# A Numerical Study of Thickness Effect of the Symmetric NACA 4-Digit Airfoils on Self Starting Capability of a 1kW H-Type Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

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3 International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Applications 2015; 3(3-1): blockage, the inlet and outlet boundary are positioned respectively 27D upwind and 50D downwind with respect to rotor axis as shown in Fig. 2. Interface wall 1000 X wall Y wall 5000 Figure 4. Dimension of the wind turbine intermediate domain (in mm). Figure 2. Dimensions of the wind turbine external domain (in mm). Two side walls are set as symmetry boundary conditions. The circumference around the opened circular centered on the rotation axis is set as interface condition. This interface condition ensure the continuity in the flow field between the wind turbine external and the wind turbine intermediate. Fig. 3 shows the unstructured mesh that is chosen for the wind turbine external domain. To ensure the fast convergence, the mesh on both sides of the interface (wind turbine external and wind turbine intermediate) is meshed with smooth transition in characteristic size of cells. To control the smooth evolution of mesh size, all blade profiles inside the wind turbine intermediate domain are enclosed in a control circle of 1000 mm diameter and an appropriate size function is adopted. A growth factor of 1.1 is set for the wind turbine intermediate. Therefore the grid size expand from 0.3 mm close to the blade profiles, to 7.5 mm near the control circles and to 25 mm at the interface of the domain, as shown in Fig Figure 3. Wind turbine external mesh Wind Turbine Intermediate The wind turbine intermediate is modeled as the revolution of the wind turbine and is therefore set as a moving mesh. Thus, the wind turbine intermediate rotate at the same angular velocity of the wind turbine. The outer circular of the wind turbine intermediate is also set as interface condition. Its location coincides exactly with the interface inside the wind turbine external domain. The main dimensions and the boundary conditions of the wind turbine intermediate domain is shown in Fig. 4. Figure 5. Wind turbine intermediate mesh. Figure 6. Grid close to leading edge and trailing edge.

4 10 Chi-Cong Nguyen et al.: A Numerical Study of Thickness Effect of the Symmetric NACA 4-Digit Airfoils on Self Starting Capability of a 1kW H-Type Vertical Axis Wind Turbine 2.3. Validation Figure 7. Grid for blade section. In order to investigate the self-starting capability of the 1 kw H-type vertical axis wind turbine, a validation procedure is performed. The similar configuration, as realized by Raciti Castelli et al. [8], is chosen. The validation cases are based on H-type vertical axis wind turbine model with constant wind speed at inlet boundary, V = 9 m/s. It has the maximum performance at Tip Speed Ratio of Eight rotor angular velocity value are imposed on the moving mesh to simulate the revolution of the wind turbine rotor at eight Tip Speed Ratio. The main features of the validation model are summarized in Table 2 [8]. Castelli et al. [8]. In order to simulate the flow environment over the wind turbine, the Reynolds Average Navier-Stokes equations using k-ε Realizable turbulence model are solved. To take into account the boundary layer effect at three blade profiles, the characteristic of mesh with y-plus value around 1 is generated. Thus, the Enhanced Wall Treatment configuration is set to three blades profiles. Turbulent intensity and turbulent viscosity ratio are set respectively 0.1% and 1 for all boundary conditions and initial condition. The coupling pressure-velocity solver is based on the SIMPLEC algorithm. The comparison of actual numerical results with those realized by Raciti Castelli et al. [8] are shown in Fig. 8, Fig. 9 and Fig.10. The comparisons show that the numerical model can reproduce most of main features of distribution of moment coefficient, distribution of power coefficient and average power coefficient as shown respectively in Fig. 8, Fig. 9 and Fig. 10. The instantaneous moment coefficient C T (θ) and the instantaneous power coefficient C P (θ) are defined respectively as: C ( ) θ = T ( θ) T 2 1/ 2ρA RV s C ( ) θ = P ( θ) P 3 1/ 2ρAsRV in which, T is aerodynamic torque of rotor, P is power generated by aerodynamic force on blade, ρ is density of air and A s is rotor swept area. (1) (2) Table 2. Main features of the validation model Parameters Diameter of rotor, D [m] 1.03 Height of blades, H [m] 1 Number of blades, N [-] 3 Airfoil NACA 0021 Chord, c [m] Solidity, σ = Nc/D [-] 0.25 Axis position [mm, mm] (0, 0) Wind velocity, V [m/s] 9 Tip Speed Ratio-TSR, λ = ωd/2v 2.33 Rotor angular velocity, ω [rad/s] Reynolds number It is noted that the aerodynamic analysis based on the numerical model, proposed by Raciti Castelli et al. [8], is well valid to the experimental results. Therefore, the numerical scheme is chosen similar to the scheme proposed by Raciti Figure 8. Distribution of moment coefficients in function of azimuth position for blade 1 at TSR = 2.33.

5 International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Applications 2015; 3(3-1): be applied to analyze the self-starting capability of the designed 1kW H-type vertical axis wind turbine. 3. Self-Starting Analysis 3.1. Revolution time analysis The goal of this paragraph is to present a new methodology to study the self-starting capability of wind turbine. The revolution time is one of most important parameter to evaluate a wind turbine system (including wind turbine coupling with its generator and bearing) that can be considered as fast, low or no starting capability under a wind velocity. For a three blades wind turbine, the revolution time is the during time that the wind turbine takes to revolute 120 about its axis from the starting azimuth position. To obtain the revolution time parameter of wind turbine, the dynamic equation of wind turbine, as shown in the following formulation, is solved using a coupling CFD-dynamic process: I ω ɺ = T T T (3) zz wind g f Figure 9. Distribution of power coefficients in function of azimuth position at TSR = Figure 10. Average power coefficients in function of Tip Speed Ratio. The distribution of moment coefficients in function of azimuth coordinate for blade 1 at Tip Speed Ratio of 2.33, show that the positive moment coefficients appear when the blade 1 revolves from 0 to 180 of azimuth position. The highest moment coefficient is at azimuth position of 90. On the other hand, the moment coefficients are very low from 180 to 360 of azimuth coordinate. The power coefficient can be inferred from moment coefficient. shows that although there is a light difference in power coefficient at maximum and minimum regions between actual result and that presented by Raciti Castelli et al. [8], the distribution of power coefficient is well estimated by actual numerical model. As shown in, one cycle of power coefficient in function of azimuth position is 120. The performance of wind turbine, the average power coefficient in function of Tip Speed Ratio, can be reproduced in Fig. 10. The most efficiency performance of wind turbine is at Tip Speed Ratio of These validations show that the actual numerical model can in which I zz, T wind, T g, T f are inertia moment of wind turbine, torque of wind acting on blades, torque of generator and torque of dynamic bearing friction acting on axis of wind turbine respectively. In this coupling CFD-dynamic process, while the wind torque that acting on blades of wind turbine is simulated by numerical model solver, friction torque on bearing and generator torque are modeled. From the specification of generator, it is possible to model the generator torque curve as a function of revolution speed as shown in (4). On the other hand the friction torque on bearing is modeled by (5) as defined in [16], [17]: 1 C ω(t) T = ρa R [ ω(t)] 2 ω(t) 3 Pmax 2 g s 3 λopt f r (4) T = f ω (t) (5) Then dynamic equation of wind turbine is solved by first order Euler scheme to find position and angular velocity at next time step of simulation. This process will be repeated until the turbine startup as shown in Fig. 11. Figure 11. Self-starting analysis diagram. This new coupling CFD-dynamic combined effects of external factors such as friction moment, generator moment and influence of tracks back flow from the front blade to the

6 12 Chi-Cong Nguyen et al.: A Numerical Study of Thickness Effect of the Symmetric NACA 4-Digit Airfoils on Self Starting Capability of a 1kW H-Type Vertical Axis Wind Turbine rear blade during operation of wind turbine rotor Starting wind speed determination Starting wind speed is defined as the lowest wind speed at which the wind turbine has self-starting capability and obtain a revolution of 120 after a finite revolution time with any starting azimuth position of blade 1. Static friction moment (T friction-s ) is normally higher than dynamic friction moment, thus to find out the starting wind speed of one wind turbine, it is necessary to follow the steps. Step 1: analyzing startup characteristic, revolution time, of turbine at various starting azimuth position and evaluating its starting azimuth position of blade 1 which make the wind turbine to be dynamically the lowest self-starting capability. Step 2: the flow through the turbine is simulated in static condition, without rotation, to determine a wind speed that can create wind moment greater than static friction moment. Step 3: when the turbine could move, the wind moment at this wind speed will be further compared with sliding friction moment and generator moment in rotation condition by using the coupling CFD-dynamic simulation [cf. 3.1]. If wind speed cannot be verified, then select another greater wind speed. Step 4: starting wind speed is the lowest wind speed that satisfies any hard startup azimuth. This procedure can be resumed in Fig. 12. Analyzing startup turbine characteristic Define the difficult startup positions Select preliminary wind speed T wind > T g + T f T wind > T friction-s unverified Starting wind speed is the lowest Figure 12. Starting wind speed determination diagram. 4. Results and Analysis 4.1. Self-Starting Characteristics Supposing that the wind moment is higher than the static friction moment (T wind > T friction-s ). Fig. 13 shows the revolution time or startup time of H-type vertical axis wind turbine 1 kw corresponding to various starting azimuth positions (0 < θ < 120 ), three wind speed of 3 m/s, 5 m/s, 7 m/s and four symmetric NACA 4-digit airfoils: NACA 0012, NACA 0015, NACA 0018, NACA Figure 13. Revolution time in function of starting azimuth position of blade 1. Fig. 13 shows that for starting azimuth position θ = [45, 60 ] the turbine has the longest startup time, followed by θ = [0, 30 ], and has the fastest startup time for θ = [90, 100 ]. The starting azimuth region, θ = [45, 60 ], is the hardest azimuth position for any airfoils considered in this study. Thus, the considered H-type VAWT has the highest self-starting capability when the starting azimuth angle of blade 1 is in the range of [ ] and it has the lowest self-starting capability when the starting azimuth angle is in the range of [45 60 ]. Startup time of the wind turbine is also better when the wind speed or thickness airfoils are increased. Starting azimuth position To find out the influence of starting azimuth position on revolution time or startup time, the evolution of angular velocity of the turbine in function of azimuth position from different starting azimuth position is investigated for NACA 0021 airfoil and wind speed at 3 m/s as shown in Fig. 14.

8 14 Chi-Cong Nguyen et al.: A Numerical Study of Thickness Effect of the Symmetric NACA 4-Digit Airfoils on Self Starting Capability of a 1kW H-Type Vertical Axis Wind Turbine 4.2. Starting Wind Speed To take into account the starting wind speed determination diagram, the flow over the static wind turbine with the azimuth position of θ = 45, 60 and 75, which is the region of lowest self-starting capability, is simulated. Fig. 19, Fig. 20, Fig. 21 and Fig. 22 show the wind moments and the static friction moments at their minimum wind speeds that make the wind moments greater than the static friction moments in static condition. On the other hand, the H-type wind turbine cannot move or cannot startup at a lower wind speed presented in Fig. 23. The variation of wind moments is due to influence of wake detached at back flow of wind turbine or the separation of boundary layer in blade. Figure 22. Wind moment and static friction moment at V = 3 m/s, NACA 0021 Figure 19. Wind moment and static friction moment at V = 4 m/s, NACA Figure 23. Wind moment and static friction moment at no startup wind speed, starting azimuth position of θ = 60. In the self-starting characteristics of the turbine [cf. 4.1] shows that wind speeds being greater than 3 m/s can reproduce the wind moment that overcome sliding friction moment and generator moment. Thus, it is considered that the starting wind speeds are the lowest wind speeds made turbine change from static condition to dynamic condition as summarized in Table 3. Table 3. Starting wind speeds Airfoils Starting wind speeds (m/s) NACA NACA NACA NACA Figure 20. Wind moment and static friction moment at V = 3.5 m/s, NACA Figure 21. Wind moment and static friction moment at V = 3 m/s, NACA Conclusions This study presents a coupling between CFD model and dynamic model of the wind turbine motion. To the authors knowledge, this coupling is a new method in the analysis of self-starting capability of vertical axis wind turbine. A novel procedure to determine the starting wind speed is also proposed. There are three factors affecting on the self starting capability of the 1 kw H-type vertical axis wind turbine such as starting azimuth position, wind speed, wing profile. Starting azimuth position is the main factor effects. High effect of airfoil thickness on startup time of the wind turbine is highly recommended. The lowest wind speed turbine, that make the wind turbine to be self starting at every starting azimuth position corresponding to each type wing profile, is determined. The considered 1 kw H-type vertical axis wind turbine can

9 International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Applications 2015; 3(3-1): start up well with NACA 0021 airfoil. This turbine possesses the high self-starting capability at the starting azimuth position of θ = [90, 100 ]. The results from this analysis method can be used to analyze for all turbines with different airfoils and database for higher research on vertical axis wind turbines. Acknowledgements The authors would like thank to the Research Fund of Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology for its financial support to the research project T-KTGT References [1] J. H. Strickland, The Darrieus Turbine: A Performance Prediction Model Using Multiple Streamtubes, Sandia National Labs, Rept. SAND , Albuquerque, NM, [2] I. Paraschivoiu, Double-Multiple Streamtube Model for Studying Vertical-Axis Wind Turbines, Journal of Propulsion and Power, Vol. 4, 1988, pp [3] H. Glauert, Airplane propellers, Aerodynamic Theory, vol. 4. New York: Dover Publication Inc, Division L, pp [4] J. H. Strickland, B. T. Webster, and T. Nguyen, A vortex Model of the Darrieus Turbine: An Analytical and Experimental Study, Journal of Fluids Engineering, Vol. 101, 1979, pp [5] F. N. Coton, D. Jiang, and R. A. M. Galbraith, An Unsteady Prescribed Wake Model for Vertical Axis Wind Turbines, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part A, Journal of Power and Energy, Vol. 208, 1994, pp [6] M. O. L. Hansen, and D. N. Sørensen, CFD Model for Vertical Axis Wind Turbine, Wind Energy for the New Millennium Proceedings of the European Wind Energy Conference, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2 6 July [7] C. J. Simão Ferreira, H. Bijl, G. van Bussel, and G. van Kuik, Simulating Dynamic Stall in a 2D VAWT: Modeling Strategy, Verification and Validation with Particle Image Velocimetry Biography Chi-Cong Nguyen (1978, Vietnam) PhD in Fluid Mechanics, Heat Transfer and Combustions (2006, Aerodynamic Instability of Solid Rocket Motor) - Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Mécanique et d Aérotechnique (ENSMA), Univervité de Poitiers, France. Senior Lecturer and Researcher at Department of Aerospace Engineering, Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology, Vietnam. Research experience: Wind Engineering, Aero-elasticity, Aerodynamics, Turbulence, Multiphases flow, Heat transfer, Computational Fluid Dynamics. Head of the Department of Aerospace Engineering at Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology. About 5 publications in scientific and professional papers and about 10 papers on conference proceedings. Data, Journal of Physics. Conference Series, Vol. 75, 2007, Paper [8] M. Raciti Castelli, A. Englaro, and E. Benini, The Darrieus Wind Turbine: Proposal for a New Performance Prediction Model based on CFD, Energy 36, 2011, pp [9] K. Horiuchi, I. Ushiyama, and K. Seki, Straight Wing Vertical Axis Wind Turbines: a Flow Analysis, Wind Engineering, Vol. 29, 2005, pp [10] A. Iida, K. Kato, and A. Mizuno, Numerical Simulation of Unsteady Flow and Aerodynamic Performance of Vertical Axis Wind Turbines with LES, 16th Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference, Crown Plaza, Gold Coast, Australia, 2-7 December [11] R. Dominy, P. Lunt, A. Bickerdyke, and J. Dominy, Self Starting Capability of a Darrieus Turbine, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part A, Journal of Power and Enery, Vol. 221, 2006, pp [12] B. Habtamu, and Y. Yingxua, Numerical Simulation of Unsteady Flow to Show Self Starting of Veritcal Axis Wind Turbine Using Fluent, Journal of Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, 2011, pp [13] B. Habtamu, and Y. Yingxua, Effect of Camber Airfoil on Self Starting of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine, Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 4, 2011, pp [14] V.T. Nguyen, C.C Nguyen, T.H.H. Le, Optimal aerodynamic design and generator matching for VAWT of 1kW using DMST method, Journal of Transportation Science and Technology, ISSN: , Vol. 7&8-9/2013, pp [15] pecification_sheet.pdf. [16] K. E. Johnson, and L. J. Fingersh Methods for Increasing Region 2 Power Capture on a Variable Speed HAWT, Proceedings of the 23 rd ASME Wind Energy Symposium, 2004, pp [17] A. Kazumasa, M. Baku, Nagai, and N. R. Jitendro, Design of a 3 kw Wind Turbine Generator with Thin Airfoil Blades, Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, Vol. 32, 2008, pp Thi-Hong-Hieu Le (1977, Vietnam) Ph.D in Aerodynamics and Fluids Mechanics (2005) University of Poitiers, Aerodynamics Research Center, France. Senior Lecturer and Researcher at Department of Aerospace Engineering, Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology, Vietnam since Research interests: Computational Fluid Dynamics, Flapping wing mechanisms, Experimental and numerical study on Aerodynamics of Vertical Axis Wind Turbines. Deputy-head of Department of Aerospace Engineering. About 10 journal and conference papers.

10 16 Chi-Cong Nguyen et al.: A Numerical Study of Thickness Effect of the Symmetric NACA 4-Digit Airfoils on Self Starting Capability of a 1kW H-Type Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Phat-Tai Tran (1990, Vietnam) Engineer in Aerospace Engineering (2013, Aerodynamic performance of vertical axis wind turbine) - Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology, Vietnam. Research and work experience: Wind Engineering, Information Technology, CFD.

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