# Unit 3 Day 7. Exponential Growth & Decay

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1 Unit 3 Day 7 Exponential Growth & Decay 1

2 Warm Up - Zombies SCENARIO 1 A pack of zombies is growing exponentially! After 1 hour, the original zombie infected 5 people, and those 5 zombies went on to infect 5 people, etc. After a zombie bite, it takes 1 hour to infect others. How many newly infected zombies will be created after 4 hours? If possible, draw a diagram, create a table, a graph, and an equation. SCENARIO 2 During this attack, a pack of 4 zombies walked into town last night around midnight. Each zombie infected 3 people total, and those 3 zombies went on to infect 3 people, etc. After a zombie bite, it takes an hour to infect others. Determine the number of newly infected zombies at 6 am this morning. If possible, draw a diagram, create a table, a graph, and an equation. SCENARIO 3 At 9:00 am, the official count of the zombie infestation was Every hour the number of zombies quadruples. Around what time did the first zombie roll into town? 2

3 New Zombies Time New Zombies y 5 x Time (hours) 3

4 New Zombies Time (hours) 4 Time New Zombies y 4(3) x

5 x 7 x 2AM Later in this unit, we ll learn how to solve these problems algebraically. For now, one way to solve is by using the calculator! Do y1 = 16384, y2 = (4) x then find intersection in calc. 5

6 Homework Answers Packet p odds & \$4, 12 p x = 9 3. x = 4 4. No solution 5. x = 4 7. x = 2 9. x = 4 p x = x = a) h 9.8 ft. b) h 10.8 ft. c) h ft. 11. x = 7/2 6

7 Homework: Packet p. 12 & 13 Print Unit 3 Packet and Notes Days

8 Notes Day 7 Exponential Growth and Decay 8

9 What if??? You find a bank that will pay you 3% interest annually, so you consider moving your account, but, your current bank wants to keep you. They offer to compound semiannually! You get 2.5% interest and 1.25% interest at the end of June and 1% interest at the end of December. Which bank is giving you a better deal? We won t actually solve this problem but wouldn t it be nice to know how to in case you ran into a similar situation? Let s learn some about these types of problems today! 9

10 Review of Vocabulary Initial Value: The 1 st term in a sequence or the dependent value associated with an independent value of 0. Looking at Zombie Warm-up #2 During this attack, a pack of 4 zombies walked into town last night around midnight. Each zombie infected 3 people total, and those 3 zombies went on to infect 3 people, etc. Initial Value = 4 Common Ratio: The ratio of one term in a sequence and the previous term. Looking at Zombie Warm-up #2 Common Ratio = 3 Common Difference: The difference between one term in a sequence and the previous term. Looking at the sequence 4, 9, 14, 19, Common Difference = 5 10

11 Review of Vocabulary Recursive Function: a function that can be used to find any term in a sequence if you have the previous term (i.e. NOW-NEXT) Looking at Zombie Warm-up #2 During this attack, a pack of 4 zombies walked into town last night around midnight. Each zombie infected 3 people total, and those 3 zombies went on to infect 3 people, etc. Next = Now * 3 Start = 4 Explicit Function: a function that can be used to find any term in the sequence without having to know the previous term. (i.e. y = or f(x) = ) Looking at Zombie Warm-up #2 y = 4(3) x 11

12 Review of Vocabulary Domain: the set of all input values for a function Looking at Zombie Warm-up #2 y = 4(3) x the domain is all real numbers Theoretical Domain: the set of all input values for a function without consideration for context Looking at Zombie Warm-up #2 y = 4(3) x the theoretical domain is all real numbers Practical Domain: the set of all input values for a function that are reasonable within context Looking at Zombie Warm-up #2 y = 4(3) x the practical domain is x 0 because x is time in hours after 6 AM and it doesn t make sense to think about negative time We ll discuss these terms more later today!! 12

13 Note: Function is decreasing over time Note: Function is increasing over time 13

14 14

15 1 - r b = * r is the common ratio This is because you begin with 100% (1 when written as a decimal) and subtract the same percentage each time. 15

16 16

17 1 + r b = * r is the common ratio This is because you begin with 100% (1 when written as a decimal) and add the same percentage each time. 17

18 Examples 1. A house that costs \$200,000 in 2010 will appreciate in value by 3% each year. a. Write a function that models the cost of the house over time. Use x for years after 2010, and y for the value of the house, in dollars. y b. Find the value of the house in \$ 268, ,000(1.03) x c. In what year will the house value have doubled? Year 2033 More vocab you must know! *Appreciate means increasing rate *Depreciate means decreasing rate 18

19 Examples 2. The most recent virus that is making people ill is a fast multiplying one. On the first day of the illness, only 2 virus bugs are present. Each day after, the amount of bugs triples. a. Write a function that models the bugs growth over time. Let x represent the number of days since the onset of the illness and y represent the amount of bugs. y 2(3) x b. Find the amount of bugs present by the 5 th day. y 5 2(3) 486 bugs 19

20 Examples 3. You have a bad cough and have to attend your little sister s choir concert. You take cough drops that contain 100 mg of menthol in each drop. Every minute, the amount of menthol in your body is cut in half. a. Write a function that models the amount of menthol in your body over time. Let x represent minutes since you took the cough drops and y be the amount of menthol, in mg, remaining in your body. b. It is safe to take a new cough drop when the amount of menthol in your body is less than 5 mg. How long will it be before you can take another cough drop? y 100(1 1 ) 20 About 4.3 minutes 2 x More vocab you must know! *Half Life = Amount of time for a substance to be cut in half For this problem, the half life is 1 minute

21 Example! Let s try a tougher problem you may run in to! 4. You have a bad cough and have to attend your little sister s choir concert. You take cough drops that contain 100 mg of menthol in each drop. Every 5 minutes, the amount of menthol in your body is cut in half. Remember Half Life = Amount of time for a substance to be cut in half a. Write a function that models the amount of menthol in your body over time. Let x represent minutes since you took the cough drops and y be the amount of menthol, in mg, remaining in your body. y = 100(1/2) t/5 you must do t/5 exponent so that the exponent will determine the number of half lives that have occurred b. It is safe to take a new cough drop when the amount of menthol in your body is less than 5 mg. How long will it be before you can take another cough drop? 5 = 100(1/2) t/5 Do y1 = 5, y2 = 100(1/2) t/5 then find intersection in calc. 21

22 In the problems above, we wrote explicit functions for the exponential data. BUT we also need to know how to write recursive functions for the exponential data. Make sure you include the starting value of your data a this will always be where the independent variable is 0. Next = Now * b, Starting at a (You must tell the values of b and a) 22

23 Let s write the prior examples using Recursive Formulas! Next = Now * b, Starting at a 1. A house that costs \$200,000 in 2010 will appreciate in value by 3% each year. Next = Now * 1.03, Start = 200, The most recent virus that is making people ill is a fast multiplying one. On the first day of the illness, only 2 virus bugs are present. Each day after, the amount of bugs triples. Next = Now * 3, Start = 2 3. You have a bad cough and have to attend your little sister s choir concert. You take cough drops that contain 100 mg of menthol in each drop. Every minute, the amount of menthol in your body is cut in half. Next = Now * 0.5, Start =

24 You Try # Tobias ate half a banana in his room and forgot to throw the rest away. That night, two gnats came to visit the banana. Each night after, there were four times as many gnats hanging around the banana. a. Write an explicit function that models the gnats grown over time. Use x for nights after you first see the gnats and y for number of gnats. y 2(4) x b. Tobias mom said that he would be grounded if the gnats number more than 120. On what night will Tobias be in trouble, if he doesn t step in and solve his gnat problem? x 120 2(4), so x 3 c. Write a recursive function to model the gnats growth. Next = Now * 4, Start = 2 24

25 You Try #5 5. JaCorren is 60 inches and going through a growth spurt. For the next year, his growth will increase by 1% each month. Let x represent number of months and y represent JaCorren s height in inches. a. Write an explicit function that models JaCorren s growth spurt over the next year. y 60(1.01) x y 60(1.01) x b. Find JaCorren s height at the end of the year. y 12 60(1.01) in. c. Write a recursive function to model JaCorren s growth. Next = Now * 1.01, Start = 60 25

26 You Try #6 6. Ian s new Mercedes cost him \$75,000 in From the moment he drives it off the lot, it will depreciate by 20% each year for the first five years. a. Write an explicit function that models the car s depreciation. Use x for years after 2014 and y for the car s value, in dollars. y 75000(1.20) x y 75000(.80) x b. What will the car s value be in 2019? y (.80) \$24,576 c. Write a recursive function to model the car s depreciation. Next = Now *.80, Start = 75,000 26

27 More on Theoretical and Practical Domain When you write an equation for a situation and use it to make predictions, you assume that other people who use it will understand the situation as well as you do. That s not always the case when you take away the context, so we sometimes need to provide some additional information to accompany the equation. The domain of a function is the set of all the possible input values that can be used when evaluating it. If you remove your functions from the context of this situation and simply look at the table and/or graph of the function, what numbers are part of the theoretical domain of the function? Will this be the case with all exponential functions? Why or why not? When you consider the context, however, not all of the numbers in the theoretical domain really make sense. We call the numbers in the theoretical domain that make sense in our situation the practical domain. If you look at the tables for the problems, we can find what numbers would be a part of the practical domain. 27

28 More on Theoretical and Practical Domain Let s find the theoretical domain and practical domain of some of the practice problems you just did. Together 4. Tobias ate half a banana in his room and forgot to throw the rest away. That night, two gnats came to visit the banana. Each night after, there were four times as many gnats hanging around the banana. You try 5. JaCorren is 60 inches and going through a growth spurt. For the next year, his growth will increase by 1% each month. Let x represent number of months and y represent JaCorren s height in inches. 28

29 Homework: Packet p. 12 & 13 Print Unit 3 Packet and Notes Days

30 Practice Exponential Word Problems Scavenger Hunt OR Additional Practice 30

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