WESTERN NEW YORK STATE REFEREES ASSOCIATION

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1 WESTERN NEW YORK STATE REFEREES ASSOCIATION A COMPANION GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES SOCCER FEDERATION ENTRY LEVEL REFEREE COURSE FOR NEW REFEREES IN WESTERN NEW YORK

2 FORWARD This guide is meat to be used as a companion for students taking the USSF referee classes in the Western New York State Referees Association. Rather than being a law book per se, it is organized so that students can follow along with the instructors while taking the class. Information presented herein is meant to be a simple wording of the laws that, as a new referee, you will be expected to know and enforce. It is not by any means a replacement for the regular FIFA /IFAB Law book. We do recommend that at some point after the completion of this class, you download the full IFAB law book for your reference. We do not recommend that you download it during the class because some of the wording in that book can be confusing to a new referee. Only once you have completed the referee class will you have the ability to correctly interpret what is being presented there. The current IFAB law book can be downloaded at the WNY Referee Web site under documents. (www. wnyreferee.org) The entry level class is split into two days. On the first day you will be learning about the more black and white laws and the parts of the other laws that require little interpretation and as such, are relatively simple. The second day you will learn the approriate interpretations and application of the more complex laws. The table of contents below is designed to help you find information you are looking for more quickly since this book is organized by the order in which the laws are taught, not by the order of the laws by their identifying number. TABLE OF CONTENTS LAW # NAME OF THE LAW DAY 1 DAY 2 Notes 1 The Field of Play Page 4 2 The Ball Page 5 3 The Players Page 6 4 The Player s Equipment Page 7 5 The Referee Page 18 Page 28 6 The Other Match Officials Page 19 Page 29 We are only covering the Assistant Referee 7 The Duration of the Match Page 8 8 The Start and Restart of Play Pages 9 & 11 9 is Kickoff, 11 is Dropped Ball 9 The Ball In and Out of Play Page Determining the Outcome of a Match Page 9 11 Offside Page 15 Page Fouls and Misconduct Page Page Free Kicks Page Page The Penalty Kick Page 15 Page The Throw-In Page The Goal Kick Page The Corner Kick Page 13 Referee Signals Assistant Referee Signals Inside Back Cover Outside Back Cover

3 DAY 1 The Basics of the Laws of the Game

4 DAY 1 LAW 1: The Field of Play The Lines and Areas of the Field Technical Area Touchline Optional Flag Goal Line Halfway Line Goal Center Mark Penalty Arc Penalty Area Goal Area Center Circle 10 yards 10 yards Penalty Mark 6 yards Corner Flag Corner Arc 18 yards Optional Marks IMPORTANT FACTS TO REMEMBER: SAFETY IS YOUR #1 PRIORITY! Must arrive 30 minutes early to inspect. Goals: MUST be Anchored-If not DO NOT PLAY. Must be white. If not white, report to the competition authority and play the game. If goal post is narrower than the goal line, the back of the goal post must align with the outside of the goal line. Anything that extends above the crossbar of the goal is out of play. Corner Flags - Must be 5 foot tall with a blunt top. If they aren t, remove them. Standing water, ruts, rocks, other safety issues - Fix or DO NOT PLAY. Home Coach is Responsible for fixing problems. Page 4 10 yards DIMENSIONS OF IMPORTANCE: The Field is Rectangular, the Touchlines being longer than the Goal Lines. Line Width is 5 inches maximum Field and Goal Sizes can be modified by the local competition Penalty Area extends 18 yards onto the field from the goal line. Goal Area extends 6 yards onto the field from the goal line. The center circle has a 10 yard radius. The corner arc has 1 yard radius. Optional marks are 10 yards from the corner arc. Penalty Mark is 12 yards from the goal line. Penalty Arc is 10 yards from the penalty mark. AND LAST BUT NOT LEAST: Lines are part of the area they surround. If the field is incorrectly marked but otherwise safe, play the game and report to the competiton authority. The referee is considered to be a part of the field!

5 Who should correct any reported problems with the field of play? A. Referee team B. Away team coach C. Home team coach D. Spectators Must the goals be securely anchored to the ground before starting play? At a minimum, how many minutes before the game should the referee team arrive? A. 5 minutes B. 10 minutes C. 15 minutes D. 30 minutes In a small sided game, what will determine the size of the field and the field markings used? A. Laws of the Game B. Local rules of competition Will the local rules of competition determine the size of the goals used? The corner flags must be at least how many feet high? A. 2 feet B. 4 feet C. 5 feet D. 6 feet If the goals are not securely anchored to the ground, what should the referee do? A. Ask the home team coach to fix the issue and start the game only when the goals are securely anchored B. Start the game without the goals anchored so long as it s not too windy If a foul is committed by a player on his or her own penalty area line, which of the following is correct? A. The foul occurred outside of the penalty area B. The foul occurred inside of the penalty area DAY 1 LAW 2: The Ball THE BALL MUST BE: Safe Spherical Made of leather or other suitable material Properly inflated Color or design do not matter THE REFEREE IS RESPONSIBLE: To determine if the ball is safe a) No loose or missing panels b) No sharp edges To determine if the ball is suitable for play a) Correct inflation. Can check by either squeezing the ball or bouncing the ball on the ground. b) Meets the competition requirements for size NOTE: The home team will generally provide the game ball. Who is responsible for ensuring the game ball is suitable and safe for play? A. Goalkeeper B. Home team coach C. Assistant referee D. Referee What should the referee do if the ball becomes defective during a stoppage in play? A. Stop play, replace the ball, and restart play with a dropped ball B. Replace the ball and resume play with the appropriate restart based on the stoppage SIZE OF THE BALL: Near the valve there is a number indicating what size the ball is. Check your local rules for the size to be used but they will normally be: a) Under 8 or younger - Size 3 b) Under 9 to Under 12 - Size 4 c) Under 13 or older - Size 5 IF THE BALL BECOMES DEFECTIVE: During Play - Replace the ball and restart with a dropped ball where it became defective. At a Penalty Kick (after the ball was kicked forward but before touching anything or anyone else) - Replace the ball and retake the penalty kick When Out of Play - Replace the ball and restart as you wonld have had the ball not become defective. REMEMBER-THE REFEREE MUST CHECK ANY REPLACEMENT BALL! In a small-sided game, what will determine the size of the ball used for the game? A. Laws of the Game B. Local rules of competition Page 5

6 DAY 1 LAW 3: The Players PEOPLE INVOLVED IN A MATCH: Player: a person on the field playing the game Substitute: a person who is dressed to play that has not as yet played in the match Substituted Player: a person who was playing in the mach but replaced with a substitute Team Official: a person listed on the roster who is not dressed to play in the match NUMBER OF PLAYERS: According to the Laws of the Game, a soccer match is played between two teams that have: a) No more than 11 players b) No fewer than 7 players c) One player must be the goalkeeper Small Sided Games: a) Minimum and maximum number of players allowable will be listed in the Rules of Competition (local rules) b) You must check this BEFORE you go to such a match c) Still must have a goalkeeper A match cannot start or continue unless both teams have the minumum number of players required either by the Laws of the Game or the local rules of competiton a) If it is only for a short period of time, the referee can delay the start or restart of the match and add time if necessary CHECKING IN THE TEAMS: Player identities will be verified in accordance with the Rules of the Competition (local rules) but will generally involve: a) A roster or list of players on each team b) Player passes for each player LATE ARRIVING PLAYERS: Once any game official has checked their identity and equipment, a late arriving player can check into a match subject to the local rules If the team is playing short, the late arriving player can enter the field during play with the permission of the referee subject to the local rules SUBSTITUTION: According to the laws of the game, a substitution can occur at any stoppage in play a) This can be modified by the local rules Can the checking of player passes and the players equipment be skipped if the game is running behind schedule? A. No, it s important to check and inspect all players even if the game is running late B. Yes, this process can be skipped so long as both coaches agree Can the referee allow a team to play without a goalkeeper?, a team is allowed to play without a goalkeeper if they chose to, each team must have a goalkeeper The number of players allowed during small sided and recreational youth games will depend on what? A. Laws of the Game B. Local rules of competition Substitute must have the referee s permission to enter the field of play Player being substituted may leave over any boundary line Substitute must enter at the halfway line The substitute becomes a player when they enter the field and can, once they step onto the field, take any restart GOALKEEPERS: A normal substitution involving a goalkeeper will follow the normal procedure Any player can change places with the goalkeeper providing: a) The referee gives permission b) It happens at a stoppage c) NOTE: A violation of either a or b above will result in a caution issued to both players at the next stoppage of play OUTSIDE AGENTS An outside agent is anyone or anything that is not listed on the team roster If an outside agent enters the field of play the referee should either remove the outside agent at the next stoppage OR stop play if they interfere with the match a) Restart with a dropped ball if play was only stopped to deal with the outside agent INFRINGEMENTS: If the referee realizes that a team has too many players on the field during play the referee should: a) Stop play b) Caution the extra player c) Remove the extra player d) Restart the match with an indirect free kick to the opponents where the ball was when the referee stopped play A player who is sent off: a) Cannot take any further part in the match b) Before the match begins, the player can be replaced by a substitute c) During the match, cannot be replaced and the team must play short d) After the match, the referee should notify the team e) In all cases above the referee must file a report with the competition authority A game may not start or continue if either team has fewer than players. A. 3 B. 6 C. 7 D. 11 A substitute is standing at the halfway line waiting to enter the match at the next stoppage of play. The ball has gone over the touch line for a throw-in and the referee allows for the substitution. The substitute wants to take the throw-in. Does the substitute first have to enter the field of play before being allowed to take the throw-in? Page 6

7 DAY 1 LAW 4: The Players Equipment REQUIRED EQUIPMENT: All players must wear: a) a Shirt b) Shorts c) Shinguards d) Socks e) Shoes All of the required equipment must be deemed to be safe by the referee OTHER CONSIDERATIONS: Shoes must be considered to be safe to other players. a) Any tactical disadvantage to the player wearing the shoes does not matter Shinguards must be covered by the socks and provide a reasonable degree of protection In cold weather gloves, knit caps, etc. may be worn as long as they are safe Glasses are permitted provided they are prescription Casts are allowed provided that they are safe (usually wrapped with a soft, padded covering) and that the player does not use the cast in a dangerous manner SAFETY: Referees are required to inspect the players equipment before any match and must prevent a player who is wearing illegal, unsafe or unauthorized equipment from participating in the match A player shall not wear anything that is dangerous to himself or another player All items of jewelry are forbidden and must be removed and cannot be covered with tape a) The only exception to this rule are items that are either religious or medical in nature but they must be made safe Which of the following are required pieces of equipment that all players must wear? A. Shoes B. Shin guards and socks C. Shorts and shirt D. All of the above Are goalkeepers required to wear the same equipment as other players? Are goalkeepers required to have a different color jersey from the rest of their teammates? Are players allowed to wear earrings as long as they are completely taped over? COLORS: Shirts, shorts and socks for each member of each team must match their teammates Must be distinguishable from the other team and the referee crew If there is a color conflict, the home team is usually the team required to make a change Visible undergarments must be the same main color of the shirt or shorts Tape or other material applied to the outside of the socks must be the same color of the part of the sock that it is on GOALKEEPERS: MUST wear all of the required equipment MUST wear a shirt that is different from all of the other players and the referees, including the other goalkeeper MAY wear long pants or different colored shorts MAY wear gloves MAY wear a soft-billed hat INFRINGEMENTS: If a player is found to be wearing equipment that is not allowed during the match: a) The player is told to make the correction b) If the correction has not been made prior to the next stoppage, the player must leave the field to make the correction c) Once the equipment correction has been verified by a match official, the player may return to play with the permission of the referee d) If the player returns without the permission of the referee they must be cautioned e) If a player is found to be wearing illegal equipment a second time after having been warned, the player may be cautioned What should the referee do if a player s ears were just pierced and if the earrings are removed the hole will close before the end of the game? A. Inform the player that he or she will not be permitted to play unless the earrings are removed B. Have the player cover the earrings with tape and allow him or her to play Who is responsible for ensuring the players equipment is safe for play? A. Referee B. Both team captains A player who leaves the field of play to correct or change equipment must have the equipment checked by one of the match officials and only re-enter the field of play with the referee s permission. Page 7

8 DAY 1 LAW 7: The Duration of the Match GAME LENGTH: The referee is solely responsible for keeping the time of the match The game is to be played in two equal halves a) The length of each half is determined by the local rules and may change based on age b) The local rules can also specify that the game shall be played in quarters c) The referee is responsible for knowing the local rules prior to the match HALFTIME: The players are entitled to a halftime break The halftime break shall not exceed 15 minutes a) The length of the halftime break is generally determined by the local rules b) The length of the halftime break can be reduced by mutual agreement of the teams with the consent of the referee ADDING TIME: The referee should never stop their watch Referees should instead add time to each period based on what happens during that period A referee may add time for: a) Substitutions b) Injury assessment and removal of injured players c) Time wasting d) Water breaks allowed by the competition authority e) Any other cause The referee should indicate how much time is being added to each period of play near the end of that period a) The time reported should be rounded down to the nearest minute and the referee should assure that at least that amount of time is added to that period b) The amount of time added to each period may be different The amount of time to be added is solely up to the referee to decide EXTENDING TIME: If a penalty kick is awarded at the near the end of any period of play and there is not enough time remaining in that period to complete the penalty kick: a) The referee extends time to allow the kick to be taken b) When the penalty kick is complete, the period is over c) There shall be no rebound nor second touch of a penalty kick in this situation Who is responsible for keeping the time of the game? A. Referee B. The identified timekeeper The referee s decision to allow for added time should be based which of the following? A. Substitutions, injuries and time wasting rmal stoppages for throw-ins, goal kicks and corner kicks C. Suggestions from one or both coaches D. Whether or not the game started on time Allowance for time lost means which of the following? A. If 3 minutes were added to the end of the first half, 3 minutes must also be added to the end of the second half B. The amount of time added to each period of play is up to the referee The game is continual, which means the referee stops time of his or her watch until all the time in each half or period of play has been played. A. Never B. Constantly Should the referee stop play if the weather conditions make the game unsafe? The referee determines that time (including added time) has run out. A team is about to take a corner kick. The referee should: A. Add additional time to allow the corner kick to be taken B. Blow the whistle to end the half Page 8

9 DAY 1 LAW 10: Determining the Outcome of a Match THE WINNER: The winner of the match is the team that scores the most goals If no goals are scored or if both teams score the same number of goals the match is drawn If one team must advance in a competition, the competition authority can use any of the following methods to determine which team that will be: a) The away goals rule b) Extra time c) Kicks from the mark WHAT IS A GOAL: In order for a legal goal to be scored: a) the entire ball must completely cross the goal line between the goal posts and under the crossbar b) the scoring team must not have commited an offense prior to the ball crossing the goal line c) the ball must be legally propelled LEGALLY PROPELLED: The ball is NOT legally propelled if it enters the goal directly from: In order for a legal goal to be scored. A. the ball must completely cross the goal line, between the goalposts and under the crossbar B. the ball must make contact with the goal net Is a goal scored if a direct free kick goes directly into the kicking team s own goal? a) An indirect free kick b) Any free kick into the team s own goal c) A throw-in d) A dropped ball that at least 2 different players did not touch INFRINGEMENTS: Too many people on the field at the time of the goal affiliated with the team that scored the goal: a) disallow the goal b) deal with the extra person(s) c) restart with a goal kick Too many people on the field at the time of the goal affiliated with the team that was scored upon: a) allow the goal b) deal the the extra person(s) c) restart with a kick-off If the ball is going into the goal and an outside agent makes contact with the ball without interfering with the defending team s ability to play the ball AND the ball enters the goal a) The goal should be awarded If a team kicks the ball into their own goal directly from a direct free kick, the restart is a. A. Dropped Ball B. Kick Off C. Corner Kick D. Goal Kick DAY 1 LAW 8: The Start of the Match & Kick-Offs THE COIN TOSS: Prior to the match, the referee shall conduct a coin toss with the team captains: a) The visiting team captain gets to call heads or tails b) The captain who wins the coin toss gets to decide which end they will attack c) The loser of the coin toss gets to take the kick-off at the beginning of the match d) The teams will switch which side of the field they are attacking and which team takes the kick-off at the beginning of the next period THE KICK-OFF: A kick-off takes place: a) At the beginning of each period of play b) After a goal, taken by the team that was scored upon REQUIREMENTS: Each team must be in their own half of the field until the ball is in play The team defending the kick-off must remain outside of the center circle (10 yards from the ball) until it is in play The ball must be stationary (not moving) on the center mark When the referee is certain all of the above requirements are met, he/she signals that the kick-off is ready to be taken by blowing their whistle BALL IN PLAY: The ball is in play when it is kicked and clearly moves INFRINGEMENTS: If the player taking the kick touches the ball a second time before it touches another player: a) An indirect free kick is awarded to the opponents at the place where the player touched it the second time Anything else: a) Retake the kick-off Page 9

10 SCORING: A goal may be scored directly on the opposing team from a kick-off A goal may not be scored directly on themselves a) Restart would be a corner kick to the opponents When is the ball in play at the taking of a kick-off? A. When it has been touched or played by another player B. When it leaves the center circle C. When it is kicked and clearly moves D. When it is kicked and moves forward The winner of the coin toss gets which of the following? A. The choice of which goal to attack in the first half but not the kick-off B. The choice between kicking off in the first half or the second half During the kick-off, do both teams have to be on their half of the field until the ball is in play? DAY 1 LAW 9: The Ball In and Out of Play THE BALL IS OUT OF PLAY WHEN: The ball crosses a boundary line a) The entire ball must cross the entire boundary line either on the ground or in the air The referee decides to stop play a) Whether or not the referee has blown the whistle The ball is in play at all other times OTHER SITUATIONS: The ball remains in play if it hits: a) The referee or assistant referee and stays on the field b) The goal post or crossbar and stays on the field c) The corner flag and stays on the field Does the entire ball or just part of the ball have to cross a boundary line in order for it to be considered out of play? A. Entire ball B. Part of the ball What should the referee do if the ball completely crosses the touchline in the air and blows back onto the field? A. Allow play to continue since the ball never touched the ground outside the field of play B. Stop play and restart with a throw-in Is the ball still considered in play when the referee blows his or her whistle? Page 10

11 DAY 1 LAW 8: The Dropped Ball THE DROPPED BALL: Is a method of restarting play when no other restart is directed for the stoppage in the Laws of the Game REQUIREMENTS: There is no minimum nor maximum number of players required at a dropped ball Referee holds the ball waist high and drops it BALL IN PLAY: The ball is in play when it touches the ground The player who first touches the ball once it is in play is allowed to touch it again without someone else touching it (there can be no double touch infringement) When is the ball in play from a dropped ball? A. When the ball touches the ground B. When the referee releases the ball C. When a player touches the ball D. When the ball stops bouncing How should the referee restart the game if a player kicks the ball directly into the opponent s goal from a dropped ball? A. Corner kick B. Goal kick C. Repeat the dropped ball D. Kick-off INFRINGEMENTS: If a player touches the ball before it touches the ground OR if the ball goes out of play prior to a player touching the ball a) Repeat the dropped ball SCORING: A goal may not be scored after a dropped ball until at least two different players touch the ball a) Restart would be either a corner kick or goal kick OTHER: A dropped ball cannot be taken inside a goal area a) It must be dropped on the closest spot on the goal area line (six yard line) to the place where it would have otherwise have been dropped How should the referee restart the game if play is stopped for an injured goalkeeper in possession of the ball? A. Corner kick B. Kick-off C. Indirect free kick D. Dropped ball What restart should the referee use when no other restart is specified in the Laws? A. Indirect free kick B. Dropped ball DAY 1 LAW 15: The Throw-In WHEN TO AWARD: The ball crosses the touchline Awarded to the opponents of the player who last touched the ball The throw-in must be taken from the place on the touchline where the ball left the field REQUIREMENTS: The player taking the throw-in must: a) face the field b) have both feet touching the ground c) have both feet behind or touching the touchline d) use both hands e) throw the ball from behind and over the head Opponents must be two yards away from where the throw-in is to be taken The ball is in play when it: a) leaves the hands of the thrower b) enters the field of play UNUSUAL THROW-INS: Provided that all of the requirements above have been met, the following throw-ins are allowed: a) A flip throw b) A player lacking the use of one or both hands may take a throw-in c) A player may throw the ball at another player in order to play it again provided that the ball was not thrown carelessly, recklessly, or with excessive force. INFRINGEMENTS: Double Touch by the player taking the throw a) Indirect free kick to the opposing team Defender either distracts the thrower or is not 2 yards away from the throw-in a) Caution for unsporting behavior b) Restart with an indirect free kick if the throw-in was completed c) Retake the throw-in if the throw-in was not completed Page 11

12 The ball does not enter the field a) If the throw-in was otherwise legal, retake the throw-in b) If the throw was not legal, throw-in to the opponents Anything else a) Award a throw-in to the opponents SCORING: A goal may not be scored directly from a throw-in a) the restart would be either a goal kick or corner kick A throw-in is awarded when the ball wholly crosses a? A. Touch line B. Goal line At a minimum, how far away must all opponents be from the location of a throw-in? A. There is no minimum distance required B. 1 yard C. 2 yards D. 10 yards Can a goal be scored directly from a throw-in? What is the correct restart if the ball goes directly into the opponent s goal without being touched by another player from a throw-in? A. Corner kick B. Goal kick C. Throw-in D. Kick-off For a proper throw-in, is the thrower required to face the field and have part of both feet on the ground, either on the touch line or on the area off the field of play? DAY 1 LAW 16: The Goal Kick WHEN TO AWARD: The ball crosses the goal line Last touched by an attacker No goal is scored REQUIREMENTS: The ball must be placed inside the goal area The ball must not be moving (stationary) Opponents must be outside of the penalty area until the ball is in play The ball is in play when it is kicked and leaves the penalty area A goal kick is awarded when the ball wholly crosses a when last touched by a player from the attacking team. A. Touch line B Goal line A goal kick is taken and the ball stops before leaving the penalty area. The correct action is: A. Award an IFK to the opposing team B The ball may be played by either team if it comes to a complete stop C. Re-take the goal kick INFRINGEMENTS: If the ball is not kicked out of penalty area on first touch a) Retake the goal kick Double touch outside of the penalty area by player who took the kick a) Indirect Free Kick to the opponents Any other infringement a) Retake the goal kick During a goal kick, are all opposing players required to be outside the penalty area until the ball is in play? When is the ball in play from a goal kick? A. When it is kicked and moves B. When it leaves the goal area C. When it leaves the penalty area D. Not until it has been touched by a player other than the kicker Page 12

13 DAY 1 LAW 17: The Corner Kick WHEN TO AWARD: The ball crosses the goal line Last touched by a defender No goal is scored SCORING: The attacking team can score a goal directly on the opponents The attacking team CANNOT score a goal directly on themselves a) Restart would be a corner kick to the opponents REQUIREMENTS: The ball must be placed inside the corner area The kick must be taken from the corner area closest to where the ball crossed the goal line The ball must not be moving (stationary) Opponents must be 10 yards from the corner arc until the ball is in play The ball is in play when it is kicked and clearly moves INFRINGEMENTS: Double Touch by the player taking the kick a) Indirect free kick to the opposing team Anything else a) Retake the corner kick A corner kick is awarded when the ball wholly crosses a when last touched by a player from the defending team. A. Touch line B. Goal line What is the correct restart if the ball goes directly into the opponent s goal from a corner kick? A. Corner kick B. Goal kick C. Throw-in D. Kick-off What is the correct restart if the ball leaves the field but then curves back into play from a corner kick? A. Corner kick B. Goal kick C. Throw-in D. Kick-off Can a goal be scored directly from a corner kick? A goal may be scored directly from a corner kick, but only against the opposing team. If the ball directly enters the kicker s own goal a is awarded to the opponents A. Goal kick B. Indirect free kick C. Corner kick D. Direct free kick DAY 1 LAW 13: Direct Free Kick WHEN TO AWARD: A direct free kick is awarded when a direct free kick foul or infraction happens It is awarded to the opponents of the team that committed the offense REQUIREMENTS: The ball must be stationary (not moving) All opponents must be 10 yards from where the kick is to be taken except as noted in this presentation It is taken from the place where the offense occurred (point of infraction): a) Unless another location is specified in the Laws of the Game b) Unless another location is specified in the remainder of this presentation c) If a player commits a direct free kick offense in their own penalty area the restart will be a penalty kick which is not a direct free kick and will be covered in other presentations BALL IN PLAY: The ball is in play from a direct free kick when it is kicked and clearly moves subject to the exceptions noted in this presentation SCORING: A goal may be scored directly (on the first touch) from a direct free kick EXCEPTIONS: If a team is awarded a direct free kick inside their own goal area: a) The ball may be placed anywhere inside the goal area b) All opponents must be outside of the penalty area c) The ball is in play when it leaves the penalty area on the first touch If a team is awarded a direct free kick inside their own penalty area: a) The ball must be placed at the point of infraction b) All opponents must be outside of the penalty area c) The ball is in play when it leaves the penalty area on the first touch Page 13

14 INFRINGEMENTS BY THE KICKERS: If the player who takes the direct free kick touches the ball again once it is in play before another player touches the ball: a) Award an indirect free kick to the opponents from the point of the second touch Anything else: a) Retake the direct free kick INFRINGEMENTS BY THE OPPONENTS: Infringements by the opponents will be covered on day 2 When is a direct free kick (taken outside of the penalty area) in play? A. When it is kicked and moves B. When it is kicked and moves forward Can a goal be scored directly from a DFK? DAY 1 LAW 13: The Indirect Free Kick WHEN TO AWARD: An indirect free kick is awarded when an indirect free kick foul or offense, or an offside infraction happens It is awarded to the opponents of the team that committed the offense REQUIREMENTS: The ball must be stationary (not moving) All opponents must be 10 yards from where the kick is to be taken except as noted in this presentation It is taken from the place where the offense occurred (point of infraction): a) Unless another location is specified in the Laws of the Game b) Unless another location is specified in the remainder of this presentation BALL IN PLAY: The ball is in play from an indirect free kick when it is kicked and clearly moves subject to the exceptions noted in this presentation SCORING: A goal may not be scored directly (on the first touch) from an indirect free kick a) At least two players must touch the ball before a goal can be awarded EXCEPTIONS: If a team is awarded an indirect free kick inside their own goal area: a) The ball may be placed anywhere inside the goal area b) All opponents must be outside of the penalty area c) The ball is in play when it leaves the penalty area on the first touch If a team is awarded an indirect free kick inside their own penalty area: a) The ball must be placed at the point of infraction b) All opponents must be outside of the penalty area c) The ball is in play when it leaves the penalty area on the first touch If a team is awarded an indirect free kick inside their opponents goal area: a) The ball must be placed on the goal area line (6 yard line) closest to the place where the infringement occurred b) All opponents must be either on the goal line in between the goal posts OR 10 yards from the placement of the kick INFRINGEMENTS BY THE KICKERS: If the player who takes the indirect free kick touches the ball again once it is in play before another player touches the ball: a) Award an indirect free kick to the opponents from the point of the second touch Anything else: a) Retake the indirect free kick INFRINGEMENTS BY THE OPPONENTS: Infringements by the opponents will be covered on day 2 When is an indirect free kick (taken outside of the penalty area) in play? A. When it is kicked and moves B. When it is touched by a second player Can a goal be scored directly from an IFK? Page 14

15 DAY 1 LAW 14: The Penalty Kick (Basics) WHEN TO AWARD: A penalty kick is awarded when an offense occurs that would result in a direct free kick restart inside the offenders own penalty area It is awarded to the opponents of the team that committed the offense REQUIREMENTS: The ball must be stationary (not moving) on the penalty mark Any player on the attacking team may take the kick All players other than the kicker and the defending goalkeeper must be: a) Laterally behind the penalty mark b) Outside the penalty area c) Behind the penalty arc The defending goalkeeper must remain on the goal line, facing the kicker, between the goalposts until the ball has been kicked The kicker must be identified to the defending goalkeeper a) The referee should hand the kicker the ball and allow him or her to place the ball on the penalty mark Is a penalty kick awarded when a defending player commits a foul punishable by a direct free kick against an opponent in the defending player s penalty area? The assistant referee on that end of the field of play must move to the intersection of the goal line and the penalty area line in order to judge: a) Whether the goalkeeper moved off the line before the kick b) Whether or not a goal was scored from the kick The referee should move to a position where he or she can: a) Supervise the kick b) See all of the players who are near the penalty area The referee must blow the whistle once all of the requirements are met to signal that the penalty kick can be taken BALL IN PLAY: The ball is in play from a penalty kick when it is kicked and clearly moves forward SCORING: A goal may be scored directly (on the first touch) from a penalty kick INFRINGEMENTS: All infringements will be covered on day 2 Can a goalkeeper take a penalty kick? DAY 1 LAW 11: Offside (The Basics) REQUIREMENTS FOR AN INFRACTION: In order to be guilty of an offside offense a player must be: a. In an offside position b. At the moment the ball is touched by a teammate c. Involved in active play On day one we are not going to dicuss how one becomes involved in active play OFFSIDE POSITION: In order to be in an offside position a player must be: a. Nearer to the goal line than the ball b. Nearer to the goal line than the second to last defender c. On the half of the field they are attacking All three of these factors MUST be present for a player to be considered in an offside position The halfway line is neutral and is NOT to be considered part of the attacking half The goalkeeper may or may not be one of the two defenders TIMING: Whether or not a player is in an offside position is judged at the moment a teammate of that player touches the ball The teammate need not play the ball, only touch it RESTART EXCEPTIONS: A player never ever be guilty of an offside offense if they receive the ball directly from a: a. Goal Kick b. Corner Kick c. Throw In Directly means no teammate touches the ball after the restart REMEMBER THIS: VERY IMPORTANT! There is NOTHING WRONG with simply being in an offside position Page 15

16 To be in an offside position, a player must be which of the following? A. Nearer to the opponent s goal line than the ball B. Nearer to the opponent s goal line than the second to last defender C. In the opponent s half of the field D. All of the above Should a player always be penalized for being in an offside position? A player cannot be punished for being offside position if he or she receives the ball directly from which of the following? A. Corner kick B. Goal kick C. Throw-in D. All of the above DAY 1 LAW 12: Fouls (The Basics) WHAT IS A FOUL: A foul is committed: a) By a player b) On the field of play c) While the ball is in play TYPES OF FOULS: There are two types of fouls: a. Direct free kick fouls (which will result in a direct free kick or penalty kick restart) b. Indirect free kick fouls (which will result in an indirect free kick restart) THE 11 DIRECT FREE KICK FOULS: There are two groups of direct free kick fouls: a) The first group must be committed in a manner considered by the referee to be careless, reckless or using excessive force in order to be considered fouls b) The second group are fouls no matter how they are committed There are 7 DFK fouls that, in order to be considered a foul, must be committed carelessly, recklessly or with excessive force: 1) Kicks or attempts to kick an opponent 2) Strikes or attempts to strike an opponent 3) Trips or attempts to trip an opponent 4) Charges an opponent 5) Jumps at an opponent 6) Pushes an opponent 7) Tackles or challenges an opponent (NOTE: In this context challenges is defined as a tackle that is not committed using the feet.) There are 4 DFK fouls that are always fouls no matter how they are committed: 1) Deliberately handles the ball 2) Spits at an opponent 3) Holds an opponent 4) Impedes the progress of an opponent with contact CARELESS, RECKLESS OR EXCESSIVE FORCE: Careless fouls are the most common a) When a player shows a lack of attention or consideration when making a challenge or acts without precaution Reckless fouls are less common and must be punished with a caution a) When a player acts with disregard to the danger to, or consequences for, an opponent Excessive force fouls are rarely seen and must be punished by sending off the player who committed the act a) When a player exceeds the necessary use of force and endangers the safety of an opponent THE 8 INDIRECT FREE KICK FOULS: There are two groups of indirect free kick fouls: a) The first group can only be committed by goalkeepers within their own penalty area b) The second group can be committed by any player The 4 IFK Fouls that can only be committed by goalkeepers within their own penalty area: 1) Holds the ball in their hands for more than 6 seconds 2) Release the ball from their hands then use their hands again prior to an opponent s touch of the ball 3) Using their hands when the ball was last deliberately kicked by a teammate 4) Using their hands on the ball when the ball was received directly from a thrown-in by a teammate The 4 IFK Fouls that can be committed by any player: 1) Playing in a dangerous manner 2) Impedes the progress of an opponent without contact 3) Preventing the goalkeeper from releasing the ball from his hands back into play 4) Play was stopped solely to deal with a misconduct Page 16

17 What are the requirements of a foul? A. Action committed by a player B. Action committed on the field of play C. Action committed while the ball is in play D. All of the above What is the correct restart if a player trips an opponent? A. Indirect free kick B. Direct free kick What is the correct restart if a player commits dangerous play? A. Indirect free kick B. Direct free kick What is the correct restart if a player kicks an opponent? A. Indirect free kick B. Direct free kick What is the correct restart if a player pushes an opponent? A. Indirect free kick B. Direct free kick DAY 1 LAW 12: Misconduct (The Basics) WHAT IS A MISCONDUCT: Please note that the Laws of the Game do NOT clearly define what constitutes a misconduct Unlike fouls, misconducts can be committed by any participant in a match, on or off the field of play and when the ball is in or out of play A misconduct is penalized by showing the guilty party either a yellow card (caution) or a red card (send-off) a) If a team official commits a misconduct, a card is not shown but instead is either warned or dismissed CAUTIONABLE OFFENSES: There are seven cautionable offenses: 1) Unsporting behavior 2) Dissent (by word or action) 3) Persistent infringement of the Laws of the Game 4) Delaying the restart of play 5) Failure to respect the required distance on a restart 6) Entering or reentering the field without the referee s permission 7) Deliberately leaving the field without the referee s permission SENDING-OFF OFFENSES: There are seven sending-off offenses: 1) Serious foul play 2) Violent conduct 3) Foul, insulting or abusive language 4) Spitting at anyone 5) Denying a goal scoring opportunity by deliberately handling the ball 6) Denying a goal scoring opportunity by committing an offense punishable with a free kick 7) Receiving a second caution in a game Which of the following is a cautionable offense? A. Serious Foul Play B. Dissent C. Violent Conduct D. Offside Which of the following is a send off offense? A. Unsporting Behavior B. Persistent Infringement C. Spitting D. Dangerous play You MAY NOT caution and show a yellow card to a. A. Coach B. Substitute C. Player Page 17

18 DAY 1 LAW 5: The Referee (The Basics) AUTHORITY OF THE REFEREE: The Laws of the Game give referees certain powers and duties relative to the enforcement of the Laws of the Game Some of those powers and duties include: a) Assuring that players equipment is safe and suitable for play b) Assuring that the ball is safe and suitable for play c) Assuring that the field is safe and suitable for play d) Keeping the time in the match d) Whether or not the ball is out of bounds and restarting the match correctly in each case e) Whether or not a goal has been scored f) Whether or not a player should be punished for offside g) Caution, send-off or dismiss match participants for misconduct h) Whether or not to apply advantage i) Stop, suspend or terminate a match for fouls or misconduct and restarting the match correctly j) Stop, suspend or terminate a match for severe weather k) Stop, suspend or terminate a match for a severe injury l) Stop, suspend or terminate a match for outside interference STOP, SUSPEND OR TERMINATE: As stated above, referees have the authority to stop, suspend or terminate a match for various reasons Stop a) Temporary stoppage, immediate restart (foul, injury, ) Suspend a) Stopped with intention to resume (lightning, ) Terminate a) Game ended, not going to resume (darkness, ) DEALING WITH INJURIES: The referee s primary concern in any match is SAFETY The Referee may stop play for an injury: a) The Laws of the game state: Stop in cases of serious injury b) Serious is subject to age, skill, etc. c) Err on the side of safety! If you determine there is a serious injury: a) Stop play immediately b) Summon coach onto field If blood is visible, the player must be removed from the field a) Player can t return until the blood is removed from the player and their equipment PLAYERS EQUIPMENT: The referee decides if player equipment is appropriate and safe for play: a) Are shinguards adequate? b) Are all medical bracelets made safe? c) Is the goalkeeper s jersey sufficiently different from the other players? d) Are the players shoes safe? DEALING WITH TEAM OFFICIALS: Referees have the authority to dismiss a team official for irresponsible behavior Use the Ask, Tell, Dismiss method a) ASK the team official to behave, if that fails b) TELL the team official to behave, if that fails c) DISMISS the team official from the field d) NOTE: Depending on the severity of the offense, any step in the process can be skipped. DEALING WITH SPECTATORS: The Laws of the Game do NOT grant referees authority over spectators. Tell the coaches to deal with problem parents and spectators a) If the coach cannot or will not deal with the problem, do not directly confront any spectator b) You have the option to terminate the match for outside interference Report all such incidents to the competition authority CHANGING A DECISION: Referees may change any decision made before the next restart or until the referee leaves the field at the end of any period REFEREE POSITIONING: Referees must be in a position that allows them to make correct decisions SPECIAL CONCERNS IN WESTERN NEW YORK: Risk Management a) All referees must obtain a risk management ID card from New York State West Youth Soccer Association if they intend to do youth matches in our state b) If a coach requests to see your risk management ID card prior to the start of a match, you must show it to them c) Apply at Goal Anchoring a) All goals, regardless of size, MUST be securely anchored to the ground or the match CANNOT be played b) Any match official who does not assure that the goals in ANY game they are officiating are anchored is subject to disciplinary sanctions Thunder or Lightning a) You must stop play if you see lightning or hear thunder b) Play may not resume (or begin) until 30 minutes have passed since last thunder or lightning c) Advise coaches to get themselves and their players to safety d) It s their responsibility to follow through, not yours e) Get yourself to safety f) Referees have no authority to vary from this policy Page 18

19 DAY 1 LAW 6: The Other Match Officials (The Basics) OTHER MATCH OFFICIALS: Function under the direction of the referee Other match officials include: a) Assistant Referees b) Fourth Officials c) Additional Assistant Referees d) Reserve Assistant Referees For the purposes of this class, we are ONLY going to deal with Assistant Referees because, as a new referee, that is the only role listed above that you will likely assume for at least 3 years THE ASSISTANT REFEREE: Two assistant referees are appointed to each match Assistant referees assist the referee by providing information for the referee to act on a) Assistant referees assist, they do not insist These duties include: a) When the whole ball has completely left the field of play b) Which team should be awarded a throw-in, goal kick or corner kick c) When a player should be penalized for an offside offense d) When a substitution is requested e) Signal for offenses out of the view of the referee f) Indicate goalkeeper encroachment during the taking of a penalty kick g) Indicate or confirm when a goal should be awarded h) Signal for offenses when the assistant referee has a better view than the referee POSITIONING OF THE ASSISTANT REFEREE: Assistant referees patrol: a) Off the touchline b) On one half of the field (never past the halfway line) c) Even with the second to last defender OR the ball, whichever is closest to the goal line (think offside ) d) If any shot is taken, the assistant referee on that end of the field must follow the ball to the goal line in order to judge whether or not a goal has been scored REVIEW QUESTIONS FOR LAWS 5 & 6: Do the Laws of the Game provide referees with certain powers and duties? Can the referee stop the game if a player is injured? What should the referee do if a player is seriously injured? A. Allow the game to continue B. Stop the game immediately so the player can get medical attention Which of the following might the assistant referee indicate? A. When the ball has left the field of play B. When a player should be penalized for an offside offense C. When a substitution has been requested D. All of the above Do referees have the authority to deal with coaches and other team officials who behave in an irresponsible manner? When managing the team areas and dealing with coaches who are behaving irresponsibly, referees should use the Ask, Tell, approach. A. Dismiss B. Red Card What position should the assistant referee maintain in order to judge offside offenses? A. Even with the referee B. Even with the second to last defender What should the referee do if a spectator is bothering one of the assistant referees? A. Ask the coaches to help deal with the spectator B. Show the spectator a red card What position should the referee work to maintain during the game? A. One that will allow him or her to make the correct decision B. One that always keeps him or her in front of the play Should assistant referees follow the ball all the way to the goal line when it goes past the second to last defender? What is the referee s primary responsibility? A. Making sure the game is safe for the players B. Making sure the players have fun Does Ask, Tell, Dismiss require that you always ask and tell before you dismiss a coach? Page 19

20 DAY 1 Interpretation and Application

21 DAY 2 LAW 13: The Quick Free Kick THE QUICK FREE KICK: Is a method of administering a free kick The offended team has the right to take the kick quickly a) The ball must still be stationery at the correct place b) The referee does NOT have to blow the whistle for the kick to take place INFRACTIONS: If the attacking team decides to take a quick free kick, they take their chances The defending team has not given up the right to defend but a) They must move to a point that is 10 yards or more from where the kick is to be taken If a defender moves toward the ball, is closer than 10 yards from the free kick, and makes contact with the ball at the taking of a quick free kick: a) The game must be stopped b) The defender must be cautioned for failure to respect the required distance at a restart c) The kick must be retaken as a ceremonial free kick If the attacker kicks the ball directly at a defender who is not moving closer to where the kick is to be taken from, there is NO INFRACTION, regardless of how close the defender is If the defender moves to one side without moving closer to where the kick is to be taken from and intercepts a ball that was kicked nearby, there is NO INFRACTION, regardless of how close the defender is If a defender does not make contact with the ball at the taking of a quick free kick there is NO INFRACTION ADVICE: Referees should not interfere with the taking of a free kick unless it is necessary If it is necessary, the referee should administer a ceremonial free kick. DAY 2 LAW 13: The Ceremonial Free Kick THE CEREMONIAL FREE KICK: Is a method of administering a free kick A ceremonial free kick should be administered when: a) When issuing a caution or send-off b) When a free kick was awarded and there was an injured player who required treatment c) The kicking team makes a request for space d) When the referee needs to use it for game management The referee must blow the whistle to restart play PROCEDURE: The referee must indicate to the kicker that they must wait for the whistle to be blown The referee should assure that the ball is in the correct place and then back up 10 yards from that spot The referee should tell the defenders to retire to the correct position, bringing the defenders to him or her The referee must ALSO assure that there are no defenders within 10 yards of the kick in any direction REMEMBER: In this case the defenders MUST move 10 yards from the kick a) Refusal by a defender to move the required distance can be cautioned b) If defenders move closer to the place of the kick before the kick is taken, they can be cautioned The referee should move to a spot where he or she can see what will happen once the free kick is taken The referee should only then blow his whistle to indicate that the free kick can take place EXCEPTIONS TO THE 10 YARD RULE: If an indirect free kick is given to the attackers less than 10 yards from the goal, the defenders must remain: a) On the field of play on the goal line in between the goalposts until the free kick is taken b) Other than noted above, they must be at least 10 yards from the point where the kick is taken If a free kick is awarded to the defenders inside their own penalty area, the defenders must remain: a) Outside of the penalty area until the free kick is taken b) This may require some of the defenders be more than 10 yards from the point where the kick is to be taken Page 21

22 What action should the referee take if an opponent fails to respect the required distance by moving less than 10 yards from the ball and blocking a free kick? A. The player should be cautioned and the kick should be retaken B. Play should continue and the player should be cautioned at the next stoppage What is the correct restart if a player kicks an indirect free kick directly into the opponent s goal without it being touched by another player? A. Corner kick B. Goal kick C. Indirect free kick D. Kick-off What is the correct restart if a player takes an indirect free kick and the ball deflects off of the referee and then goes directly into the goal? A. Corner kick B. Goal kick C. Indirect free kick D. Kick-off DAY 2 LAW 14: The Penalty Kick REQUIREMENTS OF THE PLAYERS: All players except for the defending goalkeeper and the kicker: a) Must not enter the penalty area or penalty arc until the ball is kicked The kicker: a) Must move directly to ball b) Cannot stop at ball before kicking c) May vary speed on approach The defending goalkeeper: a) Must remain on the goal line until the ball is kicked b) Can move from side to side c) Must face the field INFRACTIONS: Once the referee indicates that the kick can be taken, it must be taken and the referee must NOT interfere If there is an infraction during the penalty kick, the referee should note the result of the kick and use the chart below to determine the restart: Infraction by Ball in the goal Ball not in the goal Kicking team Retake the kick IFK to opponents Defending team Award the goal Retake the kick Both teams Retake the kick Retake the kick If the ball rebounds off the crossbar or goal post back to the kicker who plays the ball again: a) Indirect free kick to the opponents If the ball rebounds off the goalkeeper back to the kicker who plays the ball again: a) There is NO INFRACTION and play should continue If the kicker stops at the ball before taking the kick: a) The kicker is cautioned for unsporting behavior b) If the ball enters the goal, retake the kick c) If the ball does not enter the goal, award an indirect free kick to the opposing team If a player other than identified kicker enters penalty area and takes the kick a) Award an indirect free kick to the opposing team If the kicker fails to kick the ball forward: a) Award an indirect free kick to the opposing teams All of the indirect free kicks indicated in this section should be taken from where the infraction occurred DEFECTIVE BALL: If the ball becomes defective at the taking of a penalty kick: a) Before it touches another player, stop the game, replace the ball and retake the penalty kick b) After it touches another player, stop the game, replace the ball and restart with a dropped ball What is the correct restart if the penalty kick taker kicks the ball into the goal after the ball has rebounded off the goalkeeper? A. Kick-off B. Indirect free kick for the defending team Can any player, including the goalkeeper, from the team that was fouled take the penalty kick? A penalty kick is completed when the ball stops moving, the ball goes out of play, or the referee stops play for any infringements of the Laws. What is the correct restart if the goalkeeper moves from side to side on the goal line before the penalty kick is taken and then deflects the kick over the crossbar? A. Corner kick B. Goal kick What is the correct restart if a teammate of the penalty kick taker enters the penalty area before the penalty kick is taken and then the goalkeeper deflects the ball over the crossbar? A. Corner kick B. Indirect free kick for the defending team Page 22

23 DAY 2 LAW 11: Offside OFFSIDE POSITION: As stated before, a player is considered to be in an offside position if at the time the ball is LAST TOUCHED by a TEAMMATE the player is: a) Closer to the goal line than the ball b) Closer to the goal line than the second to last defender c) On their attacking half of the field When judging offside position, any part of the player s body that can legally play the ball should be considered a) If a player s hands and arms are in an offside position but no other part of the player s body is, the player is NOT in an offside position A player cannot be in an offside position if they are: a) On the halfway line b) Even with the second to last defender c) Even with both of the last two defenders d) Even with the ball A player cannot be in an offside position if they receive the ball directly from: a) A throw-in b) A corner kick c) A goal kick Offside position by itself is not an infraction OFFSIDE INFRACTION: In order for a player to be punished for the offside infraction the player in the offside position must become involved in active play by: a) Interfering with play b) Interfering with an opponent c) Gaining an advantage by being in that position If a player becomes involved in active play by any of the above means, the referee should award an indirect free kick to the opposing team at the place where the offending player was at the time they became involved in active play If a player is in an offside position when the ball is last touched by their teammate and then moves to an onside position and becomes involved in active play prior to another teammate touching the ball, the offside infraction should still be punished, even if the restart would now be awarded on that player s defensive half of the field INTERFERING WITH PLAY: A player in an offside position interferes with play by touching the ball A player can also be deemed to have interfered with play if: a) They are 1v1 with the goalkeeper or b) If it is inevitable or, in other words, if they are the ONLY player on their team that can get to the ball and they are moving toward the ball in order to play it c) In either of the above scenarios, the player need not actually touch the ball and the referee decides at what point they interfered with play INTERFERING WITH AN OPPONENT: A player in an offside position interferes with an opponent by: a) Clearly blocking the opponent s view of (ability to see) the ball or b) Challenges the opponent for the ball Challenging the opponent for the ball in this case requires: a) That they do something that effects the opponent s ability to play the ball b) Just standing there is NOT challenging an opponent for the ball and should NOT be punished GAINING AN ADVANTAGE BY POSITION: A player in an offside position gains an advantage by being in an offside position by touching a ball that rebounds or is deflected by a goal post, the crossbar or an opponent If the defender plays the ball to a player in the offside position, that player cannot be punished for being offside a) All that matters in this case is that the defender deliberately played the ball, not whether or not the ball went where the defender wanted to play it If the defender or goalkeeper make a deliberate save of a ball heading toward goal and the ball goes directly to an opponent in an offside position, the offside infraction must be punished even if the save was a deliberate play on the ball A player cannot be in an offside position if he or she is. A. In his or her own half of the field or even with the second to last opponent B. Even with the assistant referee A player in a offside position is only penalized for an offside offense if. A. He or she is involved in active play B. He or she received the ball directly from a throw-in, goal kick or corner kick An attacking player, in an offside position, receives the ball directly from a teammate s corner kick. Is the player guilty of an offside offense? An attacking player, in an offside position, receives the ball directly from a teammate s throw-in. Is the player guilty of an offside offense? An attacking player, in an offside position, receives the ball directly from a teammate s indirect free kick. Is the player guilty of an offside offense? An attacking player, in an offside position, receives the ball directly from a teammate s goal kick. Is the player guilty of an offside offense? An attacking player, in an offside position, receives the ball from a teammate s pass after it bounces off the outstretched leg of a defender. Is the player guilty of an offside offense? Page 23

24 DAY 2 LAW 12: Direct Free Kick Fouls CONTACT WITH ANOTHER PARTICIPANT: Any offense committed while the ball is in play, whether it is a foul or not a foul, that involves making contact with another match participant (player, substitute, substituted player, match official or team official) that is deemed by the referee to be careless, reckless or using excessive force shall always be punished with a direct free kick whether the act was or was not a foul Accidental or incidental contact with an opponent will generally not be considered a foul FOUL OFF THE FIELD: We stated before that in order for an act to be considered a foul it must be committed by a player on the field of play while the ball is in play If, however, a player leaves the field through the normal run of play and commits an act against another player that would normally be considered a foul, it SHALL be considered a foul a) The restart in this case will be a free kick to the opponents awarded at the closest point on the field to where the act took place (on either the touchline or the goal line) b) If the act requires a direct free kick restart and this new location is inside the offender s own penalty area, then a penalty kick shall be awarded USING AN OBJECT TO COMMIT A FOUL: If a player commits a foul by throwing something (i.e. a ball, shoe, shinguard, etc.,) the object is considered to be an extension of the arm or hand a) Throwing an object at an opponent will be the same as striking b) Throwing an object at the ball will be considered deliberate handling c) The point of infraction will be where the object strikes what it was thrown at, not where the offender was when they threw the object STRIKING AN OPPONENT: Striking an opponent is generally considered a very serious foul and will typically be punished as either reckless (caution) or excessive force (send-off) unless the force used was negligible Striking an opponent in the head or neck area is particularly dangerous will normally be considered as having used excessive force because of the potential for harm to the opponent HOLDING: Holding includes holding any part of the opponent s uniform Holding can be committed using any part of the body, not just the arms DELIBERATE HANDLING: In order for handling to be considered a foul, it must be a deliberate action a) We cannot judge intent as we cannot read anyone s mind b) We make the judgment based on what we see What can we see? a) Did the player move their hand or arms toward the ball b) Did the player use his hands or arms to make themselves wider c) Were the hands or arms in a normal playing position for a player of that age d) Did the player continue an act that was initially accidental Self protection is allowed and should NOT be punished a) Consider the speed of the ball and the distance that the ball came from b) Was it a normal reaction or a deliberate act Deliberate handling is an act, not a result of an act a) If the player gained an advantage because the ball hit their hands or arms, that by itself does not make the act a foul b) Only judge whether the act committed was deliberate Goalkeepers a) A goalkeeper can NEVER be guilty of deliberate handling when they are inside their own penalty area b) A goalkeeper outside of their own penalty area has no special rights and CAN commit deliberate handling DAY 2 LAW 12: Indirect Free Kick Fouls ADVICE ON IFK FOULS BY GOALKEEPER: A goalkeeper is generally considered to be in control of the ball if they are bouncing the ball or tossing it in the air and catching it The 6 second rule should not be applied after a save unless the goalkeeper has gained control of the ball, is on his or her feet and the opponents have left the immediate vicinity of the save a) It is also a good idea to verbally warn the goalkeeper before making this call There are three requirements to consider if a goalkeeper used his hands to control a deliberate kick from their teammate: a) The ball MUST have been deliberately kicked, not deflected nor a last ditch effort by the teammate to clear the ball downfield causing the ball to go somewhere they Page 24 obviously did not intend b) The ball MUST have been kicked by a teammate using their feet c) The keeper MUST have then used their hands inside their own penalty area prior to another player touching the ball d) NOTE: There is no requirement that the ball be kicked TO the goalkeeper in this case REMEMBER: A goalkeeper IS allowed to use their hands inside their penalty area to control a ball received directly by a throw-in from an opponent a) It is ONLY an indirect free kick offense if the ball was thrown-in by a teammate

25 DANGEROUS PLAY: The dangerous act committed by a player need only be considered dangerous to either himself or some other player HOWEVER: a) IT IS ONLY A FOUL IF a nearby opponent was adversely or unfairly affected EXAMPLE: If a player attempts to head the ball when it is close to the ground near an opponent: a) The dangerous act was to put their head near the ground in a place where other players may be attempting to kick the ball meaning the act endangered their own safety HOWEVER: b) It is only considered a foul if the nearby opponent cannot play the ball for fear of injuring the offending player or committing a foul themselves IMPEDING AN OPPONENT: Is defined as a player moving into the path of an opponent in order to keep them from making a play on the ball a) If the player is moving toward the ball OR is within playing distance of the ball, it is considered to be shielding which is NOT A FOUL b) REMEMBER: If the impeding player makes contact with the opponent the restart will be a direct free kick or penalty kick c) It will ONLY be an indirect free kick if the impeding player does NOT make contact with the opponent STOPPING THE MATCH FOR MISCONDUCT: Will be considered an indirect free kick foul ONLY if the misconduct happened on the field of play while the ball is in play and if the ONLY reason the game was stopped was to deal with the misconduct a) It will not be an indirect free kick restart if some other part of the law requires a different restart b) The restart in this case will take place where the misconduct happened subject to the exceptions already noted when we discussed free kicks DAY 2 LAW 12: Cautionable Offenses THE SEVEN CAUTIONABLE OFFENSES: Players can only be cautioned for the following seven reasons: 1) Unsporting behavior 2) Dissent (by word or action) 3) Persistent infringement of the Laws of the Game 4) Delaying the restart of play 5) Failure to respect the required distance on a restart 6) Entering or reentering the field without the referee s permission 7) Deliberately leaving the field without the referee s permission Substitutes and substituted players can only be cautioned for: 1) Delaying the restart of play 2) Unsporting behavior 3) Dissent (by word or action) 4) Entering or reentering the field without the referee s permission LEAVING WITHOUT PERMISSION: A player who is off the field through the normal course of play should not be cautioned for leaving without permission Typically this caution will be shown when a defender leaves the field of play to put an attacker in an offside position a) The player who left the field should be considered to be on the goal line when making offside position determinations b) The player committing the act should be cautioned when the ball is next out of play (RE-)ENTERING WITHOUT PERMISSION: The most common application of this caution is when a player who is off the field to make a correction to his equipment or to remove blood from their uniform enters the field without first being beckoned on by the referee a) The caution can generally wait until the next stoppage if an advantage situation exists for the opposing team unless the player who entered the field illegally interferes with the play DELAYING THE RESTART OF PLAY: Examples of delaying the restart of play: a) appearing to take a throw-in but suddenly leaving it to a team-mate to take b) delaying leaving the field of play when being substituted c) excessively delaying a restart by kicking or carrying the ball away, or provoking a confrontation by deliberately touching the ball after the referee has stopped play The referee must be aware of the game situation at the time of the offense (the score of the match and how much time remains in the match) FAILS TO RESPECT THE REQUIRED DISTANCE: Generally will be shown when a player moves closer to a restart and interferes with the taking of that restart a) Free kicks and corner kicks - 10 yards b) Throw-ins - 2 yards PERSISTENT INFRINGEMENT: A caution shall be shown if: a) A player does something that the referee previously warned them to not do b) A player commits a series of fouls c) NOTE: If a team engages in a series of infractions against a single opponent the caution may be shown for unsporting behavior, not persistent infringement DISSENT BY WORD OR ACTION: When dealing with dissent, referees should judge the offense by using the guidelines below, referred to as the 3 P s: 1) Public - Was the act easily recognized by the other match participants or spectators 2) Personal - Were the comments made personal in nature and/or directed at anyone other than the player themselves 3) Provocative - Was the comment or action likely to elicit a response from others This is a cautionable offense that can easily become a sending off offense if the act meets all of the criteria above Page 25

26 UNSPORTING BEHAVIOR: Any offense for which a caution is shown that does not fit neatly into any of the other six cautionable offenses Examples include: a) Committing a foul recklessly b) Deliberate tactical foul c) Diving or simulating a foul d) Faking an injury or making an injury appear more serious than it is e) Removing the jersey in celebration of a goal f) Taunting g) Unfairly distracting an opponent DAY 2 LAW 12: Sending-Off Offenses THE SEVEN SENDING-OFF OFFENSES: A player, substitute or substituted player can only be sent-off for the following seven reasons: 1) Serious foul play 2) Violent conduct 3) Foul, insulting or abusive language 4) Spitting at anyone 5) Denying a goal scoring opportunity by deliberately handling the ball 6) Denying a goal scoring opportunity by committing an offense punishable with a free kick 7) Receiving a second caution in a game Team officials can only be dismissed for irresponsible behavior SERIOUS FOUL PLAY: In order for an offense to be considered serious foul play the act must meet the following three criteria: 1) It must meet the three requirements for a foul 2) It must be committed while challenging for the ball 3) It must be committed using excessive force (well beyond the norm) Any tackle or challenge that endangers the safety of an opponent MUST be sanctioned as serious foul play VIOLENT CONDUCT: Excessive force or brutality against any other person while the ball is either in or out of play committed either on or off the field a) If committed against a referee, substitute or team official, the restart will be a direct free kick or penalty kick b) If committed against a teammate, the restart will be an indirect free kick FOUL, INSULTING OR ABUSIVE LANGUAGE: Language that is completely inappropriate: a) can be directed at anyone b) Don t forget the 3 P s - public, personal, or provocative Zero tolerance for discriminatory or racist comments a) ALWAYS send them off! SPITTING AT ANYONE: Spitting at an opponent is ALSO a foul, but spitting at anyone is ALWAYS a sending-off offense a) The word at allows the referee to send-off the player even if they miss! DENYING A GOAL BY HANDLING THE BALL: DOES NOT APPLY to a goalkeeper in their own penalty area Is ALWAYS a sending-off offense regardless of where it happens Page 26 Is ONLY a sending-off offense if the ball does not enter the goal Offense can be committed by any person listed on a team roster and the restart will always be a direct free kick or penalty kick a) If it is committed by a team official, the dismissal will be for irresponsible behavior DOGSO: DOGSO: abbreviation for denying a goal scoring opportunity by committing an offense punishable with a free kick There are four considerations to take into account when deciding whether or not the goal scoring opportunity was denied: 1) Distance to the goal - the victim must be within shooting distance of the goal when the act was committed 2) Distance to the ball - the victim must have been within playing distance of the ball when the act was committed 3) Number of defenders - can only be one defender and/or the defending goalkeeper between the victim and the goal when the act was committed 4) Direction of play - the victim must have been moving directly toward the goal when the act was committed The offense can be committed by ANY PERSON on the roster of the offending team a) The restart will be a direct free kick or penalty kick b) If committed by a team official, they must be dismissed for irresponsible behavior If the restart for the offense will be a penalty kick the offending player CANNOT BE SENT-OFF since the penalty kick restored the scoring opportunity UNLESS: a) The act committed was holding, pulling or pushing OR b) The offender had no real opportunity to play the ball OR c) The offense would have been punished with a send-off no matter where it occurred on the field d) If the offense meets a, b, or c above; the player MUST be sent-off e) If the offense does not meet a, b or c above and the restart IS a penalty kick; the player must be cautioned for unsporting behavior RECEIVING A SECOND CAUTION IN A MATCH: First display the yellow card, then display the red card The two cautions can happen before, during, or after the match or during the halftime interval

27 RESTARTING A MATCH AFTER MISCONDUCT: ALWAYS remember WHY you stopped the match Misconduct On The Field: a) If play was stopped for a foul, the foul will determine the restart b) If play was already stopped, the restart will be determined by why the ball was out of play c) If play was stopped for the misconduct, the restart will be an indirect free kick at the point of the misconduct d) unless the laws state otherwise (i.e. the offense involved contact while the ball was in play.) Misconduct Off The Field: a) If the player left through the normal course of play, a dropped ball where the ball was when play was stopped b) If the player left the field to commit the misconduct, the restart will be an indirect free kick where the ball was when play was stopped c) If committed by anyone other than a player, a dropped ball d) Unless the laws state otherwise MISCONDUCT BY PLAYER SENT-OFF: If a player who was previously sent-off commits another sending-off offense do not display a 2nd red card a) Include the details in your game report If an offence involves contact, what is the correct restart? A. Restart with an indirect free kick B. Restart with a throw-in at the spot of the offence C. Restart with a direct free kick or penalty kick D. Restart with a dropped ball What should the referee do if a player commits persistent infringement? A. Caution and show the player a yellow card B. Send off and show the player a red card What should the referee do if a player tackles an opponent using excessive force? A. Caution and show the player a yellow card B. Send off and show the player a red card When a throw-in is being taken, an opponent fails to respect the required distance. What action should the referee take? A. Caution and show the player a yellow card B. Send off and show the player a red card C. Show a yellow card and then send off the player by showing a red card D. For this incident neither a caution nor a send-off is directed by the Laws of the Game How should the referee restart play if a player carelessly kicks an opponent in the center circle? A. Dropped ball B. Indirect free kick C. Direct free kick D. Penalty kick What should the referee do if a player, who has already been cautioned and who is not the goalkeeper, punches the ball to deny an obvious goal scoring opportunity while standing in his or her own penalty area? A. Show the player a second yellow card and then issue a red card B. Send off the player and issue a red card How should the referee restart play if a player commits a careless tackle on his or her own penalty area line? A. Dropped ball B. Indirect free kick C. Direct free kick D. Penalty kick How should the referee restart play if a goalkeeper plays the ball with his or her hands in the penalty area after it has been deliberately kicked by a teammate? A. Dropped ball B. Indirect free kick C. Direct free kick D. Penalty kick How should the referee restart play if a goalkeeper s hands and the ball completely cross the penalty area line into the penalty arc while holding the ball? A. Dropped ball B. Indirect free kick C. Direct free kick D. Penalty kick How should the referee restart play if a player commits an impeding offense inside his or her own penalty area? A. Dropped ball B. Indirect free kick C. Direct free kick D. Penalty kick A player, when not challenging for the ball, deliberately strikes an opponent in the head or face with the hand or arm is guilty of: A. Using offensive, insulting, or abusive language B. Serious foul play C. Receiving a second caution in the same match D. Violent conduct When a player denies the opposing team a goal or an obvious goal scoring opportunity by a deliberate handball, what is the correct restart and disciplinary action? A. Indirect free kick and yellow card B. Direct free kick or penalty kick and red card C. Indirect free kick and red card D. Direct free kick or penalty kick and yellow card An opponent, who deliberately prevents a free kick from being taken quickly, must be cautioned for. A. Unsporting behavior B. Dissent by word or action C. Persistent infringement of the Laws of the Game D. Delaying the restart of play Page 27

28 DAY 2 LAW 5: The Referee THE AUTHORITY OF THE REFEREE: Begins when he arrives at the field prior to the match until he leaves the area of the field: a) Can sanction players, substitutes and team officials from the moment he or she arrives at the field until they leave the area of the field b) Can show cards from the moment they enter the field for the beginning of the match until they step off the field once the match has concluded Is required to file a report with the competition authority about any match in which: a) Anyone is sent-off or dismissed b) There is a serious injury c) The game cannot start or does not reach full time d) There are any field issues observed e) There is anything else that the competition authority may want or need to know about OUTSIDE AGENTS: Anyone or anything not listed on a team roster or a member of the officiating crew If they interfere with play: a) Play is stopped b) The outside agent is removed c) Restart with a dropped ball If they do not interfere with play: a) Play continues b) Outside agent is removed at the next stoppage of play ADVANTAGE: Is a power of the referee to allow a match to continue when an offense is committed if the team that was victimized would benefit if the game is not stopped a) If the advantage disappears within 2-3 seconds, the referee may punish the original offense When deciding whether or not to allow advantage, the referee should consider: a) The severity of the offense b) The location of the offense c) The chances of an immediate and promising attack d) The atmosphere of match If a player commits a cautionable offense and the referee applies advantage to that offense, the caution can be punished at the next stoppage a) After the next stoppage, the caution goes away and cannot be punished SIMULTANEOUS OFFENSES: There are times that a player will do something that can be considered to be two different offenses, such as a double touch and handling a) the more serious offense should be punished DISAGREEMENT VS DISRESPECT: Disagreement is characterized by: a) Occasional comment b) Comment directed toward the call c) Too much disagreement = disrespect Disrespect is characterized by: a) A personal comment b) Directed toward the official Page 28 Disagreement can be ignored if: a) If it is infrequent b) If it stops quickly c) Does not become personal (no disrespect) d) If the coach was right! Disagreement must be dealt with: a) They challenge every decision b) They won t let it go c) When disagreement becomes disrespect (gets personal) Disrespect MUST be dealt with using the Ask, Tell, Dismiss method REMEMBER: Referees have no authority over spectators! THE PRE-GAME CONFERENCE: Major reason for arriving at least 30 minutes prior to the start of any match: a) It is a discussion led by the referee, not a lecture b) Different officials have different styles this is where you all get on the referee s page c) Feel free to ask questions as you must understand your role POSITIONING: The elements of good positioning: a) Use the diagonal system of control b) Have a good view of what is happening as much as possible throughout the match c) Keep play between you and the assistant referees d) Keep the assistant referee in view e) Avoid extreme positions unless necessary f) Be close (presence) without interfering with the play g) Be able to see in between opposing players General guidance: a) Don t watch balls in the air, watch the drop zone b) Pay attention to confrontations off the ball c) Watch for offenses occurring after ball is played away SIGNALS USED BY THE REFEREE: A chart of the primary referee signals can be found on the inside back cover of this booklet USE OF THE WHISTLE: The whistle is REQUIRED: To Start or Restart for: Kickoff Ceremonial Free Kick Penalty Kick After a card After an injury stoppage After a substitution The whistle is NOT REQUIRED: To Start or Restart for: Quick Free Kick Goal Kick Corner Kick Throw-in To Stop Play For: Foul or misconduct Suspend or terminate a Match End of a period To Stop Play For: Ball obviously over a boundary line Ball obviously in the goal

29 DAY 2 LAW 6: The Assistant Referee THE ROLE OF THE ASSISTANT REFEREE: Is to assist the referee a) The assistant referee indicates that something happened b) The referee decides whether or not to stop the game PRIORITY OF AR S MAIN DUTIES: Indicate when a player may be punished for being offside a) Above all else, get this right! b) If in doubt, no flag! Indicate which team is entitled to a restart when the ball crosses a boundary line When you are comfortable with the first two primary duties, then you can assist with fouls and misconduct: a) When offense was out of the view of the referee or if the assistant referee had a better view b) Did the referee see it c) Would the referee have called it if he did see it OTHER DUTIES: Inspecting field, balls and players equipment Determining if problems with equipment or bleeding have been resolved Monitoring the substitution procedure Maintaining back-up records of time, goals and misconduct Goal scored and keeper movement on a penalty kick Player management Anything else that the referee wants you to assist with ASSIST VS. INSIST: If the referee waves you down, lower your flag EXCEPTION: If the referee is about to violate the Laws of the Game you must share the information a) Second caution with no immediate send-off b) Wrong restart for the situation c) Card given to the wrong player d) MUST BE BASED IN FACT, NOT OPINION! POSITIONING: Be off field and behind touch line Even with: a) The second-to-last opponent, or b) The ball, or c) The halfway line (midfield) d) Whichever is closest to the goal line General guidance: a) Don t watch balls in the air, watch the drop zone b) Pay attention to confrontations off the ball c) Watch for offenses occurring after ball is played away SIGNALS USED BY THE ASSISTANT REFEREE: A chart of the primary assistant referee signals can be found on the outside back cover of this booklet REVIEW QUESTIONS FOR LAWS 5 & 6: Should the referee stop the match right away, if in his or her opinion, a player is seriously injured? When the referee applies, he or she allows play to continue when the team who was fouled with benefit. A. Offside B. Advantage C. Caution D. Misconduct What approach should referees use when dealing with unacceptable behavior from team officials? A. Warn, Tell, Eject B. Caution, Tell, Expel C. Ask, Tell, Expel D. Ask, Tell, Dismiss Which restart requires the referee to use his or her whistle before resuming play? A. Corner kick B. Dropped ball C. Kick-off D. Goal kick The recommended position for the assistant referee during play is which of the following? A. Even with the ball B. Even with the second to last defender C. Even with the ball or the second to last defender, depending on which is closer to the goal line D. Even with the first attacker The assistant referee signals for a foul. After the referee blows the whistle to stop play, the AR holds the flag between both hands below the waist before moving to the corner flag. What is the assistant referee indicating? A. Corner kick B. Penalty kick After the ball has entered the goal, the assistant referee makes eye contact with the referee and then sprint up the touch line toward the halfway line. What is the assistant referee indicating? A. The goal scored was legal B. The goal should be disallowed Should the assistant referee raise the flag each time a player is in an offside position? How should the assistant referee signal if the ball crosses out of play over the touch line and then immediately back into play? A. Raise the flag vertically in the hand and then, after the referee stops play, signal with the flag 45 degrees upward in the direction of the restart B. Leave the flag down and let play continue Which of the following is not one of the powers or duties of the referee? A. Enforces the Laws of the Game B. Acts as timekeeper and keeps a record of the match C. Provides medical treatment to an injured player D. Stops, suspends or abandons the match because of outside interference of any kind Page 29

30 The ball completely crosses over the touch line, between the halfway line and the assistant referee. Should the assistant referee signal with the flag at 45 degrees above the field in the direction of the throw-in? The ball, last touched by a defending player, completely passes over the goal line for a corner kick. How should the assistant referee signal? A. Point the flag 45 degrees downward in the direction of the corner flag B. Point the flag horizontally with the right hand toward goal area C. Signal with the flag 45 degrees upward in the direction of the restart D, Raise the flag vertically with the right hand and after making eye contact with the referee, indicate the location of the offense by dropping the flag at an appropriate angle to a point in the field (far, middle, near side) The assistant referee observes a foul that the referee could not see. The referee stops play when the assistant referee raises the flag and gives it a slight wave. Once the whistle sounds, the assistant referee first holds the flag across the lower body and then walks quickly to the corner flag post. What has the assistant referee indicated? A. Corner kick B. Goal kick C. Penalty kick D. Indirect free kick Other Notes: Page 30

31 SIGNALS USED BY THE REFEREE DIRECT FREE KICK or THROW-IN INDIRECT FREE KICK ADVANTAGE Point 45 up in the direction of possession. Should be held until ball is goal eligible, cannot go into goal or leaves the field. If running, can be given with one hand. Usually accompanied by verbal Play On. GOAL KICK CORNER KICK PENALTY KICK Point toward the goal mouth. Point 45 up in the direction of the corner where the kick is to be taken from. Point at the penalty mark, bending slightly downward to differentiate from goal kick. GOAL WAIT FOR THE WHISTLE ADDING TIME Point upfield toward the center mark. Point at the whistle which should be held at the height of the head. The number of fingers are the minimum number of minutes added to the period.

32 SIGNALS USED BY THE ASSISTANT REFEREE For all signals the AR should: Stop, Face the Field, Make Eye Contact with the Referee, then Signal When signalling Throw-Ins, Offside and Fouls; the flag should be in the hand toward the goal the team with the restart will be attacking. GOAL KICK CORNER KICK THROW-IN FOUL STOP THE GAME or OFFSIDE OFFSIDE - FAR SIDE OFFSIDE - CENTER OFFSIDE - NEAR SIDE SUBSTITUTION PENALTY KICK or KEEPER ENCROACHED ON PK AWARD THE GOAL

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