1 Personal Protective Equipment Scope The scope of these requirements is limited to those occupational operations or processes where exposure(s) to head, eye, face, foot, hand, and skin hazards exist. The use of safety gear such as gloves, hard hats, face shields, safety glasses, and safety shoes is personal protective equipment that may be required. These requirements apply to all applicable industry regulations including general industry, construction, and maritime work. These requirements do not apply to respiratory protection, chemical protective clothing, and fall protection equipment, or electrical protective devices which are covered under separate regulations. In addition, other than voltage-protection hard hat requirement, these requirements do not apply to electrical protective devices such as rubber insulating gloves, shoes, blankets, hoods, sleeves, and line hoses or to fall protection. These protectors are covered in separate requirements. Background These safety requirements and procedures are established in accordance with 29 CFR , 29 CFR , 29 CFR , 29 CFR , 29 CFR , 29 CFR , 29 CFR , 29 CFR , and related regulations. These requirements should be applied with flexibility according to the specific situation and the operation performed. These requirements provide guidance to those responsible for deciding the need when assessing hazards that might necessitate the use of personal protective equipment (PPE), selecting, providing, and ensuring employee use of appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) needed for a particular type of operation, enforcing the use of PPE, and providing training for PPE users, and carrying out other measures needed to comply with the OSHA PPE Standard. Requirement It is the requirement of the State to provide a place of employment that is free from recognized hazards that cause or are likely to cause death or serious physical harm to employees or the public. When hazards exist that cannot be eliminated, the engineering practices, administrative practices, safe work practices, Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) and proper training be implemented. These measures will be implemented to minimize those hazards to ensure the safety of employees and the public., and Training Hazard Assessment, and PPE Selection, and Training A person qualified with education and experience needs to make a walk around survey to collect, organize, and analyze information about shall assess each workplace for hazards that are present or likely to be present, that call for protective equipment. The hazard assessment can be conducted for a facility wide, department wide, by job or task, or for each individual s exposure. The qualified person shall select PPE that will protect exposed employees from the hazards identified in the hazard assessment. The key to complying is documenting the hazards (use Table 5 Appendix B of may be used as a guide.), then reducing or eliminating the
2 hazards, and where that s not completely feasible, then providing and requiring the use of PPE. Table 5 is an example of a hazard assessment form. A section on respiratory hazard identification has been added to this form although does not require respiratory hazards to be evaluated under this standard. The hazard assessment survey should include observations on of the likelihood of injury or illness to occur from: Sources of motion machinery or processes where an injury could result from movement of tools, machine elements or particles or projectiles, or movement of personnel that could result in collisions, blowsimpacts, or tripping, or slipping. around stationary objects. Sources of high temperatures extremes, heat or cold, including radiant thatheat that could result in thermal burns, eye injury, or ignition of clothing or PPE. Types Releases of hazardous chemicals exposures such as spill, splash, vapor or gas emission, spray or aerosolization, or immersion that could cause illness or injury. Sources of dust that could cause a physical hazard to workers eyes. Sources of light radiation such as welding, brazing, cutting, or high intensity lights including LASERs, or sunlight. Sources of falling objects or potential for dropping objects that could pose an compression impact or projectile hazard to a worker s head, face, hands, or feet. Sources of sharp objects which might pierce the feet or cut the handspenetrate protective footwear, gloves, or other clothing. Sources of rolling or pinching objects which could crush the feet or hands. Layout of workplace and location of co-workers. Exposure to electrical hazards by contact when not working on electrical equipment. The assessment needs to be verified in writing in a document that: Identifies itself as certification that the workplace has been evaluated. Specifies the workplace or areas evaluated. Has the signature of the person certifying completion of the evaluation Gives the dates of the initial survey or the date of reassessment of the protective gear s suitability when changes occur. For each hazard source (impact, penetration, compression [roll-over], chemical, heat, harmful dust, light [optical] radiation), the assessor should have an inventory that includes: The types of possible injuries or illnesses. E.g.:, more than half of the list of chemicals in
3 29 CFR have skin notations that require protection against dermal exposureabsorption. The estimated probability risk level (probable, possible, or unlikely to occur). E.g.: Skin disorders are the number-two cause of occupational illness after ergonomics. Seriousness (death; permanent impairment; serious injury/illness resulting from chronic and/or acute exposures; temporary injury/illness; or readily remedied injury/illness). It is not necessary to prepare and retain a formal written hazard assessment once the PPE has been selected. Reassessments need to be made when process or equipment changes occur at the facility.if the hazards or materials in a job that has had a hazard assessment, a new PPE Hazard Assessment must be completed. PPE should be required only if engineering controls and management practices do not eliminate the hazard. PPE does not provides unlimited protection. It is not a substitute for guards, engineering controls, and management practices. If, during the hazard assessment, the qualified person decides a hazard cannot be eliminated or abated and that PPE is needed to prevent injury, he or she needs to: Select protective appropriate PPE and ensure affected require employees are required to use PPE selected. Inform employees about selection decisions. Select PPE that fits the employee. Select PPE that complies with the appropriate ANSI standard. (NOTE: There is no ANSI standard for hand protection.) Inform employees about selection decisions. Ensure PPE, including PPE owned by the employee, is maintained in sanitary and reliable condition and prohibit use of defective or damaged PPE. Train employees about when PPE is necessary, what PPE is necessary, how to wear PPE, limitations of PPE, and the proper care, maintenance, useful life, and disposal of PPE. Employees need to demonstrate an understanding of the training received and the ability to use PPE properly before being allowed to perform work requiring the use of PPE. Retrain employees when changes in the workplace or changes in the types of PPE used render previous training obsolete or when there is evidence that an employee does not understand the use and care of PPE. Certify in writing that the employee has received and understands the training. Remind employees that their best PPE is their brain.
4 Eye and Face Protection Eye or face protection needs to be worn when there is exposure to hazards from: Flying particles, Molten metal, Hazardous Lliquid chemicals, Acids or caustic liquids. Hazardous cchemical gases or vapors that may affect the eyes or skin, Potentially injurious hazardous light radiation. Side shields, detachable or permanent, are needed where flying objects are presentpossible. Tinted or variable tint lenses may be used depending on workplace conditions; e.g., when they provide better and more comfortable vision for employees who go back and forth from the a bright outdoors to a dark indoor area. Eye protection needs to be worn over prescription lenses (either contact lenses or spectacles) when the prescription is not incorporated in the eye protector. Eye and face protectors need to be marked to facilitate identification of the manufacturer; e.g., components of spectacle frames need to be marked with the Z-87 logo and the lenses must bear the manufacturer s mark.. Filter lenses need to be selected that have a shade number appropriate for the work being performed. Table 2 shows shade numbers for protection from potentially injurious light radiation. Eye protection should be the norm all the time always be worn where chemicals are handled. Injuries are often caused by other people s workoperations, so all employees near an operation where PPE is required should also wear it. and accidents are by their nature unexpected. Table 3 is an selection chart for eye and face protection. OSHA states contact lenses should not be worn when there is exposure to 1,2 dibromo-2- chloropropane, acrylonitrile, ethylene oxide, and methylenedianaline. It is considered illegal under the ADA to discriminate against the contact lens wearer when lenses are essential to job performance. Personal protection such as wide brimmed hats, long-sleeved shirts, and sunscreen are to be used where sun exposure is a hazard. This requirement is established in an OSHA interpretation dated June 2, Head Protection Head Protection Protective helmets need to be worn when employees work in areas where (1) there is a potential for injury to the head from falling objects, (2) there is a potential for head impact from working in tight or low headroom spaces, and/or (23) they are near exposed electrical conductors which could be contacted by the protective helmets. Examples include: Working below other workers who are using tools and materials which could fall.
5 Working around or under conveyor belts which are carrying parts or materials. Working below machinery or processes which might cause material or objects to fall. Working nearon exposed energized conductors. Working in tight spaces such as vaults or crawl spaces or in ceiling or attic spaces or other locations where employees may hit their head on a stationary object. A Class A hard hat may be selected when there may be contact with conductors up to 2,200 volts. Class B hard hats must be selected when there may be contact with high voltage conductors (up to 20,000 volts). Class C hard hats provide impact and penetration resistance, but they are often sometimes made of aluminum and are prohibited where there may be electrical hazards. Foot Protection Protective footwear needs to be worn when working in areas where: Feet can be hurt by falling or rolling objects Sharp objects might pierce footwear. Molten metals or hot surfaces can burn workers feet. Workers are in danger of slipping on wet surfaces Such jobs might include shipping or receiving clerk, stock clerk, carpenter, machinist, metal worker, press operator, welder, laborer, freight handler, gardener, or warehouse worker. Safety shoes and boots which meet the ANSI standard provide both impact and compression protection. ANSI lists six forms of protection: Metatarsal protection that shields the top part of the foot. Conductive footwear. Three levels of impact and compression protection for toes for activities where objects might fall on the feet and where pipes or other equipment could roll over the feet. Electrical-hazard footwear. Puncture-resistant soles where sharp objects such as nails, wire, tacks, screws, large staples, scrap metal, etc., could be stepped on. Static-dissipative footwear. Reviewer Question: Is the a hazard to the employee or to the equipment. If there is no hazard to the employee from static discharge, this item should not be included here. Hand Protection Hand Protection Appropriate hand protection needs to be worn when employees hands are exposed to hazards such as those from:
6 Skin absorption of harmful substances. Severe cuts or lacerations. Severe abrasions. Punctures. Chemical burns. Thermal burns. Harmful temperature extremes. While gloves are worn to prevent cuts, abrasions, burns, and skin contact with chemicals, they can be relied upon to only provide only limited protection. For example, no chemical resistant glove can protect against all chemicals. Cut resistant gloves do not usually protect against chemical exposure. Mesh gloves that are designed to protect against lacerations may not protect the wearer from punctures. They should not be relied upon to prevent exposure to chemicals. Proper technique should prevent material from getting onto the hands; gloves should be worn just in case anything goes wrong. When chemicals do get onto gloves, the gloves should be promptly cleaned or removed. Otherwise contamination can be spread by handling door handles or other common surfaces with dirty gloves. More insidious is the fact that many chemical substances can penetrate rubber and plastic. Many serious burns are cause by materials permeating through the pores of gloves. Selection of hand protection is based on tasks to be performed and the dexterity required; duration, frequency, and degree of hazard exposure; physical stresses that will be applied; the ability of the chemical to permeate or degrade the glove material. cause local effects on the skin and to pass through the skin and cause systemic effects; Before purchasing gloves, documentation from the manufacturer that the glove meets the appropriate test standard(s) for the hazard(s) anticipated should be obtained. With the growing incidence of hypersensitive individuals who have severe reactions to natural rubber proteins, it is important to evaluate alternate glove materials such as nitrilde, vinyl (PVC), neoprene, styrene-butadiene (Elastyren), and styrene-ethylene-butadiene (Tactylon). Gloves made of 100% nitrile have the fit, feel, and flexibility of latex gloves but are more expensive. Other synthetics do not have the fit, feel, or flexibility of latex but cost about the same as natural rubber latex gloves. Studies have shown that vinyl gloves may not be as durable or viral resistant as natural rubber latex gloves. Table 4 is a list of suggested types of hand protection. Payment for PPE Payment for PPE Employers must provide PPE, with limited exceptions, at no cost to the employee. do not have to pay for PPE that is required by 29 CFR , even though the standard says employers must provide the PPE. OSHA cannot cite an employer for requiring its workers to buy their own PPE. Employers must, however, provide training at no cost to workers. Employers are required to pay for wworksite PPE, includinges welding gloves, wire mesh
7 gloves, respirators, hard hats, specialty glasses and goggles (i.e., those designed for laser or ultraviolet radiation protection), reflective clothing and outerwear, specialty foot protection (i.e., metatarsal shoes and linemen s shoes with built-in gaffs), chemical resistant shoes, steel toe rubber boots, exposed to carcinogens or other dangerous substances, face shields, rubber chemical resistant gloves, blankets, cover-ups, and hot sticks and other live-line tools used by power generation workers. Employers do not have to pay the full cost for protective shoes or eyewear that is very personal in nature, may be used by employees away from work, is not used at work in such a manner that renders it unsafe for use off the job, and is not designed for special use on the job. This exemption only applies to safety toe protective footwear, logging boots, and prescription safety glasses, Non-worksite PPE includes no specialty safety glasses, safety shoes, and cold weather outerwear (i.e., outerwear worn by construction workers). Executive Directive No. 8 established a shoe allowance of $70.00 effective June 30, 1995 with a limit of one pair per year per state employee. The Office of State Budget and Management reviews this allowance every two years to allow for inflation. The limit remained unchanged when it was reviewed in June, Employer s Obligation for PPE Use OSHA has issued a rule clearly placing the responsibility on the employerthe supervisor is responsible to make sure that all employees whose jobs requires the use of personal protective equipment receive appropriate PPE that fits them, are trained as required, and wear PPE as requiredare wearing it.
8 Employee Training and Certification Proper Use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Building Dept. Date(s) TRAINING OBJECTIVES: Employer/employee responsibilities Work area hazards How PPE will protect When PPE should be worn What PPE should be worn How to don, doff, assure proper fit, adjust, wear properly Limitations of the PPE Proper care, maintenance, cleaning (sanitation) Reporting and replacement of worn and damaged PPE Useful life Proper disposal of PPE The following employees have received on (specific PPE) and have demonstrated an understanding of the PPE: Attendance List Department Name Signature 1)Mfg/Vendor PPE: Item No: Other 2)Mfg/Vendor Item No: Other 3)Mfg/Vendor Item No: Other
9 Table 1 OSHA s Occupation-Specific Suggested PPE NOTE: This is not an all inclusive list. Determining the type of PPE for your job should be conducted through the completion of a Workplace Hazard Assessment Form (Table 5). Assemblers Eye protection, hard hats, safety shoes or boots Carpenters Eye protection, hard hats, safety shoes or boots, hearing protection Chemical Process Operators Eye protection, chemical resistant gloves or clothing Drywall Installers Safety shoes or boots Electricians Eye protection, hard hats, safety shoes or boots Freight/Stock Handlers Hard hats, safety shoes or boots Gardeners & Groundskeepers Safety shoes or boots, work gloves Laborers Eye protection, hard hats, safety shoes or boots Linemen Hard hats Machine Operators: Grinders Eye protection, hearing protection Machine Operators: Lathe & Drilling Eye protection, safety shoes or boots Machine Operators: Punch & Stamping Presses Safety shoes or boots Machinist Eye protection, safety shoes or boots, hearing protection Mechanics/Repairmen Eye protection, hard hat, safety shoes or boots Millwrights Eye protection, hearing protection Packers/Wrappers Hard hats, safety shoes or boots, work gloves Plumbers, Pipefitters Eye protection, hard hats, safety shoes or boots Sanders Eye protection Sawyers Eye protection, hard hats, safety shoes or boots Sheet Metal Workers Eye protection, cut resistant gloves Shipping/Receiving or Stock Clerks Safety shoes or boots, work gloves Structural Metal Workers Safety shoes or boots, hard hats Timber Cutting/Logging Eye protection, hard hats, safety shoes or boots, chaps, work gloves, hearing protection Warehousemen Hard hats, safety shoes or boots, work gloves Welders Eye protection, hard hats, safety shoes or boots
10 Table 2 Filter Lenses for Protection Against Radiant Energy Operations Electric Size 1/32 in Arc Current Minimum* Protective Shade Shielded metal arc Less than 3 Less than 60 7 welding More than Gas metal arc &flux Less than 60 7 cored arc welding Gas tungsten arc Less than 50 8 welding Air carbon (light) Less than arc cutting (heavy) Plasma arc cutting (light)** Less than (medium)** (heavy)** Torch brazing 3 Torch soldering 2 Carbon arc welding 14 Operations Plate thickness in. Plate thickness-mm Minimum* Protective Shade Gas Welding: Light Under 1/8 Under Medium 1/8 to 1/2 3.2 to Heavy Over 1/2 Over Oxygen Cutting Light Under 1 Under 25 3 Medium 1 to 6 25 to Heavy Over 6 Over *As a rule of thumb, start with a shade that is too dark to see the weld zone. Then go to a lighter shade which gives sufficient view of the weld zone without going below the minimum. In oxyfuel gas welding or cutting where the torch produces a high yellow light, it is desirable to use a filter lens that absorbs the yellow or sodium line in the visible light of the (spectrum) operation. **These values apply where the actual arc is clearly seen. Experience has shown that lighter filters may be used when the arc is hidden by the work piece.
11 Table 3 Eye and Face Protection Selection Chart Source Assessment Hazard Protection IMPACT Chipping, grinding, Flying fragments, objects, Spectacles with side machining, masonry large chips, particles, sand, protection, goggles, work, woodworking, sawing, dirt, etc. face shields drilling, chiseling, For severe exposure, powered fastening, riveting, use face shield. and sanding HEAT Furnace operations, Hot sparks Face shields, pouring, casting, hot Splash form molten metals goggles, spectacles dipping, and welding High temperature exposure with side protection. For overexposure use face shield. Face shields worn over goggles. Screen face shields, Reflective face shields. CHEMICALS Acid and Splash Goggles, eyecup and chemicals handling, Irritating mists cover types. For degreasing, plating severe exposure, use face shield. Special-purpose goggles. LIGHT and/or RADIATION Optical radiation Welding helments or Welding: Electric arc welding shields. Typical shades: Welding: Gas Optical radiation Welding goggles or Welding face shield. Typical shades: gas welding 4-8, cutting 3-6 brazing 3-4 Cutting, Torch brazing, Optical radiation Spectacles or Torch soldering welding face shield. Glare Poor vision Typical shield Spectacles with Shaded or special- Purpose lenses, as suitable DUST Woodworking, Nuisance dust Goggles, eyecup and buffing, general dusty conditions cover types.
12 GLOV Glove Selection Chart Table 4 E SELECTION CHART Application Type of Hand Protection** Cuts, abrasions 1, 2, 4, 5, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13 Light materials handling 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12 Heavy materials handling 2, 9, 11 Pinch points 11, 12 Chemicals* 4, 5, 6, 7 Electricity 8 Temperature extremes 1, 2, 3, 7, 9 Liquids* 4, 5, 6, 7 Flame 2, 3, 9 Radiation 5 Sanitation 4, 5, 6, 11, 13 **Type of Hand Protection 1. Knit cotton, wrist length or gauntlet 2. Leather gloves, hand pads 3. Gloves, mittens, aluminized pads 4. Various plastics, job rated 5. Natural or synthetic rubber, job rated 6. Disposable plastic, job rated 7. Plastic coated glass fiber combination 8. Electrical lineman s glove (must be worn with protective leather glove) 9. Leather with reinforced metal palm 10. Mail or woven metal gloves 11. Cuff, forearm guards (fiber, metal, mesh, etc.) 12. Thumb guards, finger cots, protective wrapping tapes 13. Protective barriers *Various plastic, rubber, and disposable rubber gloves must be job-rated for working with specific alkalis, salts, acids, oils, greases, and solvents. Generally, any chemical resistant glove can be used for dry powders. For mixtures and formulated products (unless specific test data are available), a glove should be selected on the basis of the chemical component with the shortest breakthrough time, since it is possible for solvents to carry active ingredients through polymeric materials.
13 Workplace Hazard Assessment Form Table 5 Building Dept. Date(s) Eye and Face Eye and Face Is there danger from: (Eliminated, Guarded, PPE) No Yes E. G. PPE 1. Flying particles 2. Molten metal 3. Liquid chemicals 4. Acids 5. Caustic liquids 6. Chemical gases or vapors 7. Light radiation 8. Other Head Head No Yes E. G. PPE 1. Flying particles 2. Work being performed overhead 3. Elevated conveyors 4. Striking against a fixed object 5. Forklift hazards 6. Exposed electrical conductors 7. Other Foot No Yes E. G. PPE 1. Impact sources 2. Compression sources 3. Puncture sources 4. Electrical hazards 5. Metatarsal hazards 6. Slipping hazards 7. Instep hazards 8. Conductive hazards 9. Chemical exposure
14 Hand Hand No Yes E. G. PPE 1. Skin absorption 2. Cuts or lacerations 3. Abrasions 4. Punctures 5. Chemical burns 6. Thermal burns 7. Harmful temperature extremes 8. Other Respiratory No Yes E. G. PPE 1. Harmful dusts 2. Fogs 3. Fumes 4. Mists 5. Smokes 6. Sprays 7. Vapors 8. Other Torso Torso No Yes E. G. PPE 1. Hot metals and liquids 2. Cuts 3. Acids 4. Caustic liquids 5. Radiation 6. Other Comments: Certification This hazard assessment has been performed to determine the required type of PPE for each affected employee. The assessment includes: Walk-through survey Specific job analysis Review of accident statistics Review of safety and health equipment selection guideline materials Selection of appropriate required PPE Assessment certified by: (Supervisor) Date
15 Assessment Form PPE Selection Building Dept. Date(s) Supervisor The department (area) has been reviewed to determine the required type of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) for each affected employee. Assessment includes: Walk-through survey, Specific job analysis, Review of accident statistics, Review of safety and health equipment selection guideline materials, and Selection of appropriate required PPE. Dept. Job Assessed Hazard PPE Selected PPE Selected Equipment Building Dept. Date(s) The following PPE equipment has been selected to prevent injuries in this department. Selected PPE is required to be used by all employees at all times. Hazards have been identified and PPE meeting the OSHA PPE standard to shield the employee from the hazard has been made, often with several options. Job: 1)Mfg/Vendor PPE: Item No: Other 2)Mfg/Vendor Item No: Other
16 Resources OSHA standard for Personal Protective Equipment 29 CFR OSHA Standard for Eye and Face Protection 29 CFR OSHA Standard for Head Protection 29 CFR OSHA Standard for Foot Protection 29 CFR OSHA Standard for Electrical Protective Equipment 29 CFR OSHA Standard for Hand Protection 29 CFR OSHA Standard for PPE in Construction 29 CFR OSHA Standard for PPE in Maritime 29 CFR