL CONDITIONS ON CAPSIZE MODELING

8 th International Conference on 521 THE EFFECT OF COUPLED HEAVE/HEAVE VELOCITY OR SWAY/SWAY VELOCITY INITIAL CONDITIONS ON CAPSIZE MODELING Leigh S. McCue and Armin W. Troesch Department of Naval Architecture

### Kinetics of the knife-hand strike used in power breaking in ITF Taekwon-do

Physical Activity Review vol. 3, 2015 Original Articles DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.16926/par.2015.01.05 Kinetics of the knife-hand strike used in power breaking in ITF Taekwon-do Authors' Contribution:

### The Quasigeostrophic Assumption and the Inertial-Advective Wind

The Quasigeostrophic Assumption and the Inertial-Aective Wind The full equation of horizontal motion relates the changes in the horizontal wind vector d V h to pressure gradient and Coriolis accelerations

### Figure 1 Schematic of opposing air bearing concept

Theoretical Analysis of Opposing Air Bearing Concept This concept utilizes air bearings to constrain five degrees of freedom of the optic as shown in the figure below. Three pairs of inherently compensated

### Journal of Aeronautics & Aerospace

Journal of Aeronautics & Aerospace Engineering Journal of Aeronautics & Aerospace Engineering Landell-Mills, J Aeronaut Aerospace Eng 2017, 6:2 DOI: 10.4172/2168-9792.1000189 Research Article Open Access

### APPLICATION OF PUSHOVER ANALYSIS ON EARTHQUAKE RESPONSE PREDICATION OF COMPLEX LARGE-SPAN STEEL STRUCTURES

APPLICATION OF PUSHOVER ANALYSIS ON EARTHQUAKE RESPONSE PREDICATION OF COMPLEX LARGE-SPAN STEEL STRUCTURES J.R. Qian 1 W.J. Zhang 2 and X.D. Ji 3 1 Professor, 3 Postgraduate Student, Key Laboratory for

### From Passive to Active Dynamic 3D Bipedal Walking - An Evolutionary Approach -

From Passive to Active Dynamic 3D Bipedal Walking - An Evolutionary Approach - Steffen Wischmann and Frank Pasemann Fraunhofer Institute for Autonomous Intelligent Systems (AiS) Schloss Birlinghoven, 53754

### Positioning and Control of Boom Crane Luffing with Double-Pendulum Payloads

Positioning and Control of Boom Crane Luffing with Double-Pendulum s Ehsan Maleki*, William Singhose*, and Sriram Srinivasan* Abstract Boom cranes are used for numerous materialhandling and manufacturing

### The Takeaway. The waggle can be an excellent opportunity to rehearse your takeaway

The Takeaway Your approach to the ball is the final step over which you have total control. Once you actually start the swing, you need to depend on rhythm, tempo and balance to see you through the swing.

### Serve the only stroke in which the player has full control over its outcome. Bahamonde (2000) The higher the velocity, the smaller the margin of

Lower Extremity Performance of Tennis Serve Reporter: Chin-Fu Hsu Adviser: Lin-Hwa Wang OUTLINE Introduction Kinetic Chain Serve Types Lower Extremity Movement Summary Future Work INTRODUCTION Serve the

### THE INITIAL STAGE THE FINAL STAGE

THE JAVELIN RUN-UP By Hans Torim A detailed description of the author s views on the javelin run-up from the initial stages to the impulse stride and the pre-delivery position. The article is a slightly

### Segment speed or segment force, which one is of more value in golf?

Segment speed or segment force, which one is of more value in golf? Historically in golf segmental speed (angular velocity) has been the accepted measurement of how the body segments (pelvis, ribcage,

### Queue analysis for the toll station of the Öresund fixed link. Pontus Matstoms *

Queue analysis for the toll station of the Öresund fixed link Pontus Matstoms * Abstract A new simulation model for queue and capacity analysis of a toll station is presented. The model and its software