Arctic Frontiers, Tromsø, January 24 th Thorbjørn Thorvik, Senior adviser. The Norwegian Directorate of Fisheries.

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1 Sustainable harvesting at lower trophic levels: The Norwegian management plan for Calanus finmarchicus and the framework for utilizing mesopelagic species Thorbjørn Thorvik, Senior adviser. The Norwegian Directorate of Fisheries Arctic Frontiers, Tromsø, January 24 th 2017

2 COD

3 Herring

4 Calanus

5 Lanternfish

6 The four previous slides: cod, herring, calanus (zooplankton) and lanternfish (mesopelagic fish) In Norway: cod and herring are very important species both as sources of food (for thousands of years) and as commercial commodities (for hundreds of years) Throughout history sea mammals and species of fish at higher trophic levels have been caught The oceans cover almost 70 % of the surface of the earth and account for around 50 % of its biological production. However, only about 2 % of our food comes from the sea

7 In the future a larger portion of our food (on our tables and plates) will have to come from marine aquaculture: And, further growth and development in marine aquaculture will require new sources of marine feed, like Calanus finmarchicus and mesopelagic fish Increase in global population Economic growth in traditionally poor countries Seafood is healthy Scarcity of arable land and fresh water resources Limited potential for growth in traditional fisheries

8 An important, almost untapped source for marine feedstuffs is small, marine species at lower trophic level mesopelagic fish, krill and zooplankton The biomass of species at lower trophic levels is huge, and outnumber the size of larger fish stocks many times Species at lower trophic levels can be utilized both as feed for farmed fish and terrestrial animals. There are also markets for special products for human consumption, health supplement etc. In the following: More about Calanus finmarchicus and mesopelagic species

9 Calanus finmarchicus (CF): Has been harvested in Norway since 2003 in a small-scale fishery on the basis of one experimental licence 513 tonnes were caught in 2015, increased to 660 tonnes in In previous years the annual catch was substantially lower CF has so far been utilized as raw material for further processing into special products for human consumption and use (mainly for health- and dietary purposes)

10 After a number of years with a limited experimental fishery, the Directorate of Fisheries presented in 2016 a proposed management plan for CF. The Institute of Marine Research (IMR) delivered the scientific input to the plan The proposed management plan has been examined by the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Fisheries, and will soon be circulated for public consultation The basic idea behind the management plan: a regulatory framework for sustainable harvesting of a marine resource with a large biological potential

11 The key elements of the Norwegian management plan for CF: Based on an estimated standing biomass of 33 million tonnes A total annual quota of tonnes is proposed for the Norwegian Economic Zone in the Norwegian Sea and the Fishery zone around Jan Mayen The determination of the quota is based on a conservative and precautionary approach, «inspired» by CCAMLR's methodology for determining the quota of krill in Antarctica

12 Prohibited to fish within the baselines A quota of tonnes in the area between the baselines and the line marking the meter depth contour The fishery will be conducted with pelagic trawl Between the baselines and the meter depth contour line vessels will need a special licence for trawling for CF Outside the m depth contour the fishery is open for all vessels already holding a licence for trawling for other species

13 Ecological challenges in connection with the harvesting of CF: Vital to avoid damages on important parts of the ecosystem, therefore bycatch of eggs, larvae and juveniles of fish shall be kept as low as practically possible To this end: a ban on trawling for CF inside the base lines and a quota limited to tonnes between the baselines and the line marking meter depth contour

14 Other challenges for future harvesting of CF: Larger and more efficient gears (trawl) Right type of vessel (size, processing of catch) Systematic and correct sampling of catches Sufficient surveillance and control And most importantly: Will it be possible to achieve profitable harvesting outside coastal waters?

15 Mesopelagic species: Include a large number of different species of fish, zooplankton, squid, jellyfish Norwegian fisheries authorities in cooperation with marine scientists, the fishing industry and other stakeholders are currently discussing future fishing possibilities as to mesopelagic species. Other characteristics of mesopelagic fish: Large resource, both globally and in the North Atlantic Small, i.e. 3-6 cm

16 Migrates vertically between 200 and m depth Vertical migration driven by light throughout the day Concentrations in «hot spots». Reykjanes Ridge seems to be the «hot spot» in the North-East Atlantic. Gulf of Oman probably the global «hot spot»

17 Norwegian research on mesopelagic species: In the Arabian sea (late 1970 s,early 1980 s) The Gulf of Oman (1992) Acoustic data (various cruises in the North Atlantic) Trawl hauls in the Norwegian sea (several cruises) Experimental fishing, Reykjanes Ridge (2016)

18 Catch in the North Atlantic: No landings are registered from Norwegian vessels Iceland reported more than tonnes of silvery lightfish caught in the three year period (small quantities after 2011) Russia reported more than tonnes of glacier lanternfish in 2001 and 2002 (small amounts in other years).

19 Ecological challenges in connection with catching mesopelagic species: Bycatch of commerial species like redfish, blue whiting and argentine May harm eggs and larvae of deep-water species

20 Experimental licences to Norwegian vessels: For some years experimental licences have been issued to Norwegian vessels. Norwegian authorities will continue issuing experimental licences. Currently: Increasing attention among vessel owners and the fishing industry at large.

21 Other challenges concerning catching and utilizing mesopelagic species: Requires more scientific research Locate «hot spots» where the fishing possibilities will be best More experiments to develop the best adapted gear (trawl) Right type of vessel (size, processing of catch) Finding the best methods for processing and conserving the catch on board vessels

22 Thank you for your attention

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