1 The Third Dance Academy And a Ball in the Canton of Northpass On The Feast of Saint Domitian May A.S. XLVI Corresponding to 7 th May 2011 ~Pars pedibus plaudunt choreas et carmina dicunt.
2 15 th C Burgundian Burgundian Basse Notes by Wilhelm of Northpass Steps: R Reuerence facing toward one`s partner with left foot B Braule Sideways steps (left then right) ss Syngle There are always 2 said to start on left (yet they start on right when between D and r) D double - one must raise one's body and go three steps forward lightly, the first with the left foot, the second with the right foot, and the third with the left like the first. r Demarche with the right foot retreating and is called the desmarche because one draws back, and ought to lift one's body, and bring the right foot back, close to the other foot. They are often a set of 3. Patterns: all basse dances are divided into three types; these are, namely, the grande mesue /large measure, the moierme mesue /medium measure, and the petite mesure /small measure. Grande R (demarche) B ss DDDDD ss rrr B Moierme R B ss DDD ss rrr B Petite - R B ss D ss rrr B (so size is # of double(s) as in 5,3,1) Measures in basse dances can be tres parfaites /very perfect, parfaites /perfect, and imparfaites /imperfect. tres parfaites - SS before and after D`s, with 3r (desmarches) before the B parfaites - SS before and after D`s, with 1r before the B imparfaites SS only before D`s and not after with 3r Filles a marier - Source - Copland This is a basic Basse dance in 4 parts for a line of couples. Introduction - R, B Part 1 - ss, ddd, rrr, B (M I) Part 2 - ss, d, rrr, B (P I) Part 3 - ss, ddd, ss, rrr, B (M TP) Part 4 - ss, d, ss, rrr, B (P TP) Amours - Source - Copland This Basse is in only 2 parts Note this reconstruction corrects an assumed typo (The first d is b in the source.) Introduction - R, B Part 1 - ss, d, ss, rrr, B (P TP) Part 2 - ss, ddd, ss, rrr, B (M TP) la Allemande- Source - Copland This Basse is in 3 parts Introduction - R, B Part 1 - ss, ddd, ss, rrr, B (M TP) Part 2 - ss, d, ss, r, B (P TP) Part 3 - ss, ddd, r, B (M I) 2
3 3 Le Petit Rouen - Source - Copland This Basse is in 4 parts Introduction - R, B Part 1 ss, ddddd, ss, rrr, B (G TP) Part 2 - ss, d, ss, rrr, B (P TP) Part 3 - ss, ddddd, ss, rrr, B (G TP) Part 4 - ss, ddd, ss, rrr, B (M TP)
4 4 15 th C Italian Colonnese Ballo for 6 Guglielmo, written for Sveva, Alessandro Sforza s second wife. Reconstruction by Conandil ingen Donngaile, May 2008, revised March 2010 and February 2011 Suggested recordings: Colonnese, Les Hauls et Las Bas album: Alta Danza; Colonese, Gaita album: Whatsoever Ye Wyll; Colonesse, Musica Subterranea album: Incantare Steps needed: Sempi Doppio Scorsso Peva Riverentia Saltarelli 3 couples in a column Join hands with your partner 16 Salterelli and stop, there is a measure to settle Couple which is behind (3 rd ) weaves through the 2 couples ahead of it, starting L 2 sempi, 4 doppi, and ends up in front with the woman above the man. During that tempo the middle couple (2 nd ) join R hands and circle start with L foot, 2 sempi, 1 doppio. Join L hands and circle start with R foot, 2 sempi, 1 doppio, perform riverentia on L foot. The middle couple (2 nd ) remaining at the rear performs like the last one (3 rd ). (The weave and circle part) Middle as above. The couples end up at their places, as in the beginning. (Note: Men on Right, Women on Left.) (Weave and Circle)- the brief description 3 rd Couple Weave L 2 sempi, 4 doppi 2 nd Couple Circle L 2 sempi, 1 doppio, R 2 sempi, 1 doppio, riverentia 1 st couple waits (This part happens quickly!) Men go around their women with 3 piva. (If everyone goes in front of their partners you won t crash.) Women circle around the men with 3 piva. All 3 Men Scosso Women Scosso in response All draw back with R foot a doppio Approach one another with doppio on the left Circle around on the L foot (as much as they wish) It ends and they repeat it, the woman going in front. Then they go to rest.
5 5 Grazioso/Gratioso(Graciousness) Ballo by Guiglielmo Reconstruction by Conandil ingen Donngaile March 2010, revised February 2011 From the transcription found in De pratica seu arte tripudii edited by Barbara Sparti. (Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale, Ital. 973) Suggested recordings: Grazioso Misericordia & Gaita, album: Eschewynge of Ydlenesse; Gratioso Alta, album: To celebrate a Prince For two Steps needed: saltarello todeschi (doubles with 2 beaten steps added after the doppio), sempi (singles), doppi (doubles), riprese (left and right), continenze (sway/tread the bellows), piva, scosso (movement), mezavolta (half turn), voltatonda (full turn- with doppio). Together: 3 saltarello todeschi starting L foot (L,R,L) Man goes to the lower side of the woman with a doppio on the R foot (go in front of the woman to her right side using a doppio R) Repeat so the man finishes in his place. (3 saltarello todeshci (L,R,L), man doppio back to L side of woman). Man leaves with: 2 salterello todeschi (L,R) 2 sempi (L,R) 1 doppio (L) Man stops Woman goes up to the man with those same steps: 2 salterello todeschi (L,R) 2 sempi (L,R) 1 doppio (L) (Together) Tempo change- music slows (Bassadanza) Man goes straight, Woman makes a circle (goes around so that she returns to her place) 2 sempi (L,R) 2 doppi (L,R) Both turn with 2 riprese (L,R) The woman is likely facing her partner, the man needs to turn- you can either do a mezavolta on the R foot before the riprese, or as you re turning clockwise step L into the first ripresa. 1 continenza (L)- there s usually a pause here to accommodate the music, which fits other sources. Woman goes straight towards the man, and the man circles 2 sempi (L,R) 2 doppi (L,R) Join hands do 2 riprese (L,R) 2 continenze (L,R) Piva tempo: Man goes around the woman 3 piva (and then he stands still) *Woman same (This is in the other Paris manuscript and there is music for it.) Man Scosso Woman Scosso Both draw back a doppio (R) (I typically do this away from my partner)
6 6 Voltatonda with a doppio (L) (towards partner) Lauro, Bassadanza (believed to be) choreographed by Lorenzo de Medici Reconstructed by Conandil ingen Donngaile, March 2010 New York Public Library, Dance Collection, MGZMB-Res manuscript found in Smith s Fifteenth-Century Dance and Music. Suggested recordings: No composed music, tenor lines used from Cornazano, but Casuelle Novelle fits well. Casuelle Novelle Musica Subterranea album: Incantare Cancon di Pifari (one of Cornazano s Tenors) performed by Misericordia & Gaita, album: Eschewynge Of Ydlenesse For an arrangement/midi of Lauro visit: The dance is in 6 For couples Steps needed: passi (singles), doppi (doubles), ripresa (left and right), riverenzia, continenzie (sway/tread the bellows), voltatonda (full turn- with 2 sempi). In the beginning 2 passi (L,R) 2 doppi (L,R) riverenzia (L) 2 riprese (L,R) 2 passi (L,R) 1 doppio (L) 1 riprese (R) 2 continenzie (L,R) (Face your partner) Take R hands and circle left with 2 passi (L,R), 1 doppio (L) Take L hands and circle right with 2 passi (R,L), 1 doppio (R) Man turns forward (there is no music for this, but it s slow, no need to rush) 2 riprese (L,R) 2 passi (L,R) 3 doppi (L,R,L) voltatonda (2 sempi R,L) 1 riprese (R) riverenzia (this is a long riverenzia it can be 9 beats or so depending on the music.) The dance repeats with the woman in front.
7 7 Legiadra, Ballo by Guilielmo Reconstruction by Conandil ingen Donngaile, June 2010 Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale, Ital. 476 manuscript found in Smith s Fifteenth-Century Dance and Music Suggested recording: Legiadra Gaita album: Whatsoever Ye Wyll For four (2 couples in a column) Steps needed: saltarelli, saltarello todescho (double with 2 beaten steps added after the doppio), sempi (singles), doppi (doubles), riprese, continenze (sway/tread the bellows), piva, scosso (movement), mezavolta (half turn), voltatonda (full turn- with doppio). 16 Saltarelli - (Bassadanza tempo) Couple 1 mezavolta on R into Riprese L, R At the same time- Couple 2 does 4 Continenze L,R,L,R Switch places: all walk towards each other with 2 sempi (L,R), 2 doppi (L,R) (couple 1 goes in the middle of couple 2 (split)).. All mezavolta on R foot (to face), 2 Riprese (L, R), 4 Continenze (L,R,L,R) Repeat switching- all walk towards each other with 2 sempi (L,R), 2 doppi (L,R) (couple 2 goes in the middle of couple 1 (split)). All mezavolta on R foot (to face) 2 Riprese (L,R) - Couple 1 Scosso (1 measure 4/4), Couple 2 Scosso (1 measure 4/4) Man 1 dance towards Woman 2 (go about ½ way) with a saltarello todescho (L). Woman 2 does the same (meet in the middle) with a saltarello todescho (L). (Bassadanza tempo) Both (Man 1, Woman 2) do 3 Riprese (R,L,R) and then turn into each other s place with a doppio L. This section repeats from the Scossi with Man 2 and Woman 1 meeting in the middle. - (Piva Tempi) Men circle (in front of) their partner 3 Piva (Original says 2, music has for 3) Women circle (in front of) the men 3 Piva (Original says 2, music has for 3) and stop. Couple 1 Scosso, Couple 2 responds (Scosso) All voltatonda with a doppio on the L foot. FINIS* *Some sources have a repeat- These indicate that the women go first/forward. If couple 2 does a mezavolta, you can repeat the dance with a new couple 1 leading, the women on the left and performing the solo sections first or you can repeat with the same first couple, the women performing the solo sections first.
8 8 Marchesana (Domenico) Couples Opening Saltarello Sequence 8 Saltarelli starting on the LT foot, Partners holding hands. Men Stamp 3 times LT RT LT moving Forward slightly while stamping Men Saltarello RT Women Stamp 3 times LT RT LT moving Forward slightly while stamping Women Saltarello RT, ending next to partner Part 2 Slow 2 Riprese LT RT holding inside hands Take RT hands and circle with 2 Singles LT RT and a Double LT Ripresa RT, passing in front of Partner Take LT hands and circle with 2 Singles LT RT and a Double LT Ripresa RT, away from Partner 2 Doubles LT RT away from Partner Mezzavolta on the 2 nd Double to end facing Partner 2 Riprese LT RT 2 Continenze LT RT Part 3 Fast Men Movimento Women Movimento Partners Double LT, covering half the distance to Partner Women Movimento Men Movimento Partners Double RT, meeting RT shoulders with Partner Men Mezavolta with a Double LT WHILE Women Voltatunda with a Double LT Partners end facing up the hall with the Women on the LT The dance repeats with the roles reversed Women on the LT and going first.
9 9 La Vita di Cholino (The life of Colin), Balletto Reconstruction by Conandil ingen Donngaile, June 2010 New York, Public Library, Dance Collection, MGZMB-Res (Lines ) found in Smith s Fifteenth-Century Dance and Music Suggested recording: La Vita di Colino, Les Hauls et La Bas album: Alta Danza For 3, the woman in the middle Steps needed: continentie (sway/tread the bellows), passittini (little single steps), riverentia, sempi (singles), doppi (doubles), riprese (left and right), voltatonda (full turn- with doppio), doppi gallopatti (gallop), mezavolta (half turn), doppi portogallesi (diagonal doubles), piva. Join hands at the end of the room. 2 continentie 2 things happen: While the Woman goes forward 2 sempi (take small steps), mezavolta on the R foot The Men do a quick riverentia on L and go back 2 passittini (and put the R foot forward). All 2 Riprese L,R - Chorus : Woman Riverentia to the Man on the R (Man responds), Woman Riverentia to the Man on the L (Man responds) All voltatonda with a doppio on the R foot - Woman takes R hand of the Man on the R side and circles with 2 doppi gallopatti L,R (Return to place) Repeat with the Man on the L (Woman takes the L hand of the Man on the L side and circles with 2 doppi gallopatti L,R) - Chorus like the first. - Woman and Men do 2 doppio gallopatti (L,R) to pass each other (Woman goes between the Men) All mezavolta on the R foot to face. All Riprese L, R - Chorus like the first. - All do 3 doppi portogallesi L,R,L towards each other, Woman passing in the middle. Turn to face All doppio R towards each other. - Chorus with hands: Woman Riverentia to the Man on the R touching R hands, Woman turns and Riverentia to the Man on the L touching L hands. All voltatonda with a doppio on the R foot - Perform a snake (hey) with 8 piva to place - Chorus: Woman Riverentia to the Man on the R (Man responds), Woman Riverentia to the Man on the L (Man responds) Woman voltatonda with a doppio on the R foot while the Men go to her with a doppio R and do a mezavolta (putting her in the middle). Finita
10 10 16 th C England Measures Part One Quadran Pavan two singles side a double forward two singles side a double back. Turkelone two singles side a double forward and a double back two singles side a double forward and a double back four doubles forward and back Earl of Essex Measure a double forward and one single back x4 two singles side a double forward and a double back Tinternell a double forward and a double back take right hands two singles and a double round take left hands two singles and a double round a double forward and a double back x3 take right hands two singles and a double round take left hands two singles and a double round Old Alman four doubles round about the hall take both hands two singles and a double round in arms both ways Measures Part Two Queen's Alman four doubles forward a double forward and back turn to face set and turn left a double forward and back turn to face set and turn right New Alman four doubles forward set and turn twice one single side one after another a double into your fellow's place one single side one after another double back into your own place
11 11 Black Alman four doubles forward part hands a double back face to face a double forward a double to the left hand another back to the right hand men set and turn women as much take both hands and change places slide upwards four double round slide down four back a double one from another meet again Lorayne Alman four double forward a double forward and back a double forward cast off a double round (twice) 16 th C France Mimed Branles The Hermits' Branle "I believe it was originally derived from some masquerade in which the young men were dressed in garments like those worn by hermits. But I do not advise you to wear such habits for fancy dress, nor to mimic the behavior of a religious order, because one should respect both their cloth and their persons." --Thoinot Arbeau With four steps, make a double to the left. With four steps, make a double to the right. Kick right, left, right, and land on both feet, and during those steps make a half turn to the left and face outwards. During these four steps the dancers cross their arms and bow their heads as young novices do: Marque pied droit (right knee out) Marque pied gauche (left knee out) Marque pied droit (right knee out) Pieds joints (feet together). Kick right, left, right, and land on both feet, and during those steps make a half turn to the left and face inwards. Doing the same steps as before, the dancers bow their heads as above.
12 12 The Washerwomen's Branle "...is thus designated because by clapping their hands the dancers make a noise like the women beating the washing on the banks of the Seine." --Thoinot Arbeau With four steps, make a double to the left. With four steps, make a double to the right. Repeat. During two simples (left and right). the women place their hands upon their hips, and the men shake their fingers at them, and in the repetition of the simples, the men hold their sides, and the women shake their fingers at them. During a double left, all dancers clap their hands. With four steps, make a double right. During a double left, all dancers clap their hands again. Dancers let go of their partner's hands, and each turning to the left, kick left, right, left, and leap into the air landing on both feet. Repeat the dance from the beginning. The Pease Branle "An equal number of men and women take part... [with] suitable gestures and miming, neither of which is difficult." --Thoinot Arbeau With four steps, make a double to the left. With four steps, make a double to the right. Repeat. Men leap into the air landing on both feet. Women leap into the air landing on both feet. Moving to the left, men leap into the air three times, each time landing on both feet. Women leap into the air landing on both feet. Men leap into the air landing on both feet. Moving to the left, women leap into the air three times, each time landing on both feet.
13 13 The Montarde Branle "In bygone days we used to dance a mimed branle called the Montarde. It was danced in duple time, with little springs as in the Haut Barrois..." --Thoinot Arbeau Four doubles (with little springs) to the left. This done, the leader, detaching himself from the others, makes a turn alone, kicking left, right, left, together, then the second makes a turn. The third does likewise, and so on until all those partaking in the dance have made their turn. And when the last dancer has finished her turn the first one makes a hay, and places himself at the tail end taking the last woman by the hand. And while he is making this hay all those before and behind whom he has passed join hands and repeat the branle as at the beginning. The Scottish Branle "The Scottish branles were in fashion about twenty years ago. The musicians have a suite comprising a number of these branles, all differing in their movements, which you can learn from the said musicians or from your companions." --Thoinot Arbeau FIRST BRANLE: Double to the left, cross right. Double to the right, cross left. Left, cross right. Right, cross left. Double to the left, cross right. Double to the right, cross left. Left, cross right. Right, cross left. SECOND BRANLE: Double to the left, cross right. Right, cross left. Left, cross right. Double to the right, cross left. Double to the left, cross right. Right, cross left. Kick right, left, right, capriole.
14 16 th C Italian Introduction to 16 th Century Italian Stepwork Clara Beaumont In the late 16 th century, Italian culture had a strong influence upon many of the arts in Europe, especially dance. One of the definitive manuals from this period of time is Fabritio Caroso s Il Ballarino, published in Venice in This manual includes step instructions, choreography, and music for 81 dances, as well as general advisements for courtly behavior. Most of the dances in the book are attributed to Caroso himself, though he also acknowledges many other dance masters, including Andrea da Gaeta, Battistino, Oratio Martire, Paolo Arnandes, and Ippolito Ghidotti da Crema as contributors. The dances themselves are often dedicated to ladies of noble families, adding evidence as to the importance of dance in society among the nobility of the time, as well as those aspiring to that status. Il Ballarino is divided into two books, the first containing step instructions and rules of etiquette, and the second containing instructions and music for the dances. Many of the dances are described as balletti or cascarde and most are danced by one couple, although there are several exceptions that are danced by three or more people together. The first book of Il Ballarino includes instructions for more than fifty steps, but most of the dances are performed using a smaller subset of more common steps. The Carolingian Accademia della Danza has developed reconstructions for these steps, and for many dances using them. These are the most commonly used steps in Caroso s dance repertoire. They are generally done with the body upright and the arms at rest, and the steps are, as a rule, very small, mostly being measured in inches. Riverenza grave: This is done in four parts, in eight beats. Begin with the left foot slightly in front and to the side of the right foot. For the first part, stand straight in that position, looking at your partner. For the second part, draw your left foot back until the point is even with the right heel, keeping the left heel on the floor and both knees straight. At the same time, lean your head and body slightly forward. For the third part, bend your knees a little and lower your body. For the fourth part, return your left foot to even, and stand up straight. So: 1) Stand straight facing your partner, with your left foot slightly forward 2) Draw your left heel back, bending forward a little with knees and back straight 3) Bend your knees a little 4) Return to feet even, standing straight. Continenza: This is done in four beats. Move your left foot slightly to the left. Bring your right heel towards the left instep, lowering your body a little, then raise the left hip a little, flourishing as you do so, and ending with your feet even. We tend to do the flourish by making a little circle with the ankles as we move from lowered to raised to feet even, but this is just one possible interpretation of the movement that Caroso describes. Continenze are often, but not always, done in pairs usually one to each side. Puntata: This is done in two beats, but it is easier to learn if you count it as four half-beats. On the first beat (or first two halfbeats), take a small step forward with the left foot. For the first half of the second beat, pause briefly and rest in place. In the second half of the second beat, bring the right foot even with the left, bend your knees a little to lower your body, then raise it again. Passo: This is a single step, done in one beat. For a Passo left, a small step forward is taken with the left foot; the step is not closed. Seguito ordinario: The Seguito ordinario is a sort of double step, consisting of 3 Passi done in 4 beats. In the first three beats, do 3 Passi - a Seguito ordinario on the left would be done as a Passo left, Passo right, and Passo left. For the fourth beat, stand still with the left foot slightly forward of the right (where it should normally be after finishing a Passo). The first 2 Passi are done on the toes, and the third Passo is done flat-footed, leaving you to rest on the last beat standing still with your resting foot flat on the ground. This step is often referred to as either an ordinario or just a seguito. 14
15 Seguito spezzato: This step is done in 2 beats. For a spezzato with the left foot, on the first beat, take a small step forward with the left foot, keeping the foot flat on the ground. In the beginning of the second beat, take a step on the toe of the right foot, bringing the toe near the left heel, and raising the left heel as the right toe touches the ground. In the end of the second beat, lower the left heel. Seguito semidoppio: The Seguito semidoppio consists of 2 Passi done in 2 beats, and 1 Seguito spezzato done in 2 beats, for a total of 4 beats. Seguito scorso: This step, which translates as scurrying step, is done in 8 half-beats, and consists of 8 Passi presti. At the beginning of the step, raise onto your toes, in each beat take one quick little half-step on your toes, stepping gently and keeping your body straight. Doppio: The Doppio is another sort of double-step, similar to the Seguito ordinario. To do a Doppio with the left foot, 3 Passi are done - one left, one right, and one left; then instead of doing a fourth Passo on the right, the right foot is brought even with the left. As the right foot is brought even, bend your knees a little, then straighten your knees and raise and lower your heels. Ripresa: The Ripresa is done in one beat, moving side-to-side. For a Ripresa to the left, take a small step to the left, raising onto your toes. Bring your right foot even with the left, then lower your heels to the ground. Trabuchetto: The Trabuchetto is done in 1 beat. For a Trabuchetto on the left foot, hop onto the left foot, moving a very small distance to the left and landing on your toes. As the left foot touches the ground, raise the right foot a little bit, moving it towards the left and keeping the right leg extended. Scambiata: To do a Scambiata to the left, start with your feet even. Take a small step forward and slightly to the left with the left foot, keeping the foot flat on the ground. Cross your right foot behind the left, so that the toe of the right foot is just outside the heel of the left. Then raise the left foot and take a small step to bring it even with the right, uncrossing your feet and bending your knees a little. End the step with a jump, landing with your feet even. Trango: The Trango is done in 1 beat. To do a Trango with the left foot, take a small step forward and to the left with the left foot, keeping the foot flat on the ground. At the end of the step, bend your knees a little. Raise your right heel, then quickly raise your right foot and left heel (so you are standing, momentarily, on your left toes), then lower both feet again so they are flat on the ground. Note that Caroso also describes a Seguito trangato, which is a completely different step done in 4 beats. In describing the dances, he also refers to a Passo trangato. Since this step usually appears to take 1 beat, and there is no reference to a Passo trangato that I have found in the step instructions, I believe that the Passo trangato and the Trango are the same step. Cadenza: The cadenza is simply a leap and foot-change. Starting with the left foot forward, leap into the air and land with the right foot forward. Meza Riverenza: This is a quick step, usually done either in one beat or in no time at all between other steps. It is just a quick, small bend of the knees, usually done facing one s partner. These steps make up the core of the dances in Caroso s repertoire. The number of beats per step can vary, though. In some dances, he will refer to doing a step presto, or quickly; in that case the step is generally done at doubletime, requiring half as many beats. Steps can also be done grave, or slowly, taking twice as many beats. 15
16 16 La Castellana Individual couples danced in a wheel First Verse Riverenza Four Spezzati LT RT LT RT in a clockwise circle w/partner Two Spezzati LT RT turning over LT shoulders Chorus Puntate forward LT Puntate back RT Four Trabuchetti LT RT LT RT Spezzato LT traveling Left and half Riverenza Spezzato RT traveling Right and half Riverenza. 2 Riprese LT LT, 2 Trabuchetti LT RT, Spezzato Cadenza LT 2 Riprese RT RT, 2 Trabuchetti RT LT, Spezzato Cadenza RT Second Verse Two Spezatti LT RT holding RT hands Two Spezatti LT RT turning over LT shoulders Two Spezatti LT RT holding LT hands Two Spezatti LT RT turning over LT shoulders Chorus Third Verse Two Passi LT RT and a Cadenza approaching Partner, angling LT Two Riprese RT and two Trabuchetti RT LT, passing in front of Partner Two Passi RT LT and a Cadenza approaching Partner, angling RT Two Riprese LT and two Trabuchetti LT RT, passing in front of Partner Chorus (Fabritio Caroso, Il Ballarino)
17 Chiara Stella Individual couples begin holding RT hand in RT First Verse Riverenza, drop hands Eight Spezzati LT, RT, etc. in a wheel Scambiata LT and a Cadenza Chorus 4 Trabs LT, RT, LT, RT Trangato LT flanking backward Trangato RT flanking backward 2 Riprese LT LT, 2 Trabuchetti LT RT, Spezzato Cadenza LT 2 Riprese RT RT, 2 Trabuchetti RT LT, Spezzato Cadenza RT Second Verse Man s Solo 2 Spezzati LT and RT flanking forward 2 Singles LT, RT Two Trabuchetti LT, RT Spezzato Cadenza LT this should cover about ½ the distance between partners Spez RT and LT flanking forward 2 Singles RT, LT Two Trabs RT, LT Spezzato Cadenza RT end close to partner Chorus Third Verse Woman s Solo Repeat what the Men did in the second verse Chorus Third Verse Taking RT hands, 2 Singles LT, RT 2 Trabuchetti LT, RT 2 Riprese LT LT, 2 Trabuchetti LT RT, drop hands Spezzato Cadenza LT Taking LT hands, 2 Singles RT, LT 2 Trabs RT, LT 2 Riprese RT RT, 2 Trabuchetti RT LT, drop hands Spezzato Cadenza RT Chorus 17 Fabritio Caroso, Il Ballarino
18 Contrapasso En Due (Fabritio Caroso, Il Ballarino) Individual couples First Section A1 (First Repeat): Riverenza LT 2 Continenze LT RT A1 (Second Repeat): 2 Singles LT RT; 1 Double LT 2 Singles RT LT backwards 2 Reprise RT RT A1 (Third Repeat): 2 Singles LT RT; 1 Double LT 2 Singles RT LT backwards 2 Reprise RT RT B1: Holding RT Hands, Circling LT 2 Singles LT RT; 1 Double (LT) Holding LT Hands, Circling RT 2 Singles (RT, LT); 1 Double (RT) B2: Facing Partner Figure 8 Circles 2 Doubles LT RT circling LT away from partner and ending where you started 2 Doubles (RT, LT) circling RT away from partner and ending where you started B1: Holding RT Arms, Circling LT 2 Singles LT RT; 1 Double (LT) Holding LT Arms, Circling RT 2 Singles (RT, LT); 1 Double (RT) B2: Facing Partner Figure 8 Circles B1: Holding Both Hands, Circling LT 2 Singles LT RT; 1 Double (LT) Holding Both Hands, Circling RT 2 Singles (RT, LT); 1 Double (RT) B2: Facing Partner Women Figure 8 Circles as before Men 2 Doubles LT RT flanking BCK Men 2 Doubles RT LT flanking FWD Second Section A1 (All Repeats): Doubles (LT, RT, LT, etc.) There may be 8 or 12 Doubles depending on the number of times the music repeats. B1: Riverenza LT 2 Continenze LT RT B2: Facing Partner Figure 8 Circles B1: Men Advancing/Women Retreating Men 2 Singles LT RT; 1 Double LT Women 2 Singles RT LT; 1 Double RT Women Advancing/Men Retreating Women 2 Singles LT RT; 1 Double LT Men 2 Singles RT LT; 1 Double RT B2: Facing Partner Figure 8 Circles B1: Men alone Riverenza LT Women alone Riverenza LT B2: Facing Partner Women Figure 8 Circles as before Men 2 Doubles LT RT flanking BCK Men 2 Doubles RT LT flanking 18
19 19 Fulgente Stella (Shining Star) Begin facing partner (if 4: in a square with M to L of W of the other couple), no hands held Part 1 1 Riverenza, 4 Trabuchetti 1 Spezzato to L, Riverenza, reverse 4 Spezzati in a wheel, 2 Scambiate Refrain: 2 Riprese to L, 2 Trabuchetti, 1 Spezzato L in own circle, 1 Cadenza, reverse Part 2 & 3 Solo (M in 2, W in 3): 1 Passi, 1 Cadenza, 4 Trabuchetti 1 Spezzato to L, 1 Reverenza, reverse Chain, clasping L hands (in 2) or R hands of Woman to Man s R (in 4): 2 Spezzati changing places, 2 Passi L in own circle, 1 Candeza Reverse all, including hands Refrain Part Four 4 Trabuchetti, 1 Semidoppio to L, reverse 1 Spezzato to L, 1 Riverenza, reverse 4 Passi flanking behind (2 beats each) Refrain 1 Riverenza Rose e Viole (Roses and Violets) Couple facing, no hands held Part 1 1 Riverenza (short), 1 Cambio L, 2 Spezzate turning L, 1 Cambio with a Saltetto, 2 Spezzate, 1 Cambio 1 Passo L forward, 1 Cambio R, 1 Seguito turning L, 2 Passi forward, 1 Saltetto, 1 Seguito turning R Parts 2 & 3: Solo (M in 2, W in 3): 2 Spezzate forward & behind, 1 Seguito forward, 2 Spezzate behind & forward, 1 Seguito behind Refrain, together: 2 Passi forward, 1 Saltetto, 1 Seguito turning L, reverse Part 4 Man s solo: 1 Batte, 2 Passi behind, 2 Trabochetti, Woman repeats Refrain Part 5 Wheel L: 2 Spezzate, 1 Seguito, Reverse in wheel to R Refrain
20 20 Rustica Amorosa (Rustic Lover) Couple facing, no hands held Part 1: 1 Riverenza, 2 Continenza Refrain: 4 Riprese to L, reverse; 2 Trangati flanking behind, 1 Seguito forward, repeat on other foot Part 2 ( ordinary hands, processing): 4 Seguito, (drop hands) Refrain Part 3 (changing places): 2 Seguiti forward w/a meza Riverenza, 2 Seguiti turning to L Refrain Part 4 (counter-ordinary hands, processing): 4 Seguiti, (drop hands) Refrain Sciolta A: 1 Riverenza, 4 Spezzati turning to L to original places B: 2 Spezzati flanking (no direction given), (turning L side within) 2 Riprese, 3 Trabuchetti repeat on other foot (with R side within) Refrain 1 Riverenza
21 21 16 th C Galliard Introduction to Galliards Workshop Lady Katherine Mercer (mka Catherine Dean) Galliards don't have to be intimidating just because they're improvised. Learning a few key steps and patterns is all you need. In this class we'll go over the basic steps of the galliard and a few easy variations. Then we'll learn how to string the pieces together into a full no-brainer galliard sequence with a partner. Arbeau provides us with the basics of how to do this in his 1589 dance manual Orchesography: Capriol Well, here am I holding a damsel by the hand, my bow made, my hat replaced and my bearing seemly. Where should I commence? Arbeau circle the room first with your damsel and when you are ready to take your congé, letting her dance off alone while you commence dancing your five steps higher in the air, continuing thus until you are in front of her. And then execute what passages you please in a lively fashion. (Orchesography 93). So, how does that translate into an actual dance to an actual piece of music? A basic galliard sequence can be broken up into five different parts, each of which can be performed in any number of ways. Introduction: Begin by honoring your partner. Stand in ordinary position (woman to the man s right, hands joined and held low). Perform an honors sequence. If one is being very French this would probably be a simple reverence by the man and the woman. If one is feeling a bit Italian, a riverenza followed by two continenze (left and right) is very nice. Processional: Holding hands and dancing together, process around the room for as long as you like with either a basic cinque pas step or a traveling galliard step (Caroso basic). Show off! Taking Leave: When you have processed enough, say eight bars of music, split apart and continue dancing around the room. The man should eventually find himself at one end of the hall and the lady at the other. Variations: Arbeau is somewhat vague about how exactly the variations should be performed. It is certainly possible to read into his instructions that both the man and the woman should perform variations simultaneously or that only the man should perform any variations at all. However, what I find works best is if the man and the woman alternate variations of a fixed length say four or eight bars of galliard. This works particularly well because it gives each dancer a chance to showcase his or her talents without being upstaged by another dancer. It also gives the person not dancing
22 22 a chance to catch his or her breath and plan what variations to perform next. It is not necessary to stay in one spot during the variations it is quite effective to perform a few traveling steps toward your partner, a few showy variations in front of him or her, and a few more traveling steps back to place. End: Arbeau does not specify how to end the galliard, but here are some suggestions. If you are dancing at a ball and don t know how long the music is going to go on, continue the variations until the music stops and then both partners may reverence each other from their places and come together to thank each other for the dance. If you are in performance and know how long the music is going to last you can choreograph a more graceful ending. Stop after a series of woman s variations with about a dozen measures of music left. Following the woman s last variation, the dancers should both perform basic cinque pas steps (or traveling galliard steps) to come together and process around the room until the music is about to end. On the last two measures they should perform two continenze (left and right) followed by a riverenza to end the dance with the music. Some suggestions for four bar variations (These are taken from Arbeau--add your own!): CP=cinque pas 1: CPL 2: CPR 3: CPL (turning left) 4: CPR (turning R) 1: CPL (towards partner) 2: CPR (towards partner) 3: CPL (away from partner) 4: CPL (back to place) 1: KL, KL, KR, KR, Cadenza 2: Repeat starting R 3: Repeat starting L 4: Repeat starting R 1: Big bell L 2: Big bell R 3: Little bell L 4: Little bell R 1: pied crosse L 2: pied crosse R 3: vache L 4: vache R Almost any 16 th century Italian step can also be turned into a galliard sequence. Try these: 1-2: 6 sottopiede to the left, cadenza 3-4: repeat to the right 1: Seguito Spezzato L (towards partner) 2: Seguito Spezzato R (towards partner) 3: Seguito Spezzato L (away from partner) 4: Seguito Spezzato R (back to place)
23 23 17 th C England Argeers (Playford I) Two Couples Facing Each Other First Verse A1: Holding hands with Parnter, go forward a Single and give 2 hands to Opposite; All do 2 slips to the Men s Left and 2 slips to the Men s Right with Opposites; Still holding hands, Opposites change places; Partners take 2 hands and turn Clockwise 1½ times around to end proper in Opposites places. A2: Holding hands with Partner, go forward a Double; Give 2 hands to opposite and change places with Opposite; Partners take 2 hands and turn Clockwise 1½ times around to end in original places. B1: Men change places; Women changes places; All set and turn single Left. B2: Women change places; Men changes places; All set and turn single Right. Second Verse A1: Opposites take hands and lead out a Double and FALL back a Double; Turn to face Partner, take 2 hands and turn Partner clockwise once around. A2: Partners fall back a Double and come forward a Double; All set and turn single Left. B1: Men slip Right while Women slip Left, Women passing in front of their Partners; Men slip Left while Women slip Right, Men passing in front of their Partners; Take 2 hands with Opposites and turn clockwise once around. B2: Women advance a Single towards each other and retreat to places; As the Women retreat, Men pass by Right shoulders and go around Opposites; Then Men pass by Left shoulders and go around partners ending in their original places. Third Verse A1: Take 2 hands with Opposites and change places with Partners as a unit, Men going forward during the first ½ of the change and Women going forward to end the change; All set and turn single Left. A2: Men slip Left while Women slip Right, Women passing in front of partners, ending in original places; Opposites take 2 hands and Men advance a Single and retreat a Single while Women retreat a Single and advance a Single; All set and turn single Right. B1: Man 1 and his Opposite cast into Partners places with Partners following, ending improper; Woman 1 and her Opposite cast back to their original places with partners following, ending proper. B2: All face Opposites and pass Opposite by Right shoulders, then face Partners and pass Partners by Left Shoulders; Turn to face Partner and Partners turn by Right hands; *All end this turn in a line facing the presence. * This last move will be different depending on the orientation of the set and the location of the presence
24 24 Goddesses Lady Lorita s Dance Notes Dances are reconstructed from the pages of The English Dancing Master Translation to modern vernacular is purely my own. For a line of 4 couples Each numbered step is done in 16 beats of the music. 1. Double forward and back. Twice. 2. CHORUS Learn to love it, it s done 11 times. Top couple palm-casts and goes down around the outside of the set to the bottom. Everyone else follows suit, effectively inverting the line. Now-bottom couple palm-casts again and goes up around the outside of the set back to the top. Everyone else follows suit, putting the line back in original order. 3. Lords join hands along the gender line and circle halfway around the ladies and back. 4. CHORUS 5. Ladies join hands along the gender line and circle halfway around the lords and back. 6. CHORUS 7. Lords join hands again and circle fully around the ladies. 8. CHORUS 9. Ladies join hands again and circle fully around the lords. 10. CHORUS 11. Lords form a slipping ring, going halfway around and back. 12. CHORUS 13. Ladies do a slipping ring, same as the lords. 14. CHORUS 15. Slipping ring for all: Whole set joins hands and circles, halfway around and back. 16. CHORUS 17. Lords hey: Top two couples face each other and bottom two couples face each other. Start a hey by passing right shoulders. Right at the ends, left in the middle. 18. CHORUS 19. Ladies hey: Exactly the same as the lords. 20. CHORUS 21. Hey for all: Top couple and bottom couple face each other, ladies in the middle face each other and lords in the middle face each other. Start a hey by passing right shoulders. Go once around, always traveling in the same direction. Don t turn around for any reason! 22. CHORUS Reverance and do honor to your partner.
25 25 Parsons Farewell (Playford I) 2 Couple Square First Verse A1 Partners forward a Double, then 4 Slips to the Left. A2 Partners back up a Double, then 4 Slips to the Right. B1 Men rise, Women rise, then all rise together 4 times; Two-hand turn with Opposites. B2 Women rise, Men rise, then all rise together four times; Two-hand turn with Opposites. Second Verse A1 Forward a Double with Partners; Opposites lead out a Double. A2 Change hands and meet again; Fall back to places with Partners. B1 Men meet, putting out their Right hands (Fake Right), then turn each other by Left hands (Take Left) into a Right hand turn with Opposites; Men cross again, passing Left shoulders, and turn Partners by the Right hand. B2 Women meet, Fake Left then Take Right turning Opposites by the Left hand; Women cross again, passing Right shoulders, and turn Partners by the Right hand. Third Verse A1 Partners take two hands and slip 4 slips to meet Opposites; Take two hands with Opposites and slip 4 slips away from Partners. A2 Opposites slip 4 slips to meet Partners; Take two hands with Partners and slip 4 slips back to place. B1 Partners turn by Right hands; Men cross by Left shoulders to start a four person hey ending on the opposite side; Partners do a two-hand turn. B2 Partners turn by Left hands; Women cross by Right shoulders to start a four person hey ending on the original side; Partners do a two-hand turn.
26 26 Picking of Sticks Lady Lorita s Dance Notes Dances are reconstructed from the pages of The English Dancing Master Translation to modern vernacular is purely my own. For a line of 3 couples, numbered 1, 2, and 3 Each numbered step is done in 16 beats of the music. 1. Double forward and back. Twice. 2. Lord in the number 1 position: switch places with Lady 2, and then with Lord 3. This is called a chevron change, because of the shape your path takes as you go down the set. Line doubles forward and back. 3. Lady in the number 1 position: switch places with Lord 2 and then with Lady 3. Line doubles forward and back. 4. Person currently standing in Lord 1 s spot: follow the pattern described in step 2, disregarding the gender notation. Double forward and back. 5. Person currently standing in Lady 1 s spot: follow the pattern described in step 3, disregarding the gender notation. Double forward and back. 6. Repeat step Repeat step Siding right and left with your partner. 9. Shuttles and Cocks Part 1 : Couple 1 joins hands and slips down the line one spot to the number 2 position, as couple 2 goes up the line one spot to make room. Couple 2 then joins hands and slips down the line one spot back to where they started, as couple 1 goes up the line one spot. While this is happening, couple 3 skips/runs/quickly walks around the outside of the set. Begin travel in the direction you are currently facing. Lady takes the inside track. 10. Shuttles and Cocks Part 2 : Couple 3 joins hands and slips up the line one spot to the number 2 position, as couple 2 goes down the line one spot to make room. Couple 2 then joins hands and slips up the line one spot back to where they started, as couple 3 goes down the line one spot. While this is happening, couple 1 skips/runs/quickly walks around the outside of the set. Begin travel in the direction you are currently facing. Lady takes the inside track. 11. Arming right and left with your partner. 12. Lords Sheepskin Hey : So named because the movement is similar to tying a sheepskin (also called a sheep s head) knot. **This step takes 48 beats of music, not 16.** This is basically a game of Follow the Leader. Lord 1 leads off the gender line, going up and around Lady 1 and then weaving in and out of the line of ladies. When Lord 3 reaches Lady 2, he rotates around her and doubles back the way he came. He is now in the front of the line and Lords 2 and 1 will be following him, in that order. When Lord 2, now at the back of the line, reaches Lady 2, he rotates around her and doubles back the way he came. He is now at the front of the line. When Lord 1, now at the back of the line, reaches Lady 2, he rotates around her and doubles back the way he came. This should have him going up around Lady 1, with the line back in original order. Go straight down the line of ladies, around the bottom, and back up the other way. 13. Ladies Sheepskin Hey : Copy exactly what the lords did in step 12, making the necessary gender substitutions. Reverance and do honor to your partner.
27 27 Saint Martins (Playford I) 2 Couple Square First Verse A1 Partners forward a Double; 2 slips Left and 2 slips Right; Turn Single away from Partner (Men over Left shoulders, Women over Right shoulders); then back a Double to places. A2 Partners forward a Double; pass Opposite by Right shoulders, pass Partner by Left shoulders; Turn Single and end facing in. B1 Men go back a Double from each other on the diagonal, while Women Turn Single; Men meet and turn half way by Left hands and turn Opposites with Right hands once around ending with Women in their original places and Men in their Opposites places. B2 Women back a Double from each other on the diagonal, while Men Turn Single; Women meet and turn half way by Right hands and turn Opposites with Left hands once around ending with Partners together in their Opposites places. Second Verse A1 Partners forward a Double; pass Opposite by Right shoulders; face Partner and Set and Turn Single. A2 All that again, back to places. B1 Men meet a Double and stand; Women meet a Double and stand; all take hands and Circle Left half way; Turn Single over Left shoulders. B2 Women meet a Double and stand; Men meet a Double and stand; all take hands and Circle Left half way; Turn Single over Left shoulders Third Verse A1 Partners forward a Double, take two hands with Opposites; 2 slips out and 2 slips in; Men cast Left to place with Women following. A2 Partners back a Double; pass Partners by Right shoulders; Men go back to back by Left shoulders ending in their original places; Women go back to back by Right shoulders ending in their original places. B1 Men honor; Women honor; Right hands across to places (full Right hand star). B2 Women honor; Men honor; Left hands across halfway ending in a line facing the presence.* * This last move will be different depending on the orientation of the set and the location of the presence
28 28 Whirligig Reconstructed from Playford s The English Dancing Master, first edition. For a line of 3 couples. There are a number of different ways that this dance can be reconstructed, due partly to the way things are described in Playford s book. At the time of publishing, it was assumed that the steps and references mentioned were already known by everyone who read them. Not having that knowledge today, it makes reconstruction a bit more challenging. This is the version of the dance that I find makes the most sense, is the least complicated to do, and aligns best with Playford s description. Each step is done in 16 beats. 1.) Double forward and back, twice. 2.) Middle couple goes up between the first, casts off, and goes back to place. Then they go up between again, but this time they cross places, casting off around the person in the first couple of the opposite gender. Cross back to return to your place. 3.) Middle couple does that whole maneuver again, this time with the bottom couple. 4.) CHORUS: The set casts off from the top, meets partners at the bottom, and comes back to place. Then the top couple casts off again. This progresses everyone in the set one place. 5.) New middle couple does the maneuvers described in steps 2 and 3. 6.) CHORUS 7.) New middle couple does the maneuvers described in steps 2 and 3. 8.) CHORUS 9.) Siding, left and right. 10.) The middle lord arms with the first lady, who initiates a single hey (aka a figure 8 hey or a 3-person hey). At the same time, the middle lady arms with the third lord, who initiates a single hey. The amount of arming before starting the hey depends upon the dancers. Playford s description simply says arme and they three goe the single hey, which would suggest going a full rotation once around as is normally done with arming. However, I have seen dancers who need more time for the hey only go around halfway, and I have seen very experienced dancers go once and a half around at top speed. It also depends on which version of the dance is being taught. 11.) Now the middle lord arms with the third lady, who starts a single hey, and the middle lady arms with the first lord, who starts a single hey. 12.) CHORUS 13.) New middle couple does the maneuvers described in steps 10 and ) CHORUS 15.) New middle couple does the maneuvers described in steps 10 and ) CHORUS 17.) Arming, left and right. 18.) First two couples cast off and come back to your places. Take right hands across and circle around once. 19.) Last two couples do the same thing. 20.) CHORUS 21.) New first two couples do the maneuvers described in step ) New last two couples do the maneuvers described in step ) CHORUS 24.) New first two couples do the maneuvers described in step ) New last two couples do the maneuvers described in step ) CHORUS to finish.
29 29 17 th C Lovelace Academie of Dance III: A Brief Introduction to the Lovelace Manuscript Taught by Arglwydd Dafydd Cyhoeddwr (mka John White) Web-site: In June of 2004, Ms Carol Marsh presented a paper to the Rothenfelser Tanzsymposion titled The Lovelace Manuscript, A Preliminary Study. 1 Some while later, the existence of this paper became more widely known, revealing to many for the first time the existence of the work that she labels the Lovelace Manuscript. Much of the physical description and conclusions drawn from being able to actually examine the document that I will echo here come directly from Ms Marsh's article essentially because she has had that direct contact with it - my own knowledge of the manuscript comes from examining the images available on the web 2 along with what she says about it. I do, however, break from certain of her conclusions, and my analysis of the dances themselves comes from my own knowledge of English Country Dances and reconstructing dances in general. Physically, the manuscript is a small octavo commonplace book measuring roughly 14.2 cm by 8.8 cm (5 5/8" by 3 ½") - in other words, the images of the pages on the website are larger than actual size! Besides the 32 dances that we are mostly interested in, subsequent entries include 15 pages of poetry, household accounts, legal notices, Bible verses, etc. There is no title page, and several leaves are missing at the beginning of the manuscript. The extant first and last pages of the manuscript are signed by one Richard Pattricke, but he is definitely not (according to Ms Marsh) the copyist of the dances. The dances themselves are not dated per se, but other entries in the manuscript include dates ranging from 1649 to The name Lovelace does not appear within the pages of the manuscript, but Ms Marsh makes a good case as to why she labels it as such. Richard Lovelace ( ) 3 was born in southeast London. His family was from Kent, and he inherited a tradition of military distinction on his father's side, while his mother's family was of the legal persuasion. Unfortunately, though he supported the king during the English Civil War, he spent more time in prison than on the battlefield. Richard Lovelace is far better known as a poet than a cavalier, and it is likely that you've heard of his work even if you've never heard his name. His most famous poem is called 'To Althea, From Prison' (1642), and the last stanza begins: Stone walls do not a prison make, Nor iron bars a cage; Minds innocent and quiet take That for an hermitage 1 The text of this paper can be found at 2 Facsimilie of the first 67 pages of the manuscript at: Transcription of same at: 3 Details gleaned from one biography at: