# Analysis of Wind Turbine Blade

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3 DISTANCE FROM HUB IN m LIFT N Srinivas G et al International Journal of Current Engineering and Technology, Special Issue-2 (Feb 2014) simple solver and an external compressible flow model for the turbulence was utilized. turbulent flow solution was used in FLUENT & GAMBIT, where Spalart Allmaras (S-A) equation was used for turbulent viscosity Attack=2 Attack=3 Attack=4 Attack=5 Attack=6 Hub Distnace in m Fig 2: Lift force Vs Hub Distance Fig 4. Aerofoil Geometry Mesh in Gambit A simple solver was utilized and the operating pressure was set to zero. Calculations were done for the linear region, i.e. for angles of attack 5 degrees, due to greater reliability of both experimental and computed values in this region (Wagh et al 2012). The airfoil profile and boundary conditions are all created. The airfoil consists of 71 vertices and two edges (upper and lower edge) as shown in Fig.4. Fig 3. Coefficient of Lift Vs Attack The green-gauss cell based was used for the gradient option. There are different equations used for flow, turbulence, species, and energy (Abbott et al report.no.824). A simple method was used for the pressure-velocity coupling AOA=12 AOA=11 AOA=10 AOA=9 AOA=8 AOA=7 AOA=6 Fig.5. Velocity Magnitude Contour at 1 0 AoA DRAG FORCE IN N AOA=5 Chart 2. Hub Distance Vs Drag force For the discretization, a standard pressure was used, and density, momentum and turbulent kinetic energy were set to second order upwind. 3.1 Geometry creation, Mesh and Boundary Conditions Inlet velocity for the experiments and simulations is 10m/sec and turbulence viscosity ratio is 10. A fully Fig.6. Velocity Magnitude Contour at 3 0 AoA 360 International Conference on Advances in Mechanical Sciences 2014

4 Srinivas G et al International Journal of Current Engineering and Technology, Special Issue-2 (Feb 2014) The Computational Fluid Dynamic analysis also carried out using FLUENT & GAMBIT software. The velocity and pressure distribution at various angles of attack of the blade is shown in Fig These results are coinciding with the wind tunnel Experimental values. Hence the results are validated with the experimental work. Fig.10. Absolute Pressure Contour at 3 0 AoA Fig.7. Velocity Magnitude Contour at 6 0 AoA Fig.11. Absolute Pressure Contour at 6 0 AoA. Conclusions Fig.8. Velocity Magnitude Contour at 1 0 AoA Fig.9. Absolute Pressure Contour at 1 0 AoA 1) The coefficient of Lift and drag is calculated for wind turbine blade for the different angle of attack 0 to 6. The coefficient of Lift increases with increase in attack up to 14 o. 2) The aerofoil blade has an aerodynamic profile in cross section to create lift and rotate the turbine. The results demonstrate the pressure distribution over the airfoil. It could be observed that the upper surface on the aerofoil experiences a higher velocity compared to the lower surface. 3) By increasing the velocity at higher Mach numbers there would be a shock wave on the upper surface that could cause discontinuity. The pressure on the lower surface of the airfoil is greater than that of the incoming flow stream and as a result of that it effectively pushes the airfoil upward, normal to the incoming flow stream. 4) The drag force begin of dominate beyond this angle of attack. The rate of increase in lift is more for angle of attack from 0 o to 6 o and between 0 o to 6 o the rise in lift force is less. 5) The maximum L/D ratio is achieved at 5 of angle of attack, for the average velocity. It is found that blade with 5 angle of attack has the maximum L/D ratio. 361 International Conference on Advances in Mechanical Sciences 2014

5 Srinivas G et al International Journal of Current Engineering and Technology, Special Issue-2 (Feb 2014) References Sunada, S., Yasuda, T., Yasuda, K., Kawachi, K.,Comparison of wing characteristics at an ultralow Reynolds number, Journal of Aircraft, Vol.39, pp , Farooq Ahmad Najar*, G A Harmain Blade Design and Performance Analysis of Wind Turbine Vol.5, No.2, pp Kroo, I., Kunz, P. J.,Meso-scale ight and miniature rotorcraft development, Proceedings of the Conference on Fised, Flapping and Rotary Vehicles at very Low Reynolds Numbers, edited by T. J. Mueller, Univ. of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN, pp , Schmitz, F. W., Aerodynamics of the model airplane. Part I. Airfoil measurements, NACA TM X-60976, 1967 Sunada, S., Sakaguchi, A., Kawachi, K.,Airfoil section characteristics at a low Reynolds number, Journal of Fluids Engineering, Vol.119, pp , M. M. Wagh, N. N. Shinde Design, Development, Manufacturing and Testing of Aerofoil Blades for Small Wind Mill. Vol.2, No.4, H. Abbott, A.E. von Doenhoff, L. Stivers, NACA Report No. 824 Summary of Airfoil Data, National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. Kunz, P. J., Kroo, I.,Analysis, design and testing of airfoils for use at ultra-low Reynolds numbers, Proceedings of the Conference on Fised, Flapping and Rotary Vehicles at very Low Reynolds Numbers, edited by T. J. Mueller, Univ. of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN, pp , Thumthae C, Chitsomboon T, Numerical simulation of flow over twisted-blade, horizontal axis wind turbine. The 20th conference of mechanical engineering network of Thailand; October Farooq Ahmad Najar*, G A Harmain Blade Design and Performance Analysis of Wind Turbine Vol.5, No.2, pp International Conference on Advances in Mechanical Sciences 2014

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