Experience, Priorities & Opportunities in South Atlantic and Indian Ocean

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1 Experience, Priorities & Opportunities in South Atlantic and Indian Ocean Yugraj Singh Yadava, Ph.D Director Bay of Bengal Programme Inter-Governmental Organisation Presentation prepared for the Workshop on Linking Global and Regional Levels in the Management of Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction, February 2015, FAO, Rome, Italy

2 Bay of Bengal Programme Inter-Governmental Organisation (BOBP-IGO) A four-country regional fisheries advisory body. Members: Bangladesh, India, Maldives, Sri Lanka. Institutionalized in 2003 from the erstwhile Bay of Bengal Programme of FAO.

3 Indian Ocean Million tonnes (Indian Ocean) Marine fisheries production in IO and RoW Indian Ocean, Western Indian Ocean, Eastern Rest of the World Million tonnes (Rest of the World) 3 rd Largest Ocean Resource Rich, High Population, Developing World Supplies about 14% global marine fish production. Record continual growth against slowing of production in rest of the world. Supports 84% of fisheries livelihoods and 60 percent of fishing fleet. Source: SOFIA 2014

4 ABNJ Eastern Indian Ocean (Major Fishing area 57) Area: c. 22 million sq. km 1960 total catch: 42,000 t 2006 total catch: 1,030,000 t Real values: 1960: USD 0.5 billion 2006 USD 1.1 billion % Increase in value ( ) % Increase in catch ( ) Disproportional increase in catch and real value!

5 Eastern Indian Ocean Real value (US$: c. 2000): commercial groups in high seas Tuna fisheries is driving the Eastern Indian Ocean

6 Trends in ABNJ Stocks Eastern Indian Ocean Status of stock/ Period Developing Exploited Overexploited Collapsed Rebuilding Source:

7 The Bay of Bengal Large Marine Ecosystem (BOBLME) Total maritime area: 6.2 million km 2 EEZ: 4.3 million km 2 Total ABNJ: 1.9 million km 2 Fisheries employment: 4.5 million Number of fishing vessels:

8 World Bank/BOBP-IGO ABNJ Project- Ocean Partnerships for Sustainable Fisheries and Biodiversity Conservation Project targets small-scale long-line fisheries for tuna and other migratory species. Focus on South India but with regional outreach. Demonstrate a process and mechanism to establish sustainable and productive fisheries for highlymigratory fish such as tuna. Develop business cases for financing public-private partnerships.

9 Issues

10 Fisheries A decline in the overall availability of fish resources and increasing fishing effort. Increasingly fisheries moving offshore even nontraditional offshore fisheries nations focussing on offshore. Changes in marine biodiversity, especially through loss of vulnerable and endangered species. Pollution increasing industry and urbanization. Lack of national/regional integration in governance for an ecosystem approach.

11 IUU Fishing in the region IUU Catch (%) Trends in regional estimates of illegal fishing, averaged over 5 year periods Indian Ocean, Western Indian Ocean, Eastern On an average ( ) in the Western Indian Ocean, tonnes of fish valued between US$ million were taken illegally. In Eastern Indian Ocean, where IUU fishing is increasing, between tonnes of fish valued at US$ million might have been taken illegally. Ref: Agnew DJ, Pearce J, Pramod G, Peatman T, Watson R, et al. (2009) Estimating the Worldwide Extent of Illegal Fishing. PLoS ONE 4(2): e4570. doi: /journal.pone

12 Shipping traffic expected to proliferate Harbours on the eastern lobe of the Indian Ocean could transform the economic geography of Asia The Economist

13 Oil and mineral exploration The major sedimentary basins and current blocks under lease in the Bay of Bengal. Recent discoveries in India and Myanmar and initiatives by Bangladesh pursuant to the settlement of its EEZ with India and Myanmar, point to a promising exploration future for the Bay of Bengal. Increasing need of energy in the region is likely to accelerate the effort. Ref:

14 Existing governance pattern Network of RFBs

15 Concluding thoughts Many initiatives on sustainability IOTC/BOBP/BOBLME. No platform to capture experience and drawing lessons. Lack of strong political platform for regional cooperation. Project initiatives/outcomes normally do not gain entry into political initiatives.

16 Thanks!

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