Walkway Length, But Not Turning Direction, Determines the Six-Minute Walk Test Distance in Individuals With Stroke

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Walkway Length, But Not Turning Direction, Determines the Six-Minute Walk Test Distance in Individuals With Stroke"

Transcription

1 806 Walkway Length, But Not Turning Direction, Determines the Six-Minute Walk Test Distance in Individuals With Stroke Shamay S. Ng, PhD, William W. Tsang, PhD, Tracy H. Cheung, BSc (Hons), Josiben S. Chung, BSc (Hons), Fenny P. To, BSc (Hons), Phoebe C. Yu, BSc (Hons) ABSTRACT. Ng SS, Tsang WW, Cheung TH, Chung JS, To FP, Yu PC. Walkway length, but not turning direction, determines the six-minute walk test distance in individuals with stroke. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2011;92: Objectives: To examine (1) the effect of different walkway distances, and (2) turning directions on the six-minute walk test (6MWT) in subjects with stroke. Design: A cross-sectional study. Setting: University-based rehabilitation center. Participants: Subjects (N 26) with chronic stroke. Interventions: Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures: Total distance covered and number of turns in the 6MWT with different walkway lengths (10-, 20-, and 30-m walkway distances) and turning directions (turning to affected side and unaffected side); rate of perceived exertion (RPE) using Borg Scale, and heart rate (HR) using handheld pulse oximeter recorded before and immediately after the test. Results: The distance covered and the number of turns in the 6MWT were significantly different between different walkway lengths (P.05), with the longest distance covered and lowest number of turns in the 30-m walkway distance. For all walkway lengths, turning to the affected or unaffected side did not result in significant differences in the distance covered and the number of turns in the 6MWT. Significant increases were found between the pretest and posttest for the HR and RPE (P.05) in all testing conditions. There was no significant effect of walkway distance and turning direction on the change in HR and RPE between the 6 conditions of the 6MWT. Conclusions: Different walkway distances have a significant effect on the distance covered in the 6MWT, whereas turning direction did not significantly affect the distance covered in the 6MWT. Key Words: Rehabilitation; Stroke; Walking by the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine THE SIX-MINUTE WALK TEST was initially introduced as a simple walking test for patients with respiratory 1 or cardiac problems, 2 measuring their functional walking capacity and endurance in daily activities. Patients being tested are required to walk back and forth on a walkway continuously as From the Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (SAR), China. Supported by a grant from Hong Kong Jockey Club Charities Trust CADENZA: A Jockey Club Initiative for Seniors. to S.S.N. (5-ZH54). No commercial party having a direct financial interest in the results of the research supporting this article has or will confer a benefit on the authors or on any organization with which the authors are associated. Reprint requests to Shamay S. M. Ng, PhD, Dept of Rehabilitation Science, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (SAR), /11/ $36.00/0 doi: /j.apmr far as they can in 6 minutes. The 6MWT is superior to other tests such as cycle ergometer testing because it involves walking, which is a regular daily functional activity. 2 Also, the 6MWT is simpler and easier to administer, while cycle ergometer testing can only assess exercise capacity in the laboratory and requires expensive and sophisticated equipment that is not easily available. Therefore, the 6MWT has been widely adopted and is now commonly used in clinical studies to measure exercise capacity in patients with cardiorespiratory 2,3 or cardiovascular problems, or both. 2-6 Recently, it has been suggested that the distance covered in the 6MWT can be used as a clinical measure of walking endurance in patients with neurologic disorders, including patients after stroke. The distance covered in the 6MWT has been used to evaluate the effectiveness of exercise programs from 4 to 12 weeks long in improving walking endurance among subjects with mild to moderate stroke, 7 subjects with acute stroke, 8 and subjects with chronic stroke. 9,10 The reliability of the 6MWT was established in studies of patients with subacute 11,12 and chronic 13,14 stroke. Excellent test-retest reliability has been reported for the 6MWT with stroke patients, with intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) ranging from.94 to The ICCs ranged from.97 to.99 for patients with subacute stroke, 11,12 and from.94 to.99 for those with chronic stroke. 13,14 Moreover, the SEM has been reported as small (SEM%, 4.8) for the 6MWT with stroke patients 12 (SEM%: [SEM/mean] 100). Hence, the distance covered in the 6MWT is considered clinically sensitive for detecting changes in patients with stroke. Although the 6MWT is commonly performed and used as a measurement tool in stroke rehabilitation, the length of the walkway used is not standardized. The walkway was initially designed to be 33m, 1,2 and this has been adopted by some studies. 1,2,13 But different lengths have been adopted in other clinical studies, including 100ft, 8 20m, 11,15 30m, 12,16-18 and 50m. 9 In some published studies, the length was not standardized 19 or even mentioned. 7 Because the walkway length determines the number of turns required to cover a given distance, 6MWT results are presumably affected by the length of the walkway used. The effect of turning direction on the distance covered in the 6MWT by subjects with stroke has also been little studied, although the effect of turning direction on TUG test results has been shown to be significant for subjects with stroke. 20 Heung and Ng 20 have reported that turning to the affected side was significantly quicker in the TUG test than turning to the unaf- HR ICC RPE 6MWT SEM TUG List of Abbreviations heart rate intraclass correlation coefficient rate of perceived exertion six-minute walk test standard error of measurement Timed Up & Go

2 SIX-MINUTE WALK TEST IN STROKE PATIENTS, Ng 807 fected side in a study of subjects with subacute stroke. On the other hand, de Morais Faria et al 21 found that the performance of subjects with chronic stroke in the TUG test was similar when turning toward the affected and unaffected sides. The effect of turning direction on TUG test results clearly requires further investigation. In view of how stroke-related impairments may affect turning ability, the effect of turning direction in the 6MWT is also worthy of investigation. We hypothesized that with different walkway lengths and turning directions, 6MWT distances covered by individuals with stroke would be significantly different. The objectives of the present study were to investigate (1) the effect of walkway length and (2) the effect of turning direction on the 6MWT distance covered by individuals with stroke. METHODS Participants This study was a clinical trial with a 2 3 experimental design, with analysis of 2 independent variables of walkway length and turning direction on the distance covered in the 6MWT in individuals with stroke. According to Blennerhassett and Dite s study, 22 differences of 115m were required to represent significant differences in the 6MWT distance. At least 17 subjects would be needed if the threshold for statistical significance was set at 5% ( level at.05) and the power at 80% ( level at 0.2). Twenty-six subjects (13 men, 13 women; mean age SD, y) with a mean SD poststroke duration of years were recruited from a local rehabilitation network in Hong Kong (table 1). Subjects with chronic stroke were recruited if they (1) had sustained a stroke at least 1 year previously; (2) were 45 years or older; (3) were able to walk 10m with or without a walking aid but without personal assistance; (4) had an Abbreviated Mental Test score of 7 or Table 1: Descriptive Characteristics of the Subjects (n 26) Variables n (%) Sex (male/female) 13 (50)/13 (50) Type of stroke (ischemic/hemorrhage) 17 (65)/9 (35) No. of stroke attacks (once/twice) 22 (85)/4 (15) Side of hemiplegia (left/right) 16 (62)/10 (38) Mobility status 15 (65)/7 (27)/2 (8)/2 (8) (unaided/stick/quadripod/umbrella) Anti foot drop device (need orthosis/ 2 (8)/24 (92) no orthosis) No. of falls in past 6mo, 23 (88)/2 (8)/1 (4) (no/once/twice) Mean SD (range) Age (y) (47 67) Body weight (kg) ( ) Height (cm) ( ) Body mass index (kg/m 2 ) ( ) Poststroke duration (y) ( ) Median (range) Spasticity level (Modified Ashworth Scale) of hemiplegic ankle plantar flexor Spasticity level (Modified Ashworth Scale) of nonhemiplegic ankle plantar flexor 1 (0 4) 0 (0 0) higher 23 ; and (5) had a stable general medical condition that would allow their participation in the testing protocol. Subjects were excluded if they had received a neurologic diagnosis other than stroke, such as Parkinson s disease or multiple sclerosis, or if they had other comorbid disabilities that might hinder proper assessment. The study was approved by the local ethics committee and conducted according to the Declaration of Helsinki for human experiments. The study procedure was clearly explained to all participates beforehand, and informed, written consent was obtained before the assessments began. Measurements The total distance traveled in 6 minutes, the number of turns, and the amount of rest taken during the 6MWT were recorded. The RPE reflected by the Borg Scale, 24 and the HR were recorded before and immediately after the test. Six-minute walk test. The 6MWTs were conducted along a corridor marked with different walkway lengths: 10m, 20m, and 30m. Colored tape marked the ends of the walkway and each 1-m increment. Standardized encouragements were given at 1, 3, and 5 minutes during the walk: You re doing a good job (minute 1), You re halfway done (minute 3), and You have 1 minute to go (minute 5). 2 To ensure safety, the investigator walked slightly behind but not beside the subjects, so as to avoid influencing their self-selected walking pace. Subjects were allowed to stop and rest as they might deem necessary. The distance covered, to the nearest centimeter, the number of turns, and the amount of rest in 6 minutes were recorded. Rate of perceived exertion. Dyspnea and overall fatigue levels were rated using the Borg scale. 24 Subjects were presented with a printed Borg scale and asked to choose a level that best described their RPE. Heart rate. HR was measured using a handheld pulse oximeter before and immediately after the 6MWT. Procedure Each subject was individually instructed to walk from one mark to the other, covering as many laps as possible at their own walking pace during the allotted time of 6 minutes. Each participant performed the 6MWT under 6 experimental conditions to quantify any effect of course length or turning direction on the distance covered. The 6 conditions were as follows: Condition 1: Turning to the affected side, with a 10-m Condition 2: Turning to the affected side, with a 20-m Condition 3: Turning to the affected side, with a 30-m Condition 4: Turning to the unaffected side, with a 10-m Condition 5: Turning to the unaffected side, with a 20-m Condition 6: Turning to the unaffected side, with a 30-m The subjects performed the 6MWT under the 6 conditions in a random sequence determined by drawing lots. Each subject completed 6 conditions over 3 separate days, with 2 conditions conducted on each day. A 20-minute rest was allowed between conditions. Each subject performed only 1 trial in each condition. Statistical Analysis Descriptive statistics described the demographic characteristics of the subjects. Interactions of different walkway lengths

3 808 SIX-MINUTE WALK TEST IN STROKE PATIENTS, Ng Table 2: Mean Distance Covered in the 6MWT in Each Testing Condition Walkway Length (m) Distance Covered in the 6MWT (m) Affected Side Unaffected Side P * NOTE. Values are mean SD or as otherwise indicated. *Effect of turning direction analyzed by paired t test. and turning directions were sought using linear mixed models. There was no significant interaction between turning direction and walkway length in terms of the distance covered. Thus, the main effects relating turning direction and walkway distance could be interpreted directly. Differences in distance covered, the number of turns, and changes in HR during the 6MWT were analyzed by paired t tests with 2 different turning directions, and 1-way analysis of variance with repeated measures followed by the Bonferroni post hoc multiple comparison test with 3 different walkway lengths, respectively. The Wilcoxon s signed-rank test was used to analyze the changes in RPE in different walkway lengths. The difference in HR before and after each of the conditions was analyzed with paired t tests, while the Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used with the RPE reading. The analysis used the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software. a RESULTS Distance Covered and Number of Turns in 6MWT The mean SD distance covered in the 6MWT and the number of turns in each testing condition are summarized in tables 2 and 3, respectively. No significant difference in either the mean distance covered or the number of turns was observed between turning to the affected and the unaffected side with any walkway length (tables 2 and 3). There were, however, significant differences in the mean distance covered and the number of turns with different walkway lengths (P.001) (figs 1 and 2). Heart Rate and Perceived Exertion Before and After the 6MWT Significant differences were found in the subjects pretest and posttest HRs and RPEs in all 6 conditions (table 4). In addition, no significant difference could be found in the change of HR or RPE when comparing turning to the affected and unaffected side, and when comparing different walkway lengths (table 4). Fig 1. Mean distance covered in the 6MWT in each testing condition. *Statistically significant difference between walkway lengths (P<.05). DISCUSSION This is the first study to investigate the effect of turning direction and walkway length on the distance covered in the 6MWT in individuals with chronic stroke. Distance Covered in 6MWT The mean distances covered during the 6MWT were consistent with those found in some studies that used the same walkway length in patients with stroke, 12,16-18 but were slightly different from the distances reported by other studies. 11,15 No previous study used a 10-m Two studies 11,15 used a 20-m walkway with stroke subjects, and the mean distances reported were 196m 11 and 216m, 15 which are both shorter than the distances found in the present study. This might be explained by differences in the characteristics of the subjects. The subjects in the present study were younger than those in previous Table 3: Mean Number of Turns in the 6-Minute Walk Test in Each Testing Condition No. of Turns in the 6MWT Walkway Length (m) Affected Side Unaffected Side P * NOTE. Values are mean SD or as otherwise indicated. *Effect of turning direction analyzed by paired t test. Fig 2. Mean number of turns in the 6MWT in each testing condition. *Statistically significant difference between different walkway lengths (P<.001).

4 SIX-MINUTE WALK TEST IN STROKE PATIENTS, Ng 809 Table 4: Heart Rate and Rate of Perceived Exertion Before and After the 6-Minute Walk Test in Each Testing Condition Testing Conditions* Pretest Posttest Change % Change Condition 1 HR (bpm) RPE Condition 2 HR (bpm) RPE Condition 3 HR (bpm) RPE Condition 4 HR (bpm) RPE Condition 5 HR (bpm) RPE Condition 6 HR (bpm) RPE Mean of 6 conditions HR (bpm) RPE Abbreviation: bpm, beats per minute. *Condition 1: Turning to the affected side, 10-m Condition 2: Turning to the affected side, 20-m Condition 3: Turning to the affected side, 30-m Condition 4: Turning to the unaffected side, 10-m Condition 5: Turning to the unaffected side, 20-m Condition 6: Turning to the unaffected side, 30-m Paired t tests were used to analyze pretest and posttest HRs. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to analyze pretest and posttest RPE differences. Indicates a difference significant at the 5% confidence level. studies (mean age SD, y vs 72y), 11,15 and their poststroke duration was longer than that of subjects in previous studies (mean SD poststroke duration, y vs 227d). 11,15 There have also been 4 studies 12,16-18 of stroke survivors in which a 30-m walkway was used. The mean distance covered in those studies ranged from to 384m. 12,16-18 The mean distance found in the present study fell within that range. Walking endurance as measured by the 6MWT has been reported to be decreased in persons after stroke when compared with the walking endurance of the healthy elderly. 13,25 The 6MWT distance for healthy male and female adults can be predicted using the mathematical equation suggested by Enright and Sherrill. 26 According to the equation, the predicted distance in the present study should be approximately 500m; however, our stroke subjects could only walk about 45% of the predicted distance. This is consistent with the results of a study by Mayo et al 25 that found only 40% of the age-predicted performance in subjects with chronic stroke. This is important because walking endurance as measured by the 6MWT is today the best statistically significant predictor of community integration. 25 Effect of Turning Direction This study is the first to document the effect of turning direction on distance covered in the 6MWT in individuals with stroke. The results show that 6MWT distance was not influenced by turning direction, which is consistent with the results of a previous study 21 that found no effect of turning direction on TUG test times. The mean SD poststroke duration ( mo) and the mean age SD ( y) of the subjects in that previous study 21 were similar to those in the present study. A previous study by Heung and Ng 20 did, however, find a significant effect of turning direction in the TUG test. There are some possible reasons for the difference in findings. The subjects of the present study were younger than those in Heung and Ng s work (mean age SD, y vs y), and Heung and Ng s subjects 20 had subacute stroke (mean SD poststroke duration of only d). 20 Subjects with more acute stroke might be expected to have poorer motor function. 27 The insignificant effect of turning direction on distance covered in the 6MWT suggests some interesting observations about compensation. Current literature on turning mechanics in individuals with stroke is lacking. Results of a clinical study with 55 subjects older than 64 years 28 showed that elderly subjects with balance dysfunction took more steps during turning, turned more slowly, and had longer TUG test scores compared with those without balance difficulties. Thigpen et al 28 concluded that an increase in the number steps during turning was 1 characteristic of turning difficulty in the elderly population. It is plausible that the number of steps used in turning could determine the time taken in turning, and determines 6MWT distance. In the current study, subjects with stroke were observed to take more steps when turning to either affected or unaffected sides, although the number of steps during turning was not formally recorded. This increase in the number of steps contributed to a longer turning time and thus a shorter 6MWT distance. However, this hypothesis requires further investigation with an instrumented walkway or a 3-dimensional motion analysis system

5 810 SIX-MINUTE WALK TEST IN STROKE PATIENTS, Ng to confirm it. It would also be interesting to study a large number of stroke patients, allowing them to freely choose their preferred turning direction, but that was not attempted in this study. Effect of Walkway Length Walkway length is, of course, inversely proportional to the number of turns taken during the test (see fig 2). Total distance covered should thus be affected by walkway length. The greater number of turns required on a shorter walkway (see table 3) calls for more time and effort. Moreover, a longer walkway allows more room for acceleration and higher top speeds if the subject can manage them. In a clinical study with 34 older adults, Macfarlane and Looney 29 showed that a minimal walkway length for acceleration ( m) and deceleration ( m) was required to achieve a steady walking speed during the walking test. Beyond these physical considerations, however, walkway length might invoke some psychological factors that influence a subject s self-selected walking pace. In a clinical trial with 27 older adults, Najafi et al 30 showed that older people presumably choose a higher gait speed strategy over a longer walkway distance ( 20m), but a slower gait speed strategy if walking over a shorter walkway distance ( 10m). Both of these findings on healthy older adults require further research to confirm them in subjects with stroke who have stroke-specific impairments. Heart Rate and Perceived Exertion Performing the 6MWT increased both HR and RPE (see table 4). The increases were comparable to those reported in a previous study 31 where HR increased by 15% in subjects with subacute stroke. The increase in HR suggests that the 6MWT does indeed put strain on the cardiovascular system. 16 The turning direction and walkway length had no significant effect on the changes in HR and RPE, even with the significantly different distances covered. It seems that the extra distance walked on a longer walkway did not further stress the cardiovascular system. Study Limitations Strictly speaking, our results should only be applied to subjects with stroke who fulfill similar inclusion criteria, because of the small sample size in our study. In addition, our results should only be applied to similar environments: indoors with a smooth tile floor, but not, for example, to carpeted walkways. Note that the design of the present study was cross-sectional. No causal relationship was established. This study design was not able to show which walkway length was optimal for assessing patients with stroke. It was able to show only the effect of different walkway lengths on the distance covered in the 6MWT. For valid and reliable comparisons (eg, between pretreatment and posttreatment conditions), testing and retesting should be performed under identical distance conditions. Whether the use of a circular pathway for the 6MWT would be a more reliable and valid measurement warrants further study. Investigators had to walk closely behind these subjects for safety reasons, which may have influenced the pacing of the subjects. Also, there might have been a certain degree of learning effect, because each subject had to perform the test 6 times in the 6 different conditions. However, the randomization of testing sequences and the performance of the tests on separate days were intended to reduce any learning effect. Moreover, the results of a previous study 11 did not support a practice effect across 2 trials of the 6MWT in people with stroke. CONCLUSIONS This study is the first to investigate the effects of walkway length and turning direction on the distance covered by stroke survivors in the 6MWT. The results show that turning direction does not significantly affect the distance covered, although walkway length has the expected significant effect. In view of the effect of walkway distance on the 6MWT, to produce reliable results as a measure of change in functional capacity in patients with stroke, we recommend that a standardized length be used, at least for the same patient when repeating the 6MWT. Subjects may, however, be allowed to turn to the affected or unaffected side as they wish without significantly affecting the results. Acknowledgments: We thank Robert L. Kane, MD, University of Minnesota School of Public Health, for his valuable guidance and advice in conducting clinical research, and Raymond C. Chung, PhD, for his statistical advice. References 1. Butland RJA, Pang J, Gross ER, Woodcock AA, Geddes DM. Two-, six- and twelve-minute walking tests in respiratory disease. Br Med J 1982;284: Guyatt HG, Sullivan MJ, Thompson PJ, et al. The 6-minute walk: a new measure of exercise capacity in patients with chronic heart failure. Can Med Assoc J 1985;132: Solway S, Brooks D, Lacasse Y, Thomas S. A qualitative systematic overview of the measurement properties of functional walk tests used in the cardiorespiratory domain. Chest 2001;119: Lipkin D, Sciven A, Crake T, Poole-Wilson PA. Six minute walking test for assessing exercise capacity in chronic heart failure. Br Med J 1986;292: Cahalin LP, Mathier MA, Semigran MJ, et al. The six-minute walk test predicts peak oxygen uptake and survival in patients with advanced heart failure. Chest 1996;110: Ingle L, Shelton RJ, Riby AS, et al. The reproducibility and sensitivity of the 6-min walk test in elderly patients with chronic heart failure. Eur Heart J 2005;26: Duncan P, Richards L, Wallace D, et al. A randomized, controlled pilot study of a home-based exercise program for individuals with mild and moderate stroke. Stroke 1998;29: Pohl PS, Duncan PW, Perera S, et al. Influence of stroke-related impairments on performance in a 6-minute walk test. J Rehabil Res Dev 2002;39: Dean CM, Richards CL, Malouin F. Task-related circuit training improves performance of locomotor tasks in chronic stroke: a randomized, controlled pilot trial. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2000;81: Ng SSM, Hui-Chan CWT. Does the use of TENS increase the effectiveness of exercise for improving walking after stroke? A randomized controlled clinical trial. Clin Rehabil 2009;23: Liu J, Drutz C, Kumar R, et al. Use of the 6-minute walk test poststroke: is there a practice effect? Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2008;89: Flansbjer UB, Holmback AM, Downham D, Patten C, Lexell J. Reliability of gait performance tests in men and women with hemiparesis after stroke. J Rehabil Med 2005;37: Ng SSM, Hui-Chan CW. The Timed Up & Go test: its reliability and association with lower-limb impairments and locomotor capacities in people with chronic stroke. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2005;86: Eng JJ, Dawson AS, Chu KS. Submaximal exercise in persons with stroke: test-retest reliability and concurrent validity with maximal oxygen consumption. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2004;85:113-8.

6 SIX-MINUTE WALK TEST IN STROKE PATIENTS, Ng Salbach NM, Mayo NE, Robichaud-Ekstrand S, Hanley JA, Richards CL, Wood-Dauphinee S. Balance self-efficacy and its relevance to physical function and perceived health status after stroke. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2006;87: Carvalho C, Willen C, Sunnerhagen KS. Relationship between walking function and one-legged bicycling test in subjects in the later stage post-stroke. J Rehabil Med 2008;40: Peurala SH, Airaksinen O, Huuskonen P, et al. Effects of intensive therapy using a gait trainer or floor walking exercises early after stroke. J Rehabil Med 2009;41: Tang A, Sibley KM, Bayley MT, McIlroy WE, Brooks D. Do functional walk tests reflect cardiorespiratory fitness in sub-acute stroke? J Neuroeng Rehabil 2006;3: Sciurba F, Criner GJ, Lee SM, et al. Six-minute walk distance in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: reproducibility and effect of walking course layout and length. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2003;167: Heung THM, Ng SSM. Effect of seat height and turning direction of the Timed Up and Go test scores of people after stroke. J Rehabil Med 2009;41: de Morais Faria CDC, Teixeira-Salmela LF, Nadeau S. Effects of the direction of turning on the Timed Up and Go test with stroke subjects. Top Stroke Rehabil 2009;16: Blennerhassett J, Dite W. Additional task-related practice improves mobility and upper limb function early after stroke: a randomized controlled trial. Aust J Physiother 2004;50: Chu LW, Pel CKW, Ho MH, Chan PT. Validation of the abbreviated mental test (Hong Kong version) in the elderly medical patient. Hong Kong Med J 1995;1: Borg G. Psychophysical bases of perceived exertion. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1982;14: Mayo Ne, Wood-Dauphinee S, Ahmed S, et al. Disablement following stroke. Disabil Rehabil 1999;21: Enright PL, Sherrill DL. Reference equations for the six-minute walk in healthy adults. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1998;158: Reding MJ, Potes E. Rehabilitation outcome following initial unilateral hemispheric stroke: life table analysis approach. Stroke 1988;19: Thigpen MT, Light KE, Creel GL, Flynn SM. Turning difficulty characteristics of adults aged 65 years or older. Phys Ther 2000; 80: Macfarlane PA, Looney MA. Walkway length determination for steady state walking in young and older adults. Res Q Exerc Sport 2008;79: Najafi B, Helbostad JL, Moe-Nilssen R, Zijlstra W, Aminian K. Does walking strategy in older people change as a function of walking distance. Gait Posture 2009;29: Kelly JO, Kibreath SL, Davis GM, Zeman B, Raymond J. Cardiorespiratory fitness and walking ability in subacute stroke patients. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2003;84: Supplier a. Version 11.0; SPSS Inc, 233 S Wacker Dr, 11th Fl, Chicago, IL

STROKE IS A MAJOR cause of disability and handicap in

STROKE IS A MAJOR cause of disability and handicap in 1046 ORIGINAL ARTICLE Contribution of Ankle Dorsiflexor Strength to Walking Endurance in People With Spastic Hemiplegia After Stroke Shamay S. Ng, PhD, Christina W. Hui-Chan, PhD ABSTRACT. Ng SS, Hui-Chan

More information

JEPonline Journal of Exercise Physiologyonline

JEPonline Journal of Exercise Physiologyonline Walking Technique and Estimated VO 2 max Values 21 JEPonline Journal of Exercise Physiologyonline Official Journal of The American Society of Exercise Physiologists (ASEP) ISSN 1097-9751 An International

More information

Using Hexoskin Wearable Technology to Obtain Body Metrics During Trail Hiking

Using Hexoskin Wearable Technology to Obtain Body Metrics During Trail Hiking Technical Note Using Hexoskin Wearable Technology to Obtain Body Metrics During Trail Hiking JEFF MONTES 1, TORI M. STONE 1, JACOB W. MANNING 2, DAMON MCCUNE 1, DEBRA K. TACAD 1, JOHN C. YOUNG 1, MARK

More information

Factors of Influence on the Walking Ability of Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy

Factors of Influence on the Walking Ability of Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy Factors of Influence on the Walking Ability of Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy J. Phys. Ther. Sci. 10: 1 5, 1998 ATSUSHI FURUKAWA, RPT 1), EIJI NII, MD, PhD 1), HIROYASU IWATSUKI, RPT 2), MASAKI NISHIYAMA,

More information

Relations Between 6 Minute Walking Distance and 10 Meter Walking Speed in Patients With Multiple Sclerosis and Stroke

Relations Between 6 Minute Walking Distance and 10 Meter Walking Speed in Patients With Multiple Sclerosis and Stroke ORIGINAL ARTICLE Relations Between 6 Minute Walking Distance and 10 Meter Walking Speed in Patients With Multiple Sclerosis and Stroke Ulrik Dalgas, PhD, Kaare Severinsen, PhD, Kristian Overgaard, PhD

More information

Validation of a Step Test in Children Ages 7-11

Validation of a Step Test in Children Ages 7-11 Validation of a Step Test in Children Ages 7-11 Emilene Clark Aurora Fry Colleen Smith Tonya Thomas Primary Advisor: Jim Farris, PT, PhD April 20, 2011 Background Exercise Testing Maximal Testing Sub-maximal

More information

Congress Science and Cycling 29 & 30 june 2016 Caen. Théo OUVRARD, Julien Pinot, Alain GROSLAMBERT, Fred GRAPPE

Congress Science and Cycling 29 & 30 june 2016 Caen. Théo OUVRARD, Julien Pinot, Alain GROSLAMBERT, Fred GRAPPE Congress Science and Cycling 29 & 30 june 2016 Caen Exposure Variation Analysis (EVA) method to monitor ability to optimally regulate exercise intensity of professional cyclists during time-trial competitions

More information

Academic Grant CPR process monitors provided by Zoll. conflict of interest to declare

Academic Grant CPR process monitors provided by Zoll. conflict of interest to declare Comparison of Bystander Fatigue and CPR Quality when Using Ui Continuous Chest Compressions Versus 30:2 Compressions to Ventilations: A Randomized Cross over over Trial CAEP Niagara Falls 2012 CAEP St

More information

VALIDITY OF SELECTED CARDIOVASCULAR FIELD-BASED TEST AMONG MALAYSIAN HEALTHY FEMALE ADULT. S. H. Azmi 1,*, and N. Sulaiman 2

VALIDITY OF SELECTED CARDIOVASCULAR FIELD-BASED TEST AMONG MALAYSIAN HEALTHY FEMALE ADULT. S. H. Azmi 1,*, and N. Sulaiman 2 Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences ISSN 1112-9867 Research Article Special Issue Available online at http://www.jfas.info VALIDITY OF SELECTED CARDIOVASCULAR FIELD-BASED TEST AMONG MALAYSIAN HEALTHY

More information

Test-Retest Reliability of the StepWatch Activity Monitor Outputs in Individuals

Test-Retest Reliability of the StepWatch Activity Monitor Outputs in Individuals Test-Retest Reliability of the StepWatch Activity Monitor Outputs in Individuals with Chronic Stroke Suzie Mudge, MHSc; N. Susan Stott, PhD Department of Surgery, University of Auckland Address for correspondence:

More information

Anaerobic and aerobic contributions to 800 m and 8 km season bests

Anaerobic and aerobic contributions to 800 m and 8 km season bests Short Communication Anaerobic and aerobic contributions to 8 m and 8 km season bests Julia C. Blumkaitis, Christopher L. Sandefur, Christopher A. Fahs, Lindy M. Rossow Objective: Both anaerobic and aerobic

More information

Flip-flop footwear with a moulded foot-bed for the treatment of foot pain: a randomised controlled trial

Flip-flop footwear with a moulded foot-bed for the treatment of foot pain: a randomised controlled trial Flip-flop footwear with a moulded foot-bed for the treatment of foot pain: a randomised controlled trial Dr. Martin Spink, Ms. Angela Searle and Dr. Vivienne Chuter Podiatry department Faculty of Health

More information

The Optimal Downhill Slope for Acute Overspeed Running

The Optimal Downhill Slope for Acute Overspeed Running International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 2008, 3, 88-93 2008 Human Kinetics, Inc. The Optimal Downhill Slope for Acute Overspeed Running William P. Ebben Purpose: This study evaluated

More information

Katarina Skough Vreede, PT 1, Jan Henriksson, MD, PhD 1,2, Kristian Borg, MD, PhD 1 and Marketta Henriksson, PT, PhD 1

Katarina Skough Vreede, PT 1, Jan Henriksson, MD, PhD 1,2, Kristian Borg, MD, PhD 1 and Marketta Henriksson, PT, PhD 1 J Rehabil Med 2013; 45: 924 928 Short Communication Gait characteristics and influence of fatigue during THE 6-Minute Walk Test in patients with post-polio syndrome Katarina Skough Vreede, PT 1, Jan Henriksson,

More information

The role of fitness testing in the evaluation of primary school running programmes

The role of fitness testing in the evaluation of primary school running programmes The role of fitness testing in the evaluation of primary school running programmes Making Strides in School Symposium National Centre for Sport and Exercise Medicine 7 th September 2016 Prof. Stuart Fairclough

More information

Article published in: ACSM s Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise Vol. 27, No. 4, April 1995

Article published in: ACSM s Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise Vol. 27, No. 4, April 1995 Article published in: ACSM s Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise Vol. 7, No. 4, April 1995 ENERGY EXPENDITURE DURING SUBMAXIMAL WALKING WITH EXERSTRIDERS Carol D. Rodgers, Jaci L. VanHeest, and Candice

More information

Relationship between Ground Reaction Force and Stability Level of the Lower Extremity in Runners Background: Objective: Design and Setting:

Relationship between Ground Reaction Force and Stability Level of the Lower Extremity in Runners Background: Objective: Design and Setting: Relationship between Ground Reaction Force and Stability Level of the Lower Extremity in Runners Kimitake Sato, Monique Butcher-Mokha Barry University Miami Shores, FL Background: Neuromuscular control

More information

The current study determined whether manipulations to walking path configuration influenced

The current study determined whether manipulations to walking path configuration influenced ABSTRACT The current study determined whether manipulations to walking path configuration influenced six-minute walk test (6MWT) outcomes and assessed how gait variability changes over the duration of

More information

Grip Force and Heart Rate Responses to Manual Carrying Tasks: Effects of Material, Weight, and Base Area of the Container

Grip Force and Heart Rate Responses to Manual Carrying Tasks: Effects of Material, Weight, and Base Area of the Container International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics (JOSE) 2014, Vol. 20, No. 3, 377 383 Grip Force and Heart Rate Responses to Manual Carrying Tasks: Effects of Material, Weight, and Base Area

More information

Chapter 39. Six Minute Walk Test (6MWT)

Chapter 39. Six Minute Walk Test (6MWT) Chapter 39. Six Minute Walk Test (6MWT) 39.1 Introduction This MOP chapter is designed to guide the performance of the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) using standardized procedures and techniques in order to

More information

Key words: biomechanics, injury, technique, measurement, strength, evaluation

Key words: biomechanics, injury, technique, measurement, strength, evaluation Becker, T., & Havriluk, R. (2006). Bilateral and anterior-posterior muscular imbalances in swimmers. In J. P. Vilas-Boas, F. Alves, A. Marques (Eds.), Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming X. Portuguese

More information

Changes in Relative Exercise Intensity during a Two Hour Endurance Race Using a Tandem-Bicycle for Exercise

Changes in Relative Exercise Intensity during a Two Hour Endurance Race Using a Tandem-Bicycle for Exercise Kawasaki Journal of Medical Welfare Vol. 22, No. 1, 2016 47-52 Material Changes in Relative Exercise Intensity during a Two Hour Endurance Race Using a Tandem-Bicycle for Exercise Sho ONODERA *, Takuma

More information

Bilateral Level of Effort of the Plantar Flexors, Hip Flexors, and Extensors During Gait in Hemiparetic and Healthy Individuals

Bilateral Level of Effort of the Plantar Flexors, Hip Flexors, and Extensors During Gait in Hemiparetic and Healthy Individuals Bilateral Level of Effort of the Plantar Flexors, Hip Flexors, and Extensors During Gait in Hemiparetic and Healthy Individuals Marie-Hélène Milot, MSc; Sylvie Nadeau, PhD; Denis Gravel, PhD; Luis F. Requião,

More information

Motor function analysis: from animal models to patients

Motor function analysis: from animal models to patients Motor function analysis: from animal models to patients ZNZ lecture 27.04.2016 Linard Filli Sensorimotor Lab University Hospital Zurich Linard.Filli@usz.ch Content of lecture Basic neuroanatomy of motor

More information

HHS Public Access Author manuscript Int J Cardiol. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2016 April 15.

HHS Public Access Author manuscript Int J Cardiol. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2016 April 15. FITBIT : AN ACCURATE AND RELIABLE DEVICE FOR WIRELESS PHYSICAL ACTIVITY TRACKING Keith M. Diaz 1, David J. Krupka 1, Melinda J Chang 1, James Peacock 1, Yao Ma 2, Jeff Goldsmith 2, Joseph E. Schwartz 1,

More information

Walking speemtmmkubjects and amputees: aspects of validity of gait analysis

Walking speemtmmkubjects and amputees: aspects of validity of gait analysis Prostheticsand Orthoti~Inte~national, 1993, 17, 78-82 Walking speemtmmkubjects and : aspects of validity of gait analysis A. M. BOONSTRA*, V. FIDLER** and W. H. EISMA* *Department of Rehabilitation Medicine,

More information

Dolores A. Christensen, M.A. 1 ; Britton W. Brewer, Ph.D. 1 ; Jasmin C. Hutchinson, Ph.D. 2

Dolores A. Christensen, M.A. 1 ; Britton W. Brewer, Ph.D. 1 ; Jasmin C. Hutchinson, Ph.D. 2 Dolores A. Christensen, M.A. 1 ; Britton W. Brewer, Ph.D. 1 ; Jasmin C. Hutchinson, Ph.D. 2 1 Psychology Department, 2 Exercise Science and Sport Studies Department, Springfield College, Springfield, MA

More information

Improving walking assessment in subjects with an incomplete spinal cord injury: responsiveness

Improving walking assessment in subjects with an incomplete spinal cord injury: responsiveness (2006) 44, 352 356 & 2006 International Society All rights reserved 1362-4393/06 $30.00 www.nature.com/sc Original Article Improving walking assessment in subjects with an incomplete spinal cord injury:

More information

Clinical Study Synopsis

Clinical Study Synopsis Clinical Study Synopsis This Clinical Study Synopsis is provided for patients and healthcare professionals to increase the transparency of Bayer's clinical research. This document is not intended to replace

More information

Neurorehabil Neural Repair Oct 23. [Epub ahead of print]

Neurorehabil Neural Repair Oct 23. [Epub ahead of print] APPENDICE Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2009 Oct 23. [Epub ahead of print] Segmental Muscle Vibration Improves Walking in Chronic Stroke Patients With Foot Drop: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Paoloni M,

More information

Competitive Performance of Elite Olympic-Distance Triathletes: Reliability and Smallest Worthwhile Enhancement

Competitive Performance of Elite Olympic-Distance Triathletes: Reliability and Smallest Worthwhile Enhancement SPORTSCIENCE sportsci.org Original Research / Performance Competitive Performance of Elite Olympic-Distance Triathletes: Reliability and Smallest Worthwhile Enhancement Carl D Paton, Will G Hopkins Sportscience

More information

Development of a shuttle walking test of disability

Development of a shuttle walking test of disability Thorax 1992;47:119-124 Department of Respiratory Medicine, Glenfield General Hospital, Leicester LE3 9QP S J Singh, M D L Morgan, D Walters Department of Physical Education and Sports Science, Loughborough

More information

Clinical view on ambulation in patients with Spinal Cord Injury

Clinical view on ambulation in patients with Spinal Cord Injury Clinical view on ambulation in patients with Spinal Cord Injury Sasa Moslavac Spinal Unit, Special Medical Rehabilitation Hospital, Varazdinske Toplice,, Croatia 1 Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) to walk again

More information

Ambulatory monitoring of gait quality with wearable inertial sensors

Ambulatory monitoring of gait quality with wearable inertial sensors Ambulatory monitoring of gait quality with wearable inertial sensors Dr. Philippe Terrier, PhD June 2016 Summary 1. Why? Reasons for measuring gait in real life conditions 2. What? Real-life assessment

More information

Corrected FIM effectiveness as an index independent of FIM score on admission

Corrected FIM effectiveness as an index independent of FIM score on admission 7 Japanese Journal of Comprehensive Rehabilitation Science (2014) Original Article Corrected FIM effectiveness as an index independent of FIM score on admission Makoto Tokunaga, MD, PhD, 1 Ryoji Nakanishi,

More information

CHAPTER 3. Hemiplegic gait after stroke: Is measurement of maximum speed required? Boudewijn Kollen, Gert Kwakkel and Eline Lindeman

CHAPTER 3. Hemiplegic gait after stroke: Is measurement of maximum speed required? Boudewijn Kollen, Gert Kwakkel and Eline Lindeman CHAPTER 3 Hemiplegic gait after stroke: Is measurement of maximum speed required? Boudewijn Kollen, Gert Kwakkel and Eline Lindeman Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (in press) 29 Abstract

More information

Assessment of an International Breaststroke Swimmer Using a Race Readiness Test

Assessment of an International Breaststroke Swimmer Using a Race Readiness Test International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 2009, 4, 139-143 2009 Human Kinetics, Inc. Assessment of an International Breaststroke Swimmer Using a Race Readiness Test Kevin G. Thompson

More information

VISUOMOTOR CONTROL OF STRAIGHT AND BREAKING GOLF PUTTS 1

VISUOMOTOR CONTROL OF STRAIGHT AND BREAKING GOLF PUTTS 1 Perceptual and Motor Skills, 2009, 109, 555-562. Perceptual and Motor Skills 2009 VISUOMOTOR CONTROL OF STRAIGHT AND BREAKING GOLF PUTTS 1 MARK R. WILSON AND RICHARD C. PEARCY University of Exeter Summary.

More information

REPLACING REDUNDANT STABILOMETRY PARAMETERS WITH RATIO AND MAXIMUM DEVIATION PARAMETERS

REPLACING REDUNDANT STABILOMETRY PARAMETERS WITH RATIO AND MAXIMUM DEVIATION PARAMETERS Proceedings of the 12th IASTED International Conference Biomedical Engineering (BioMed 2016) February 15-16, 2016 Innsbruck, Austria REPLACING REDUNDANT STABILOMETRY PARAMETERS WITH RATIO AND MAXIMUM DEVIATION

More information

The effect of deliberate practice on the technique of national calibre swimmers

The effect of deliberate practice on the technique of national calibre swimmers Lupo Corrado, Giancarlo Condello, and Antonio Tessitore. (2014). Women s Water Polo World Championships: Technical and Tactical Aspects of Winning and Losing Teams in Close and Unbalanced Games. Journal

More information

McArdle s Three-Minute Step Test HHP 494. March 26, Morgan Vitosh & Kendra Alberts

McArdle s Three-Minute Step Test HHP 494. March 26, Morgan Vitosh & Kendra Alberts McArdle s Three-Minute Step Test HHP 494 March 26, 2013 Morgan Vitosh & Kendra Alberts The Three-Minute Step Test was performed by the individuals in our HHP 494 class. The purpose of the Three-Minute

More information

Timed walking tests correlate with daily step activity in individuals with stroke.

Timed walking tests correlate with daily step activity in individuals with stroke. 1 Predicting daily step activity 2 3 Timed walking tests correlate with daily step activity in individuals with stroke. 4 5 6 Preliminary data were presented at the Australian Physiotherapy Association

More information

Is lung capacity affected by smoking, sport, height or gender. Table of contents

Is lung capacity affected by smoking, sport, height or gender. Table of contents Sample project This Maths Studies project has been graded by a moderator. As you read through it, you will see comments from the moderator in boxes like this: At the end of the sample project is a summary

More information

Gait Analyser. Description of Walking Performance

Gait Analyser. Description of Walking Performance Gait Analyser Description of Walking Performance This brochure will help you to understand clearly the parameters described in the report of the Gait Analyser, provide you with tips to implement the walking

More information

Center of Mass Acceleration as a Surrogate for Force Production After Spinal Cord Injury Effects of Inclined Treadmill Walking

Center of Mass Acceleration as a Surrogate for Force Production After Spinal Cord Injury Effects of Inclined Treadmill Walking Center of Mass Acceleration as a Surrogate for Force Production After Spinal Cord Injury Effects of Inclined Treadmill Walking Mark G. Bowden, PhD, PT Research Health Scientist, Ralph H. Johnson VA Medical

More information

Comparison of Reliability of Isometric Leg Muscle Strength Measurements Made Using a Hand-Held Dynamometer with and without a Restraining Belt

Comparison of Reliability of Isometric Leg Muscle Strength Measurements Made Using a Hand-Held Dynamometer with and without a Restraining Belt Original Article Comparison of Reliability of Isometric Leg Muscle Strength Measurements Made Using a Hand-Held Dynamometer with and without a Restraining Belt J. Phys. Ther. Sci. 21: 37 42, 2009 MUNENORI

More information

Exploring the relationship between Heart Rate (HR) and Ventilation Rate (R) in humans.

Exploring the relationship between Heart Rate (HR) and Ventilation Rate (R) in humans. Exploring the relationship between Heart Rate (HR) and Ventilation Rate (R) in humans. The Research Question In this investigation I will be considering the following general research question: Does increased

More information

Monitoring of performance an training in rowers

Monitoring of performance an training in rowers Monitoring of performance an training in rowers Jaak Jürimäe Demands of the Sport High maximal oxygen consumption (VO 2max ); Ability to perform at a high percentage of VO 2max for the duration of event;

More information

External Feedback Does Not Affect Running Pace in Recreational Runners

External Feedback Does Not Affect Running Pace in Recreational Runners Original Research External Feedback Does Not Affect Running Pace in Recreational Runners NICHOLAS A. PULEO* and KIRK A. ABRAHAM Exercise Science Program, Transylvania University, Lexington, KY, USA *Denotes

More information

#10 Work Physiology. By : Dewi Hardiningtyas, ST., MT., MBA. Industrial Engineering Dept. University of Brawijaya

#10 Work Physiology. By : Dewi Hardiningtyas, ST., MT., MBA. Industrial Engineering Dept. University of Brawijaya #10 Work Physiology By : Dewi Hardiningtyas, ST., MT., MBA. Industrial Engineering Dept. University of Brawijaya This topic is a discussion of the energy side of using muscles rather than the mechanics/force

More information

Increasing physical activity in stroke survivors using STARFISH, an interactive mobile phone application

Increasing physical activity in stroke survivors using STARFISH, an interactive mobile phone application Increasing physical activity in stroke survivors using STARFISH, an interactive mobile phone application Dr Lorna Paul, Prof S Wyke, Prof S Brewster, Dr Aleksandra Dybus, Danny Rafferty, Dr Jason Gill,

More information

A modified axillary crutch for lower limb amputees

A modified axillary crutch for lower limb amputees Research papers A modified axillary crutch for lower limb amputees KTD Kahaduwa 1, CDA Weerasiriwardane 2, SM Wijeyaratne 1 1 University Surgical Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Colombo, Sri Lanka 2 Navy Research

More information

THE INFLUENCE OF SLOW RECOVERY INSOLE ON PLANTAR PRESSURE AND CONTACT AREA DURING WALKING

THE INFLUENCE OF SLOW RECOVERY INSOLE ON PLANTAR PRESSURE AND CONTACT AREA DURING WALKING March 12, 2015 5:39:44pm WSPC/170-JMMB 1540005 ISSN: 0219-51942nd Reading Journal of Mechanics in Medicine and Biology Vol. 15, No. 2 (2015) 1540005 (6 pages) c World Scientific Publishing Company DOI:

More information

The Impact of Walker Style on Gait Characteristics in Non-assistive Device Dependent older Adults

The Impact of Walker Style on Gait Characteristics in Non-assistive Device Dependent older Adults St. Catherine University SOPHIA Doctor of Physical Therapy Research Papers Physical Therapy 5-2017 The Impact of Walker Style on Gait Characteristics in Non-assistive Device Dependent older Adults Matthew

More information

The Effect of a Seven Week Exercise Program on Golf Swing Performance and Musculoskeletal Screening Scores

The Effect of a Seven Week Exercise Program on Golf Swing Performance and Musculoskeletal Screening Scores The Effect of a Seven Week Exercise Program on Golf Swing Performance and Musculoskeletal Screening Scores 2017 Mico Hannes Olivier Bachelor of Sport Science Faculty of Health Sciences and Medicine Bond

More information

Journal of Human Sport and Exercise E-ISSN: Universidad de Alicante España

Journal of Human Sport and Exercise E-ISSN: Universidad de Alicante España Journal of Human Sport and Exercise E-ISSN: 1988-5202 jhse@ua.es Universidad de Alicante España KALINA, TOMAS; CACEK, JAN; KMETOVA, LINDA The running economy difference between running barefoot and running

More information

The Influence of Load Carrying Modes on Gait variables of Healthy Indian Women

The Influence of Load Carrying Modes on Gait variables of Healthy Indian Women The Influence of Load Carrying Modes on Gait variables of Healthy Indian Women *Guha Thakurta A, Iqbal R and De A National Institute of Industrial Engineering, Powai, Vihar Lake, Mumbai-400087, India,

More information

MRI-2: Integrated Simulation and Safety

MRI-2: Integrated Simulation and Safety MRI-2: Integrated Simulation and Safety Year 3 2 nd Quarterly Report Submitted by: Dr. Essam Radwan, P.E. (PI), Ahmed.Radwan@ucf.edu Dr. Hatem Abou-Senna, P.E., habousenna@ucf.edu Dr. Mohamed Abdel-Aty,

More information

Safety Behavior for Cycling : Application Theory of Planned Behavior

Safety Behavior for Cycling : Application Theory of Planned Behavior Safety Behavior for Cycling : Application Theory of Planned Behavior PTP-ICANS2 Araya Thimlamom, M.S 1,*, Dhammananthika Janesawang, Ph.D 1, Sakesan Thongkhambanchon, Ph.D 2, Naruepon Vongjaturapat, Ph.D

More information

Posture influences ground reaction force: implications for crouch gait

Posture influences ground reaction force: implications for crouch gait University of Tennessee, Knoxville From the SelectedWorks of Jeffrey A. Reinbolt July 14, 2010 Posture influences ground reaction force: implications for crouch gait H. X. Hoang Jeffrey A. Reinbolt, University

More information

Smita Rao PT PhD. Judith F. Baumhauer MD Josh Tome MS Deborah A. Nawoczenski PT PhD

Smita Rao PT PhD. Judith F. Baumhauer MD Josh Tome MS Deborah A. Nawoczenski PT PhD Smita Rao PT PhD Judith F. Baumhauer MD Josh Tome MS Deborah A. Nawoczenski PT PhD Strong Foot and Ankle Institute Department of Orthopaedics University of Rochester Rochester, NY Center for Foot and Ankle

More information

SWIMMING SCIENCE BULLETIN

SWIMMING SCIENCE BULLETIN The Mechanisms of Ultra-short Training 1 SWIMMING SCIENCE BULLETIN Number 45g Produced, edited, and copyrighted by Professor Emeritus Brent S. Rushall, San Diego State University THE MECHANISMS OF ULTRA-SHORT

More information

A Re-Examination of Running Energetics in Average and Elite Distance Runners

A Re-Examination of Running Energetics in Average and Elite Distance Runners University of Colorado, Boulder CU Scholar Integrative Physiology Graduate Theses & Dissertations Integrative Physiology Spring 1-1-2013 A Re-Examination of Running Energetics in Average and Elite Distance

More information

Walking impairment is a common and lifealtering. Comparing Two Conditions of Administering the Six-Minute Walk Test in People with Multiple Sclerosis

Walking impairment is a common and lifealtering. Comparing Two Conditions of Administering the Six-Minute Walk Test in People with Multiple Sclerosis Comparing Two Conditions of Administering the Six-Minute Walk Test in People with Multiple Sclerosis Brian M. Sandroff, MS; Lara A. Pilutti, PhD; Deirdre Dlugonski, BS; Yvonne C. Learmonth, PhD; John H.

More information

Innovation Report. Physiological and Biomechanical Testing of EasyPedal Pedal Prototypes. Jan 2012

Innovation Report. Physiological and Biomechanical Testing of EasyPedal Pedal Prototypes. Jan 2012 Innovation Report Physiological and Biomechanical Testing of EasyPedal Pedal Prototypes Jan 2012 Report: Data collection: Dr. Michael Hanlon and Dr. Rodney Kennedy Sport and Exercise Research Institute,

More information

The Physical and Physiological Characteristics of 3x3. Results of Medical Study & Scientific Test

The Physical and Physiological Characteristics of 3x3. Results of Medical Study & Scientific Test The Physical and Physiological Characteristics of 3x3 Results of Medical Study & Scientific Test Prepared by Dr. Paul Montgomery & Brendan Maloney (Aspetar Orthopaedic Hospital) In cooperation with FIBA

More information

INTERACTION OF STEP LENGTH AND STEP RATE DURING SPRINT RUNNING

INTERACTION OF STEP LENGTH AND STEP RATE DURING SPRINT RUNNING INTERACTION OF STEP LENGTH AND STEP RATE DURING SPRINT RUNNING Joseph P. Hunter 1, Robert N. Marshall 1,, and Peter J. McNair 3 1 Department of Sport and Exercise Science, The University of Auckland, Auckland,

More information

Measuring Lung Capacity

Measuring Lung Capacity Name Class Date Chapter 37 Circulatory and Respiratory Systems Measuring Lung Capacity Introduction The amount of air that you move in and out of your lungs depends on how quickly you are breathing. The

More information

CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY. 1. To analyze the gait pattern in post stroke hemiparetic patients

CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY. 1. To analyze the gait pattern in post stroke hemiparetic patients CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY 3.1 Research Design: A research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with

More information

A New Method of Using Heart Rate to Represent Energy Expenditure: The Total Heart Beat Index

A New Method of Using Heart Rate to Represent Energy Expenditure: The Total Heart Beat Index 1266 A New Method of Using Heart Rate to Represent Energy Expenditure: The Total Heart Beat Index Victoria L. Hood, MSc, Malcolm H. Granat, PhD, Douglas J. Maxwell, BSc, John P. Hasler, MPhil ABSTRACT.

More information

Gait & Posture 31 (2010) Contents lists available at ScienceDirect. Gait & Posture. journal homepage:

Gait & Posture 31 (2010) Contents lists available at ScienceDirect. Gait & Posture. journal homepage: Gait & Posture 31 (2010) 311 316 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Gait & Posture journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/gaitpost Differences in self-selected and fastest-comfortable walking

More information

Walking Capacity in Mild to Moderate Parkinson s Disease

Walking Capacity in Mild to Moderate Parkinson s Disease ORIGINAL ARTICLE Walking Capacity in Mild to Moderate Parkinson s Disease Colleen G. Canning, PhD, Louise Ada, PhD, Justin J. Johnson, MPhty, Stephanie McWhirter, MPhty ABSTRACT. Canning CG, Ada L, Johnson

More information

Changes in a Top-Level Soccer Referee s Training, Match Activities, and Physiology Over an 8-Year Period: A Case Study

Changes in a Top-Level Soccer Referee s Training, Match Activities, and Physiology Over an 8-Year Period: A Case Study Case Study International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 2011, 6, 281-286 2011 Human Kinetics, Inc. Changes in a Top-Level Soccer Referee s Training, Match Activities, and Physiology Over

More information

Analysis of performance and age of the fastest 100- mile ultra-marathoners worldwide

Analysis of performance and age of the fastest 100- mile ultra-marathoners worldwide CLINICAL SCIENCE Analysis of performance and age of the fastest 100- mile ultra-marathoners worldwide Christoph Alexander Rüst, I Beat Knechtle, I,II Thomas Rosemann, I Romuald Lepers III I University

More information

Walking for Heart Health in Rural Women

Walking for Heart Health in Rural Women Walking for Heart Health in Rural Women ELISABETH MARIGLIANO, BSN, RN 1, 2 PAMELA STEWART FAHS, PHD, RN 1 CRISTINA LUDDEN, MS 2 BINGHAMTON UNIVERSITY, STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK, DECKER SCHOOL OF NURSING

More information

This article has been downloaded from JPES Journal of Physical Education an Sport Vol 25, no 4, December, 2009 e ISSN: p ISSN:

This article has been downloaded from JPES Journal of Physical Education an Sport Vol 25, no 4, December, 2009 e ISSN: p ISSN: C I T I U S A L T I U S F O R T I U S - J O U R N A L O F P H Y S I C A L E D U C A T I O N A N D S P O R T ORIGINAL RESEARCH Online Publication Date: 10 December 2009 COMPARISON OF SELECTED PHYSIOLOGICAL

More information

The running economy difference between running barefoot and running shod

The running economy difference between running barefoot and running shod Proceeding 9th INSHS International Christmas Sport Scientific Conference, 4-6 December 2014. International Network of Sport and Health Science. Szombathely, Hungary The running economy difference between

More information

Analysis of Foot Pressure Variation with Change in Stride Length

Analysis of Foot Pressure Variation with Change in Stride Length IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences (IOSR-JDMS) e-issn: 2279-853, p-issn: 2279-861.Volume 13, Issue 1 Ver. IV (Oct. 214), PP 46-51 Dr. Charudatta V. Shinde, M.S. MCh ( Orthopaedics ), Dr. Weijie

More information

Spasticity in gait. Wessex ACPIN Spasticity Presentation Alison Clarke

Spasticity in gait. Wessex ACPIN Spasticity Presentation Alison Clarke Spasticity in gait Clinicians recognise spasticity but the elements of spasticity contributing to gait patterns are often difficult to identify: Variability of muscle tone Observation/recording General

More information

Evaluation of Three New Fit Test Protocols for Use with the TSI PortaCount

Evaluation of Three New Fit Test Protocols for Use with the TSI PortaCount Evaluation of Three New Fit Test Protocols for Use with the TSI PortaCount by Roy T. McKay, Ph.D. Jeff Bradley, RRT Occupational Pulmonary Services Department of Environmental Health University of Cincinnati

More information

THE TECHNICAL ECONOMY INDEX: A tool for cyclic sports

THE TECHNICAL ECONOMY INDEX: A tool for cyclic sports THE TECHNICAL ECONOMY INDEX: A tool for cyclic sports Enid M Ginn PhD The Performance Edge: Fitness & Health Services In aquatic sports such as swimming, kayaking and rowing, a high degree of technical

More information

Normative data of postural sway by using sway meter among young healthy adults

Normative data of postural sway by using sway meter among young healthy adults Normative data of postural sway by using sway meter Original Research Article ISSN: 2394-0026 (P) Normative data of postural sway by using sway meter among young healthy adults Tejal C Nalawade 1*, Shyam

More information

Analysis of Backward Falls Caused by Accelerated Floor Movements Using a Dummy

Analysis of Backward Falls Caused by Accelerated Floor Movements Using a Dummy Original Article Analysis of Backward Falls Caused by Accelerated Floor Movements Using a Dummy Hisao NAGATA 1 * and Hisato OHNO 2 1 National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, 1 4 6 Umezono,

More information

Arch Height and Running Shoes: The Best Advice to Give Patients

Arch Height and Running Shoes: The Best Advice to Give Patients Arch Height and Running Shoes: The Best Advice to Give Patients by Thomas C. Michaud, DC Published May 1, 2014 by Dynamic Chiropractic Magazine Because runners with different arch heights are prone to

More information

ADVANCING INDIVIDUALIZED, EVIDENCE-BASED REHABILITATION AFTER STROKE. Louis N. Awad

ADVANCING INDIVIDUALIZED, EVIDENCE-BASED REHABILITATION AFTER STROKE. Louis N. Awad ADVANCING INDIVIDUALIZED, EVIDENCE-BASED REHABILITATION AFTER STROKE by Louis N. Awad A dissertation submitted to the Faculty of the University of Delaware in partial fulfillment of the requirements for

More information

Examination and Treatment of Postural and Locomotor Control

Examination and Treatment of Postural and Locomotor Control Examination and Treatment of Postural and Locomotor Control Not to be copied without permission. 1 15-minute Bedside Balance Systems Tests Contents FIVE TIMES SIT TO STAND TEST... 3 SINGLE LEG STANCE...

More information

Royal Brompton Hospital Standard Operating Procedure Six Minute Walk Test (6MWT)

Royal Brompton Hospital Standard Operating Procedure Six Minute Walk Test (6MWT) Royal Brompton Hospital Standard Operating Procedure Six Minute Walk Test (6MWT) Scope and Purpose The original purpose of the six minute walk test was to assess exercise tolerance in patients with chronic

More information

CPR Quality During OHCA Transport

CPR Quality During OHCA Transport CPR Quality During OHCA Transport Sheldon Cheskes, MD CCFP(EM) FCFP Medical Director, Sunnybrook Centre for Prehospital Medicine Associate Professor, Division of Emergency Medicine, University of Toronto

More information

Training Program using critical speed exercises and their impact on some Physiological and Physical variables of handball Players during the Match

Training Program using critical speed exercises and their impact on some Physiological and Physical variables of handball Players during the Match 165 Training Program using critical speed exercises and their impact on some Physiological and Physical variables of handball Players during the Match * Dr/ Tarek Salah Eldin Sayed Abstract: The study

More information

Validity and Reproducibility of the Garmin Vector Power Meter When Compared to the SRM Device

Validity and Reproducibility of the Garmin Vector Power Meter When Compared to the SRM Device Journal of Sports Science 5 (2017) 235-241 doi: 10.17265/2332-7839/2017.05.001 D DAVID PUBLISHING Validity and Reproducibility of the Garmin Vector Power Meter When Compared to the SRM Device Randolph

More information

Inquiry Investigation: Factors Affecting Photosynthesis

Inquiry Investigation: Factors Affecting Photosynthesis Inquiry Investigation: Factors Affecting Photosynthesis Background Photosynthesis fuels ecosystems and replenishes the Earth's atmosphere with oxygen. Like all enzyme-driven reactions, the rate of photosynthesis

More information

COMPARISON OF RESULTS OF AEROBIC POWER VALUE DERIVED FROM DIFFERENT MAXIMUM OXYGEN CONSUMPTION TESTING METHODS

COMPARISON OF RESULTS OF AEROBIC POWER VALUE DERIVED FROM DIFFERENT MAXIMUM OXYGEN CONSUMPTION TESTING METHODS COMPARISON OF RESULTS OF AEROBIC POWER VALUE DERIVED FROM DIFFERENT MAXIMUM OXYGEN CONSUMPTION TESTING METHODS LI JIA A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE MASTER DEGREE

More information

GROUND REACTION FORCE DOMINANT VERSUS NON-DOMINANT SINGLE LEG STEP OFF

GROUND REACTION FORCE DOMINANT VERSUS NON-DOMINANT SINGLE LEG STEP OFF GROUND REACTION FORCE DOMINANT VERSUS NON-DOMINANT SINGLE LEG STEP OFF Sara Gharabaghli, Rebecca Krogstad, Sara Lynch, Sofia Saavedra, and Tamara Wright California State University, San Marcos, San Marcos,

More information

Chayanin Angthong, MD, PhD Foot & Ankle Surgery Department of Orthopaedics, Faculty of Medicine Thammasat University, Pathum Thani, Thailand

Chayanin Angthong, MD, PhD Foot & Ankle Surgery Department of Orthopaedics, Faculty of Medicine Thammasat University, Pathum Thani, Thailand The relationships between patient-reported outcome, quality of life, and gait characteristics using a wearable foot inertial-sensor assessment in patients with foot and ankle conditions Chayanin Angthong,

More information

The Reliability of a Laboratory-based 4 km Cycle Time Trial on a Wahoo KICKR Power Trainer

The Reliability of a Laboratory-based 4 km Cycle Time Trial on a Wahoo KICKR Power Trainer RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access The Reliability of a Laboratory-based 4 km Cycle Time Trial on a Wahoo KICKR Power Trainer Emma K Zadow 1 *, James W Fell 1, Cecilia M Kitic 1 Abstract The purpose of the present

More information

Crawley, Western Australia, AUSTRALIA; 2 School of Mathematical Sciences, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia, AUSTRALIA

Crawley, Western Australia, AUSTRALIA; 2 School of Mathematical Sciences, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia, AUSTRALIA Swim Positioning and its Influence on Triathlon Outcome GRANT J. LANDERS 1, BRIAN A. BLANKSBY 1, TIMOTHY R. ACKLAND 1 and RONALD MONSON 2 1 School of Sport Science, Exercise & Health, The University of

More information

TESTOFEN HUMAN CLINICAL TRIAL GENCOR PACIFIC, INC. Copyright 2006 by Gencor Pacific, Inc.

TESTOFEN HUMAN CLINICAL TRIAL GENCOR PACIFIC, INC. Copyright 2006 by Gencor Pacific, Inc. GENCOR PACIFIC, INC. 920 E. Orangethorpe Avenue, Suite B, Anaheim, CA 92801 Ph: 714.870.8723 714.870.8724 efax: 732.875.0306 drjit@gencorpacific.com gita@gencorpacific.com www.gencorpacific.com TESTOFEN

More information

Effect of Age and Sex on Gait Characteristics in the Korean Elderly People

Effect of Age and Sex on Gait Characteristics in the Korean Elderly People Iran J Public Health, Vol. 47, No.5, May 2018, pp.666-673 Original Article Effect of Age and Sex on Gait Characteristics in the Korean People Yang Sun PARK 1, Ji-Won KIM 2, Yuri KWON 2, Moon-Seok KWON

More information

The Effect of the Arm Swing on the Heart Rate of Non-Athletes

The Effect of the Arm Swing on the Heart Rate of Non-Athletes The Effect of the Arm Swing on the Heart Rate of Non-Athletes Seekaow Churproong MD*, Buratin Khampirat PhD*, Paraj Ratanajaipan MEng**, Poollarp Tattathongkom BS** * Suranaree University of Technology,

More information

For this investigation, I expect to find that as exercise intensity increases, so too will heart rate and ventilation rate.

For this investigation, I expect to find that as exercise intensity increases, so too will heart rate and ventilation rate. Exploring the relationship between Heart Rate (HR) and Ventilation Rate (R) in humans. The Research Question In this investigation I will be considering the following general research question: Comment

More information