# Performance of GOE-387 Airfoil Using CFD

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2 2 Mohamed A. Fouad Kandil et al.: Performance of GOE-387 Airfoil Using CFD Pressure Coefficient C p : C p is the difference between local static pressure and free-stream (at ) static pressure, nondimensionalized by the free-stream dynamic pressure. At any point in the flow where the local pressure coefficient C p is defined as CC pp = PP PP 1 2 ρρ UU 2 The Total or Stagnation Upstream Pressure P T is the sum of the static and dynamic pressure at that point according to Bernoulli's equation: PP TT = PP ρρ UU 2 Thus, C P may also be written in terms of the differential pressures as CC pp = PP PP PP TT PP C P, at the airfoil stagnation point, is unity. Figure 3. Mesh of the computational domain Model Data: Nodes Elements Geometry and Mesh Generation The geometry of GOE 387 is shown in Figure 1. For discretization of the computational domain, an unstructured mesh with the body of influence centered on the airfoil and rectangular path were selected. The mesh used for the analysis is shown in Figures 2 and 3, Pressure based steady-state solver with Transition k-kl-omega turbulence model is used for analysis. Figure 1. Geometry of GOE 387 Airfoil 3. Inputs and Boundary Conditions The problem consists of flow around an airfoil at various angles of attack (-5, 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 degrees). The inputs and boundary conditions are presented in Table 1. Table 1. Inputs and boundary conditions Input Value Solver Pressure based State Steady Vicious model Transition k-kl-omega Material Air Density kg/m 3 Viscosity e-05 Reynold Number 3 x 10 5 Inlet velocity m/s Chord-length 1 m Pressure-velocity coupling Coupled 4. Results and Discussion Figure 2. Completed Mesh 4.1. Contours of Pressure Magnitude The contours of pressure magnitude obtained for various angles of attack from CFD simulations are shown in Figures 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. The flow accelerates on the upper side of the airfoil and the velocity of flow decreases along the lower side, according to Bernoulli s principle the upper surface will experience low pressure and the lower surface will experience higher pressure. As the pressure on the lower surface of the airfoil is greater than that of the incoming flow stream, the airfoil is effectively pushed upward normal to the incoming flow stream.

3 International Journal of Aerospace Sciences 2017, 5(1): Figure 4. Pressure contours at -5 degrees of angle of attack Figure 8. Pressure contours at 15 degrees of angle of attack Figure 5. Pressure contours at 0 degrees of angle of attack Figure 6. Pressure contours at 5 degrees of angle of attack Figure 9. Pressure contours at 20 degrees of angle of attack 4.2. Distribution of Pressure Coefficient The distribution of pressure coefficient of GOE 387 airfoil under different angles of attack is shown in the following Figures 10, 11, 12, 13, 14 and 15. It can be seen that the pressure coefficient varied largely under different attack angle. The pressure coefficient of the airfoil s upper surface was negative and the lower surface was positive, thus the lift force of the airfoil is in the upward direction. Larger the attack angle, greater is the difference of pressure coefficient between the lower and upper surface. We can also see that the coefficient of pressure difference is much larger on the front edge, while on the rear edge it was much lower, thus indicating that the lift force of the airfoil is mainly generated from the front edge. Figure 7. Pressure contours at 10 degrees of angle of attack

4 4 Mohamed A. Fouad Kandil et al.: Performance of GOE-387 Airfoil Using CFD Figure 10. Pressure coefficient at -5 angle of attack Figure 11. Pressure coefficient at 0 of attack

5 International Journal of Aerospace Sciences 2017, 5(1): Figure 12. Pressure coefficient at 5 angle of attack Figure 13. Pressure coefficient at 10 angle of attack

6 6 Mohamed A. Fouad Kandil et al.: Performance of GOE-387 Airfoil Using CFD Figure 14. Pressure coefficient at 15 angle of attack Figure 15. Pressure coefficient at 20 angle of attack 4.3. Curve of Moment Coefficient vs. Angle of Attack The Moment coefficient is computed at aerodynamic center for various angles of attack using the Transition k-kl-omega model. The results are tabulated in Table 2 and shown in Figure 16.

7 International Journal of Aerospace Sciences 2017, 5(1): Table 2. Moment Coefficients C m with Angle of Attack Moment Coefficient (C m ) Angle of Attack α Conclusions With the help of CFD software Ansys-Fluent, successful analysis of the aerodynamic performance of GOE 387 airfoil has been carried at various angles of attack (-5, 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 degrees) with constant Reynolds number (3 x10 5 ) using the Transition k-kl-omega turbulence model. The pressure coefficient of the airfoil s upper surface was negative and the lower surface was positive, thus the lift force of the airfoil is in the upward direction. The coefficient of pressure difference is much larger on the front edge, while on the rear edge it was much lower. The moment and force reference point is taken at 25% of Mean Aerodynamic Cord, the magnitude of the aerodynamic moment remains nearly constant when the angle of attack changes. REFERENCES [1] Patel, Karna S., et al. "CFD Analysis of an Aerofoil." International Journal of Engineering Research 3.3 (2014): Figure 16. Curve of Moment Coefficient vs. Angle of Attack 4.4. Lift and Drag Characteristics Lift drag characteristics of the GOE-387 airfoil are obtained by plotting C l against C d as shown in Figure 17. From this figure, the lift and drag characteristics are summarized as follows: (C l /C d ) max C dmin C lmindrag: C do [2] Kevadiya, Mayurkumar. "CFD Analysis of Pressure Coefficient for NACA 4412." International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology, Chennai 4.5 (2013): [3] Bhushan S. Patil, Hitesh R. Thakare, Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of Wind Turbine Blade at Various Angles of Attack and different Reynolds Number, Procedia Engineering, 127(2015), M. Wegmuller, J. P. von der Weid, P. Oberson, and N. Gisin, High resolution fiber distributed measurements with coherent OFDR, in Proc. ECOC 00, 2000, paper , p [4] Nazmul Haque, Mohammad Ali, Ismat Ara, Experimental Investigation on the performance of NACA 4412 aerofoil with curved leading edge plan form, Procedia Engineering, 105(2015), M. Shell. (2002) IEEEtran homepage on CTAN. [Online]. Available: /macros/latex/contrib/supported/ieeetran/. [5] Jin Yao, Weibin Yuan, Jianliang Wang, Jianbin Xie, Haifeng Zhou, MingjunPeng, young Sun, Numerical simulation of aerodynamic performance for two-dimensional wind turbine airfoils, Procedia Engineering, 31(2012), PDCA12-70 data sheet, Opto Speed SA, Mezzovico, Switzerland. [6] Novel Kumar Sahu, Mr. Shadab Imam, Analysis of Transonic Flow over an Airfoil NACA0012 using CFD, International Journal of Innovative Science, Engineering & Technology, Vol. 2 Issue 4, April 2015 J. Padhye, V. Firoiu, and D. Towsley, A stochastic model of TCP Reno congestion avoidance and control, Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, CMPSCI Tech. Rep , Figure 17. Curve of Lift Coefficient vs. Drag Coefficient [7] Mohamed A. Fouad Kandil, Abdelrady Okasha Elnady, CFD Analysis of GOE 387Airfoil, IOSR Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering (IOSR-JMCE), Volume 14 - Issue 5, Sep. Oct. 2017, PP

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