Trends in salmon fisheries

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1 Trends in salmon fisheries Marc Trudel Fisheries and Oceans Canada Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo Department of Biology, University of Victoria

2 Plan of the presentation 1. Introduction 2. Salmon Harvest Pacific salmon Atlantic salmon 3. Climate and salmon 4. Opportunities 5. Concluding remarks

3 Importance of salmon: Human dimension

4 Importance of salmon: Ecological dimension gallery.photo.net/photo/ wallpapers.free-review.net

5 Pink salmon Salmon species in Canada Pacific Ocean Chum salmon Atlantic Ocean Atlantic salmon Sockeye salmon Steelhead trout Coho salmon Chinook salmon

6 PACIFIC SALMON

7 Historical Pacific salmon distribution

8 Pacific salmon distribution and migration Asian salmon Overlap in Distribution North American Salmon 64N 62N 140 E 150 E Asian Pink Salmon n = 682 fish 160 E 170 E W 160 W 150 W 140 W 130 W North American Pink Salmon n = 3,668 fish 64N 62N 58N 58N 54N 54N 50N 50N 46N 46N 42N 42N 38N 38N 34N 130 E 64N 62N 140 E 150 E Asian Chum Salmon n = 1,405 fish 160 E 170 E W 160 W 150 W 140 W 130 W North American Chum Salmon n = 883 fish 34N 120 W 64N 62N 58N 58N 54N 54N 50N 50N 46N 46N 42N 42N 38N 38N 34N 64N 62N 140 E 150 E Asian Sockeye Salmon n = 82 fish 160 E 170 E W 160 W 150 W 140 W 130 W North American Sockeye Salmon n = 5,565 fish 34N 64N 62N 58N 58N 54N 54N 50N 50N 46N 46N 42N 42N 38N 38N 34N 130 E 140 E 150 E 160 E 170 E W 160 W 150 W 140 W 130 W 34N 120 W Courtesy of Dr. K. Myers, University of Washington

9 North Pacific Anadromous Fish Commission

10 Catch (Metric Tonnes) Pacific salmon catches (all nations) Year Data from the North Pacific Anadromous Fish Commission (

11 Harvest (Metric Tonnes) Pacific salmon catches (Canada) Data from the North Pacific Anadromous Fish Commission (

12 ATLANTIC SALMON

13 Atlantic salmon distribution and migration

14 North Atlantic Salmon Conservation Organization (NASCO)

15 North Atlantic Salmon Conservation Organization (NASCO)

16 Harvest (Metric Tonnes) Atlantic salmon catches (all nations) Year Data from ICES Working Group on North Atlantic Salmon Report 2015

17 Harvest (Metric Tonnes) Salmon harvest (Canada) Year Data from ICES Working Group on North Atlantic Salmon Report 2015

18 CLIMATE & SALMON

19 Why are salmon declining in Canada? The cause of these declines is likely to be due to many factors, but there are strong indications that poor marine survival was an important driver. Declines occurred: 1) Over a broad geographical area 2) In pristine watersheds 3) In areas without salmon farms 4) Declines parallel marine survival

20 Unusual warm conditions occurred in N Sardine Opah Latitude 55N Humboldt squid Yellowtail Mackerel 51N Ocean sunfish (6 cm) 47N -138W -134W -130W -126W -122W Longitude Source: Trudel et al. (2006)

21 Unusual warm conditions occurred in

22 The warm waters moved inshore in the fall and stayed inshore through the winter

23 Warm conditions are persisting in 2015 with a possible El Niño El Niño

24 Warm conditions are persisting in 2015 with a possible El Niño El Niño

25 Warm conditions are persisting in 2015 with a possible El Niño El Niño

26 OPPORTUNITIES

27 International Year of the Salmon (IYS) The proposed International Year of the Salmon will be an intensive burst of internationally coordinated, interdisciplinary, scientific research focused on salmon, and their relation to people. New technologies, new observations and new analytical methods, some developed exclusively during the IYS, will address knowledge gaps that prevent a clear understanding of the future of salmon in a rapidly changing world. The theme of the IYS is Salmon and People in a Changing World to focus on the intimate nature of the relationship between salmon and people and their joint future. Courtesy of M. Saunders, DFO, Nanaimo

28 Starting year and duration of the IYS planning 2017 Start up 2018 and 2019 intensive field study 2020 through 2022 analyses and publication Duration 7 years Courtesy of M. Saunders, DFO, Nanaimo

29 Benefits of the IYS An integrated international research community equipped to respond to a rapidly changing environment with: Tools and methods Data and information A new generation of researchers Improved science informs: Long term, short term and NOW term forecasts for fisheries Food security strategies Sustainability strategies for salmon and communities that utilize salmon Optimization of economic returns from hatcheries and varying productivity across species and regions Courtesy of M. Saunders, DFO, Nanaimo

30 Concluding remarks 1. Harvest of Pacific salmon is increasing, except in Canada where declines have been observed for 20 years. 2. Harvest of Atlantic salmon has been decreasing for nearly three decades. 3. Although many factors likely contributed to the decline of Pacific and Atlantic salmon in Canada, low marine survival is likely the primary cause of these declines 4. The International Year of the Salmon represents a unique opportunity to understand the factors affecting salmon production throughout their native range.

31

32

33 EXTRA MATERIAL

34 FARMED SALMON

35 Salmon aquaculture around the world Atlantic salmon Rainbow trout Coho salmon Source:

36 Harvest (Metric Tonnes) Farmed salmon production (all nations) Year Source:

37 Harvest (Metric Tonnes) Total salmon harvest (all nations) Year

38 Harvest (Metric Tonnes) Total salmon harvest (all nations) Year Data from ICES Working Group on North Atlantic Salmon Report 2015

39 Annual global ocean temperature ( ) Source:

40 April global ocean temperature ( ) Sourcehttp://

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