# Design process to evaluate potential of wind noise at façade elements

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5 8 VERIFICATION OF RISK OF AERO-ACOUSTIC RESONANCE DUE TO LOCK-IN PHENOMENA During this step the method focuses on investigating the possible extents of the lock-in range. In particular it is evaluated if the frequencies of vortex shedding, obtained at the previous steps could be driven in a lock-in mechanism by the excited acoustic frequency and which is the amplitude of acoustic necessary for this to occur. Acoustic excitation is therefore introduced in the model as a flow boundary condition. This is in the form of an oscillating velocity representing the flow oscillation that the acoustic wave causes once instigated. The oscillating velocity is a sinusoidal wave of frequency (excitation frequency fexc) equal to a ratio of fa, in the range of 0.5 to 1.5 and, with an amplitude A equal to 10% and 5% of the incoming wind flow. The cp is collected from the simulations run with excitation and the frequency spectras plotted. In the case of lock-in, the frequency spectra shows a shifting of the vortex shedding frequency in correspondence of the frequency of acoustic (see figure 7) otherwise, if the system remain in off-resonance conditions then the two frequencies (vortex shedding and acoustic) are both appearing in the spectra, this indicating that the two periodic phenomena are co existing but the acoustic wave is not able to enhance itself and self-sustain by triggering vortex shedding into a resonance phenomenon. Figure 7: Scheme of frequency synchronisation and related sound pressure level (SPL) during lock-in condition (ref). 9 CFD MODEL DESCRIPTION AND SIMULATION ASSUMPTIONS In the 2D model built to represent a typical section of the façade the fins have a reference length (L) of 300 mm and a pitch ratio measured at the fins edge (L/d) going from 2 to 5. The width (w) of the spacing behind the fins is of 800 mm. The computational domain consists of an upstream and downstream of 5 times the total length of a fin. The side boundary of the domain are kept at a distance of 6 times the width w. The flow is assumed to be incompressible standard air with ρ=1.225 Kg/m³ and μ= kg/m s. The lower inlet boundary has a constant velocity. The upper and outlet boundary is defined with a constant static reference pressure (0 Pa). The right and left side boundaries are maintained as no slip walls for the simulations where no acoustic excitation is provided. When the acoustic excitation is imposed, these boundaries are velocity inlets/outlet with an instantaneous spatially invariant velocity which is temporally periodic and with a zero mean. The transient flow is solved using URANS. All modelling steps are prepared using the commercial CFD code ANSYS Fluent 14.5[6]. 10 SIMULATION RESULTS 10.1 NATURAL VORTEX SHEDDING FREQUENCY OF THE FINS The first set of simulations is executed with no acoustic excitation to reproduce the vortex shedding phenomena for each wind flow considered. The contours of vorticity showed a clear and strong vortex street for each simulations. The frequency of vortex shedding is obtained from the FFT of the pressure coefficient collected at each of the fins. Almost all pressure coefficients of the fins demonstrated a periodic behaviour for each of the wind speed and incidence angle considered. For the flow velocities simulated the frequency of vortex shedding were in the range of 40-30Hz. In addition, the oscillation of velocities were collected within the ducted flow, this displayed the same flow periodicity that was achieved by the flow around the fins. Figure 8(a) that follows, shows the vorticity plot obtained when the wind flow applied is 25 m/s and the wind incidence angle 67º.

6 Table III: Summary of spectra analysis results. (a) Fin1 25 m/s - θ=67 NO excitation With excitation A=10% v_wind - fa=212 Hz Cp fv (Hz) Cp fv (Hz) No periodic No periodic Fin2 Periodic ~ 25 Periodic Lock in Fin3 Periodic ~ 35 Periodic Lock in Fin4 Periodic ~ 42 Periodic Lock in Fin5 Periodic ~35 Periodic Lock in Fin6 Periodic ~ 39 Periodic Lock in Fin7 Periodic ~ 40 Periodic Lock in Fin8 Periodic ~ 23 Periodic Lock in Fin9 Periodic ~ 25 Periodic Lock in Fin10 Periodic ~ 55 Periodic Lock in Fin11 Periodic ~ 25 Periodic Lock in Fin12 Periodic ~ 25 Periodic Lock in 11 CONCLUSIONS (b) Figure 8: (a) Vorticity field at 25m/s and incindence angle of 67 without excitation applied. (b) Vorticity field at 25m/s and incindence angle of 67 with excitation of A=10% of V wind and f exc =212 Hz EXCITED VORTEX SHEDDING FREQUENCY OF THE FINS The second set of simulations is executed with acoustic excitation, this for each wind flow considered. The contours of vorticity, in the case that have seen lock-in, have showed a reduction of the vorticity content. Figure 8(b) shows the vorticity plot obtained for the wind flow applied of 25 m/s and for an incidence angle of 67º and with the applied excitation frequency of 212Hz and A=10% Vwind. The simulation have shown that at all the wind flow velocities above the 20m/s the vortex shedding from the fins can be triggered into lock-in by the excited acoustic frequency as can be seen in table III which report the response of vortex shedding of each fins for the analysis carried out with wind flow speed of 25 m/s and incidence angle of 67º. The methodology illustrated in this paper can be used to verify if a combination of fins of a solar shading façade and the spacing formed by the façade and the building surface could lead to tonal noise, this as consequence of aero-acoustic resonance being instigated. The methodology could be further validated to verify which façade features lead to an off-resonance condition. REFERENCES [1] Coppa, F, Wind Noise on External Facade Elements. Arup Acoustics [2] Coppa, F, Wind Noise Assessment on the facade fins - new building in Italy. Arup Acoustics [3] Howe,M.S.,Theory of vortex sound, Cambridge University Press, [4] Tan, B.T, Hourigan, K., Sources of acoustic resonance generated by the flow around a long rectangular plate in a duct, Journal of Fluids and Structures, : p [5] Paduano, C., Meskell,C., Reynolds number effect of aeroacoustic resonace of two tandem cylinder in ducted flow, AIAA Conference, Colorado Spring [6] ANSYS Workbench, ANSYS Inc., Canonsboug, PA.

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