UNIVERSITI PUTRA MALAYSIA DETERMINATION OF IDEAL WIDTH FOR EXCLUSIVE MOTORCYCLE LANE ALONG THE STRAIGHT SECTION OF FEDERAL HIGHWAY, SELANGOR, MALAYSIA

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1 UNIVERSITI PUTRA MALAYSIA DETERMINATION OF IDEAL WIDTH FOR EXCLUSIVE MOTORCYCLE LANE ALONG THE STRAIGHT SECTION OF FEDERAL HIGHWAY, SELANGOR, MALAYSIA MOHAMMAD RASOOL AHMAD RAJABI FK

2 DETERMINATION OF IDEAL WIDTH FOR EXCLUSIVE MOTORCYCLE LANE ALONG THE STRAIGHT SECTION OF FEDERAL HIGHWAY, SELANGOR, MALAYSIA BY MOHAMMAD RASOOL AHMAD RAJABI Thesis Submitted to the School of Graduate Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, in Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science May 2012

3 Abstract of thesis presented to the Senate of Universiti Putra Malaysia in fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Master of Science DETERMINATION OF IDEAL WIDTH FOR EXCLUSIVE MOTORCYCLE LANE ALONG THE STRAIGHT SECTION OF FEDERAL HIGHWAY, SELANGOR, MALAYSIA By MOHAMMAD RASOOL AHMAD RAJABI May 2012 Supervisor: HUSSAIN B HAMID, PhD Faculty: Engineering In the design of roadway, factors such as lane width, lateral clearance, vertical and horizontal alignment affects the capacity and Level-Of-Service (LOS). Ideal lane width is the upper limit range of width in which optimum capacity is achieved. There are numerous studies and literature available on the design of bicycle facilities. However, there are limited literature and studies about design of motorcycle facilities. The main issue pertaining to the provision of motorcycle facility is the width of its lane. If the width of the motorcycle lane is too wide, it may incur unnecessary construction costs and also leads to speeding problems. On the other hand, if the width of the lane is too narrow, the riding convenience and safety of motorcyclists may be affected particularly when overtaking is not possible. It is necessary to understand the basic sciences of motorcycles ii

4 traffic so that a more scientific and professional judgment can be made with regard to the design and operation of motorcycle facilities. As such, this research aims to determine the effective factors affected by the motorcycle lane width, to establish relationship between these factors and finally determine the ideal width of motorcycle lane. Study sites which met the research criteria were selected along the existing exclusive motorcycle lane along the Federal Highway, Selangor, Malaysia. To observe motorcyclists riding and passing another motorcyclist within the motorcycle lane, the segments under study are at least 100 m long and covered lane widths ranging from 1.8 m to 3.3 m. Motorcycle flow was recorded using a digital video recorder and motorcycle count is obtained by transcribing the pre-recordings in the laboratory. Individual motorcycle spot speeds were measured using a laser speed detector. To observe motorcyclists riding comfort, transcription was done on the pre-recordings video in the laboratory where classification of comfortable or not comfortable used riding interruptions as a surrogate in the field. Aggregated motorcycle flow, speed and comfort data collected at 16 different motorcycle lane widths were plotted. Quadratic regression analysis was employed for the motorcycle flow-width relationship, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) test for the motorcycle speed-width relationship, and logistic regression analysis for comfortable width. iii

5 Results revealed that maximum motorcycle flow (mc/hr/m) occurs at 2.7 m wide lane, comfort is observed at 2.7 m lane or wider, and motorcycle speeds stabilized along 2.5 m lane or wider. Hence, 2.7 m is an ideal lane width for motorcycle lanes which encompassed the optimum of motorcyclist riding comfort, speed and flow. The findings of this study not only contribute new knowledge to the field of transportation engineering but would also be useful input in the design guidelines of motorcycle lanes for highly motorcycled countries. iv

6 Abstrak tesis yang dikemukakan kepada Senat Universiti Putra Malaysia sebagai memenuhi keperluan untuk ijazah Master Sains PENENTUAN LEBAR YANG UNGGUL UNTUK LORONG MOTOSIKAL EKSKLUSIF SEPANJANG SEKSYEN LEBUH RAYA PERSEKUTUON, SELANGOR, MALAYSIA Pengerusi: Fakulti: Oleh MOHAMMAD RASOOL AHMAD RAJABI Hussain B Hamid, PhD Kejuruteraan Mei 2012 Dalam reka bentuk jalan, faktor-faktor seperti lebar lorong, kelegaan sisi, penjajaran mendatar dan tegak mempengaruhi muatan dan tahap perkhidmatan (LOS). Lebar lorong unggul ialah julat batas kelebaran di mana muatan optima dicapai. Terdapat banyak kajian dan penulisan yang boleh didapati tentang reka bentuk kemudahan-kemudahan basikal. Bagaimanapun, penulisan dan kajian-kajian tentang reka bentuk kemudahan-kemudahan motosikal adalah terhad. Isu utama berkaitan dengan penyediaan kemudahan motosikal ialah kelebaran lorongnya. Jika kelebaran lorong motosikal adalah terlalu luas, ia boleh menyebabkan peningkatan kos pembinaan yang tidak perlu dan juga masalah-masalah operasi. Sebaliknya, jika kelebaran lorong terlalu sempit, keselesaan menunggang dan keselamatan penunggang motosikal boleh terjejas terutamanya jika penunggang tidak dapat memotong motosikal yang v

7 lain. Adalah perlu untuk memahami sains asas kenderaan motosikal supaya keputusan yang lebih profesional dan saintifik dapat dibuat berhubung dengan reka bentuk dan operasi kemudahan-kemudahan motosikal. Oleh itu, penyelidikan ini bertujuan untuk menentukan faktor-faktor berkesan yang mempengaruhi kelebaran lorong motosikal, mewujudkan hubungan antara faktor-faktor ini dan akhirnya menentukan kelebaran lorong motosikal unggul. Tapak kajian yang memenuhi kriteria penyelidikan dipilih sepanjang lorong motosikal eksklusif di sepanjang Lebuhraya Persekutuan, Selangor, Malaysia. Untuk pemerhatian penunggang motosikal dan pemotongan penunggang motosikal yang lain di dalam ruang lorong motosikal, segmensegmen di bawah kajian adalah sekurang-kurangnya 100 m panjang dan meliputi lebar lorong dari 1.8 m ke 3.3 m. Aliran motosikal direkodkan menggunakan perakam video digital dan bilangan motosikal diperolehi dengan mentranskripsi pra-rakaman di makmal. Kelajuan setempat motosikal masing-masing diukur menggunakan pengesan kelajuan laser. Untuk pemerhatian keselesaan menunggang motosikal, transkripsi dilakukan dari pra-rakaman video di makmal itu di mana pengelasan selesa atau tidak selesa bagi penunggang motosikal menggunakan gangguan menunggang motosikal sebagai pemerhatian pengganti di tapak kajian. vi

8 Data aggregasi aliran motosikal, kelajuan dan keselesaan yang dikutip di 16 kelebaran lorong motosikal yang berbeza telah diplotkan. Analisis regresi kuadratik digunakan untuk hubungan kelebaran-aliran motosikal, analisis regresi fungsi bersyarat eksponen (ECFR) digunakan untuk hubungan kelebaran-kelajuan motosikal, dan analisis regresi logistik untuk kelebaran selesa. Keputusan mendedahkan bahawa aliran motosikal maksimum (motosikal/jam/m) berlaku pada lorong selebar 2.7 m, keselesaan diperhatikan pada lorong selebar 2.7 m atau lebih, dan kelajuan motosikal stabil di sepanjang lorong selebar 2.5 lorong m atau lebih. Oleh itu, nilai 2.7 m ialah lebar lorong unggul untuk lorong motosikal yang merangkumi keselesaan menunggang motosikal, kelajuan dan aliran motosikal yang optima. Penemuan-penemuan kajian ini bukan sahaja menyumbang ilmu baru bagi bidang kejuruteraan pengangkutan tetapi juga dapat menjadi maklumat berguna sebagai garis panduan reka bentuk lorong motosikal untuk negara-negara yang mempunyai bilangan motosikal yang tinggi. vii

9 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS In the Name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful, all praise and thanks are due to Allah, and peace and blessings be upon His Messenger. I would like to express the most sincere appreciation to those who made this work possible: supervisory members, Friends and Family. Firstly I would like to thank my supervisor Dr. Hussain Hamid for the many useful advice and discussions, for his constant encouragement, guidance, support and patience all the way through my study work. Equally the appreciation extends to the supervisory committee members Dr. Sulistyo Arintono for providing me the opportunity to complete my studies under their valuable guidance. I would also like to acknowledge the Civil Engineering Department of Universiti Putra Malaysia, JKR and Roadcare for providing the numerous facilities and support for this research work. Thanks and acknowledgements are meaningless if not extended to my wife and my parents who always gave relentless encouragement and support which made my education possible. Last but not least, my very special thanks to all my friends who were directly and indirectly involved in this research and cooperated with this study. viii

10 I certify that an Examination Committee has met on 23 May 2012 to conduct the final examination of Mohammad Rasool Ahmad Rajabi on his Master of Science thesis entitled "DETERMINATION OF IDEAL WIDTH FOR EXCLUSIVE MOTORCYCLE LANE ALONG THE STRAIGHT SECTION OF FEDERAL HIGHWAY, SELANGOR, MALAYSIA" in accordance with Unversiti Pertanian Malaysia (HIGHER Degree) Act 1980 and Universiti Pertanian Malaysia (High Degree) Regulation The committee recommends that the candidate be awarded the relevant degree. Members of the Examination Committee are as follows: Thamer Ahmad Mohammad, PhD Professor Faculty of Engineering Universiti Putra Malaysia (Chairman) Ratnasamy a/i Muniandy, PhD Professor Faculty of Engineering Universiti Putra Malaysia (Internal Examiner) Law Teik Hua, PhD Assoc. Professor Faculty of Engineering Universiti Putra Malaysia (Internal Examiner) Wan Hashim Wan Ibrahim, PhD Professor Faculty of Engineering University Malaysia Sarawak (External Examiner) SEOW HENG FONG, PhD Professor and Deputy Dean School of Graduate Studies Universiti Putra Malaysia Date: ix

11 This thesis was submitted to the Senate of Universiti Putra Malaysia and has been accepted as fulfilment on the requirement for the degree of Master of Science. The members of the supervisory committee were as follows: Hussain Hamid, PhD Senior Lecturer Faculty of Engineering Universiti Putra Malaysia (Chairman) Sulistyo Arintono, PhD Senior Lecturer Faculty of Engineering Universiti Putra Malaysia (Member) BUJANG BIN KIM HUAT, PhD Professor and Dean School of Graduate Studies Universiti Putra Malaysia Date: x

12 DECLARATION I declare that the thesis is my original work as per program given to me, except for quotations and citations, which have been duly acknowledged. I also declare that it has not been previously, and is not concurrently, submitted for any other degree at Universiti Putra Malaysia or other institutions. MOHAMMAD RASOOL AHMAD RAJABI Date: 23 May 2012 xi

13 TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS APPROVAL DECLARATION LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS CHAPTER Page ii viii ix xi xiv xv xvii 1 INTRODUCTION Motorcycle Transportation in Malaysia Safety Engineering Program for Motorcyclists Problem Statement Objectives of the Study Significance of the Study Scope and Limitation of Study Thesis Layout 6 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Introduction Fundamental Principles of Traffic Flow Effects of Density on Vehicle Flow Effects of Flow Rate of Vehicles against Lane Width Definitions of Speed of Velocity Speed-Flow-Density Relationship Factors Affecting Lane Width Relationship between Various Factors and Lane Width Relationship between Safety and Lane Width Relationship between Flow Rate and Lane Width Relationship between Speed and Lane Width Factors Affected by Lane Width Types of Motorcycle Lane Facility Motorcycle Operating Width Motorcycle Comfortable Safe Width Motorcycle Traffic Science Motorcycle Lane Studies in Asian Countries Bicycle Facilities Bicycle Statics Space Typical Bicycle Operating Space Bicycle Lane Width Characteristics Chapter Summary 38 xii

14 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Introduction Review of Study to Identify related Factors to Lane Width Field Study and Data Collection Study Site and Selection Criteria Standard Field Parameters and Measuring Equipment Methodology of the Study Impact of Safety Cones on Motorcyclists Behaviour Definition of Comfortable Overtaking Motorcycle Speed-Width, Flow-Width and Comfortable-Width Models Modelling Motorcycle Comfortable-Width Modelling Motorcycle Flow-Width Modelling Motorcycle Speed-Width Chapter Summary 67 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Related Factors to Ideal Lane Width The Comfortable Lane Width Comfort-Width Model Motorcycle Flow-Width Relationship Normality of Data Model Fitting of Motorcycle Flow-Width Regression Model Motorcycle Speed-Width Relationship Scatter Plot of Speed-Width of Relationship Statistic Tests Normality of the Data One-way ANOVA Determination of an Ideal Lane Width for Exclusive Motorcycle Lane 94 5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATION Introduction Related Factors to Ideal Lane Width Motorcycle Comfortable-Width Relationship Motorcycle Flow-Width relationship Motorcycle Speed-Width relationship Determination of an Ideal Lane Width for Exclusive Motorcycle Lane Applications Further Study Recommendation 100 REFERENCES 102 APPENDIX A 106 APPENDIX C 109 APPENDIX D 140 APPENDIX E 150 BIODATA OF STUDENT 157 xiii

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