1 RESEARCH MEMORANDUM INVESTIGATION OF THE LONGITUDINAL AERODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF A TRAPEZOIDAL-WING AIRPLANE MODEL WITH VAF?IOUS VERTICAL POSITIONS OF WING AND HORIZONTAL TAIL AT MACH NUMBERS OF 1.41 AND 2.01.'. L. ' By Gerald V. Foster " NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS WASHINGTON March 6, 1958
2 B MACA m ~58~07 e INVESTIGATION OF AEROSSYNAMIC CEARACTERISTICS OF A TRAPEZOIDAL-W3NG AIRPLANE MODEL WITB VARIOUS VERTICAL POSITIONS OF NUMBERS OF 1.41 AND 2.01 By Gerald V. Foster An investigation has been conducted in the Langley 4- by &-foot supersonic pressure tunnel to determine the effects of various vertical positions of a wing and horizontal tail on the static longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a trapezoidal-wing drplane model at Mach numbers of 1.41 and T~E model was equipped with a wing and horizontal tail having Oo sweep of the 75-percer.lt-chord line. The wing had an aspect ratio of 3, taper ratio of 0.25, ztnd 4-percent-thick circularaxc airfoil sections. The umwept horizontal tail had an aspect ratio of 4, taper ratio of 0.60, and 4-percent-thfck hexagonal airfoil sections. The model was also tested with 8 45O sweptback horizontal tail with &11 UCA 65~006 airfoil section and aspect ratio and taper ratio identical with the unswept tail. In general, the effects of wing vertical position at Mach numbers 1.41 and 2.01 are similar to those obtainel at eubsonic speeb.. merimental lift and pitching-moment characteristics of the midwing tail-off configuration indicated a slightly lower lift-curve slope for Mach number 1.41 and a less negative pitching-moruent-curve slope for bothmach numbers than predhted by theory. For the tail-on configuratlon, experimental and predicted lift characteristics agreed fairly well; however, experimental pitching-moment characteristics indicated a?-percentgreater static margin at Machnumber 1.41 and a 4-percent-lower static margin at Mach number 2.01 than predicted. A change in vertical position of the unswept horizontal tail from law to high resulted in a positive trim change with and without the wing. Incorporating 45O $weepback in the horizontal tail on the midwing configuration at a Machnumberof 1.41 decreased the positive trim change of the high-tail configuration but had no appreciable effect on the longitudinal characteristics of the low-tail configuration. ASS! Ft ED
3 2 NACA m ~ 58~07 INmODUCTION A knowledge of the effects of wing and horizontal-tail position on the aerodynamic characteris-tics of wing-body configurations is Fmportant in the aerodynamic design of an aircraft. Experimental studies have yielded a considerable amount of such informtion at subsonic speeds (for example, see refs. 1 to 4); however, at the present only limited amounts of such information are available in the supersonic speed range (for example, aee refs. 5 to 7). Recently, a study at Mach numbers of 1.41 and 2.01 has been conducted in the Langley 4- by 4-fOOt supersonic pressure tunnel to provide additional information concerning the effects at supersonic speeds of wing and horizontal-tail vertical position and horizontal-tail plan form on the aerodynamic characteristics of a model having trapezoim lifting surfaces. The longitudinal phase of the investigation is presented herein. SYMBOLS The results are presented as coefficients of forces and moments and are referred to the stability-exis system with the reference center of moments located at 25 percent of the wing mean geometric chord. The symbols ueed herein are defined a8 follows: CL % Cnl % coefficient, lift LIft/qS drag coefficient, Wag/qS pitching-moment coefficient, Pitching tail pitching-moment contribution, 9 free-strew dynamic pressure, lb/sq ft mcaaent/qse on - Cmtsil off M s C E Mach nmber wing area, sq ft local chord, ft mean geometric chord, ft b Wtng span, ft 8
4 NACA RM L58AO7 3. it horizontal-tail incidence angle, deg L/D lif t-drag ratio I a angle of attack, deg X CP center of pressure, percent E MODEL I * The geametric characteristics of the model are given in figure 1 and table I. The wing was constructed of steel and had an aspect ratio of 3.0, a taper ratio of 0.25, and Oo sweep at the 75-percent-chord line. The thickness ratio of the wing was 0.04 and the airfoil section, parallel to the plane of symmetry, is a symmetrical circular mc. The body, camposed of an ogive nose, a cylindrical mideection, and a slightly boattailed afterbody, had a fineness ratio of ll. The wing was attached to the body in either a high, mid, or low position. The wept horizontal tail had 16.6' sweepback of the quarter-chord line, an aspect ratio of 4, a taper ratio of 0.6, and 4-percent-thick hexagonal sections. An alternate horizontal tail had 45O sweepback of the quarter-chord Ilne and NACA 6p006 airfoil section. The horizontal tail was mounted on the vertical fin at vertical positions of the tail referred to as "high tail" and tail'' located 0.382b/2 above and 0.208b/2 belaw the body center line, respectively; Provisions were made for manually varyfng the incidence angle of the horizontal tall from Oo to -60. TESTS, CORRECTIONS, AND Acmm Force and moment measurements were made through the we of a sixcomponent internal strain-gage balance attached to a rotary-type sting. The conditions of the tests were as follows: Mach number Stagnation pressure, lb/sq in. ab Stagnation temperature, OF... Reynolds number based on E x 1 ' x lo8 10 The stagnation dewpoint'was maintained sufficiently low (-25' F or less) so that no significant condensation effects were encountered in the test section.
5 4 IL NACA RM L ~ A W The sting angle was corrected for the deflection under load. The base pressure wks measured and the drag force was adjusted to a base pressure equal to the free-stream static pressure. The estimated errors in the individual measured quantities are a8 f ollms : CL... c;... G... M = 1.41 M = 2.01 fo.m56 *O. m5 fo.0022 f0.2 fo.006g to to it, deg... to. 2 a, deg The Mach nmber variation in the teat section was approximately fo.l and the flow-angle variation in the vertical and horizontal plane did not exceed about fo.lo. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Effect of W ing Vertical Position The longitudinal aeroaynamic characteristics of wing-body.configurations presented in figures 2 to 4 show the effects of wing vertical position at M = 1.41 and M = At a Mach number of 1.41, the effect of wing position appears to result primarily in a shift in the center of pressure (fig. 4) coupled with small changes in lift and drag (fig. 2). For example, at a constant angle of attack the high-wing configuration has a slightly lower lift and a more forward center of pressure and thus a less negative pitching mment than the midwing configuration, whereas the converse is true for the low wing. The change in Lift due to wing position is associated with body induced negative pressure on the lower surface of the high wing and on the upper surface of the low wing. Both the high- and low-wing configurations had higher drag than the midwing configuration at a = Oo - and this amounted to an incremental drag coefficient of approximately At the higher Machnumber (M = 2.01) (fig. 3), change in wing position had no effect on the lift or drag at low angles of attack up to approximately 80 but did tend to alter the center of pressure &nd thus resulted in changes in pitching moment similar to those noted for M = In the moderate and high angle-of-attack range, 4!
6 5 P the pitching moments of the high-wing and midwing configurations are essentially the same; whereas the low-wing configuration exhibited a less negative pitching molnent than either the midwing or the high-wing configuration. The reason for this relative decrease in pitching moment for the low wing is not clearly understood but it would appear to be associated with the effects of wake interference of the low wing on the afterbody at moderate and high angles of attack. In general the effects of wing position at angle of attack up to approxhately 8O on the longitudinal stability characteristics are similar to the effects indicated for subsonic speeds. (See ref. 1, for example.) Theoretical predictions of the variation of lift and pitching-ament characteristics of the wing-body configuration with angle of attack were made based on the methodof reference 8. This method is based on a planar model and limited to low angles of attack. The theory (figs. 2(a) and 3(a) ) indicates slightly kger vdues of at M = 1.41 and a more negative value of % at both Mach nmbers than obta;lned experimentally. The lift-drag ratio (fig. 5) for M = 2.01 is not affected by change in wing position within limits of the investigation; whereas, for M = 1.kl either an increase or a decrease in wing position relative to the mi&- resulted in a decrease in lift-drag ratio particularly in the region of maximum lift-drag ratio. cla. Tail-On Characteristics Longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of the wing-body-tail configurations and body-tail configurations obtained at M = 1.41 and M = 2.01 are presented in figwee 6 to 13. The effect of wing position for a given horizontal-tail position and the effect of horizontal-tail position for a given wing position on the longitudinal stability characteristics are shown in figures 14 and 15, respectively. The effect of the wing on the pitching-moment contribution of the unswept horizontal tail is shown in figure 16. The data presented in figures 1-7 and 18 show the effect of sweep of the horizontal tail. The trim characteristics for the various wing and horizontal-tail positions are given in table 11. In general, the pitching-manent characteristics obtained with a given horizontal tail (fig. 14) indicate that the wing vertical position had a relatively small effect on the longitudinal stability at M = 1.41 and M = It is of interest to note, however, that at M = 1.41 change from high to low wing tended to inccease the static margin at moderate lift coefficients with the high-tail arrangement; whereas with the low-tail arrangement a comparable change in wing vertical position tended to decrease the static margin. A caparison of the tail
7 6 - NACA RM ~58~07 pitching-moment contribution (fig. 16) tends to indicate that these changes in static margin are probably associated with the wing interference flow field on the Wl. Theoretical predictions of the lift and pitching-moment characteristics for the wing-body-tail configuration were based on reference 8. As previously stated, this method is based on a planar model; consequently, it does not account for the effects of vertical position of the wing or tail. Interferences resulting from downwash in the region of the tail caused by the wing vortices have been included in these predictions. It may pe noted in figures 7 (a) and lo(a) that the experimental and estimated lift characteristics of the tail-on configuration agree fairly well; however, the experimental pitching-moment characteristics indicate a 5-percent-greater static margin at Machnumber 1.41 and a 4-percent-lower static margin at Machnumber 2.01 than predicted. The most significant effect of horizontal-tail position is associated with the trim characteristics. Figure 1-5 indicates that 8. change in vertical position of the tail from low to high resulted in a positive trim change. &me, the drag incurred with the high-tail configuration for a given trim condition might be expected to be less than with the low-tail configuration. The validity of this is beyond the limitation of the present investigation since the trim Characteristics were obtained for only two tail incidence angles; however, reference 7 indicated that for a swept-wing-tail arrangement, a horizontal tail located in a vertical position comparable to that of the present high tail provlded a slightly larger lift-drag ratio than a low-tail configuration at a trinnned lift coefficient of 0.20 and greater. P The primary effect at M = 1.41 of increasing the sweepback of the horizontal tail from I-6.6O at the quarter-chord line to 45O at the quarterchord line (fig. 17) is to decrease the positive trim change associated with the high tail; whereas, the effects of the change in sweep of the low tail on the longitudinal stability characteristics were negligible. The variation of pitching-mment coefficient withmach number obtained at a = Oo for the swept and unswept horizontal tail are presented in figure 18. The results for the swept tail and body were obtained in a previous investigation of which a portion is reported in reference 7. It may be noted that at M = 1.41 the presence of the wing in the midposition does not dter the effect of tail sweep on C, at a = 00. CONCLUSIONS An investigation of the effects of variow vertical positions of a wing and horizontal tail on the static longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a trapezoidal-wing model at Mach numbers of 1.41 and 2.01
8 .. NACA m ~ 38~07 7 indicated the following conclusions: 1. The high-wing configuration had slightly lower Lift and a less negative pitching moment than the midwing configuration for angles of attack up to approximately 8O, whereas the converse was true for the low wing. In general, these effects of wing vertical position are similar to those obtained at subsonic speeds. 2. Experimental lift and pitching-moment characteristics of the midwing tail-off configuration indicated a slightly lower lift-curve slope for Mach nmber 1.41 and a less negative pitching-moment-curve slope for both Mach numbers than predicted by theory. For the tail-on configuration, experimental and predicted lift characteristics agreed fairly well; however, experimental pitching-moment characteristics indicated a 5-percent-greater static margin at Machnumber 1.41 and a 4-percent-lower static margin at Machnumber 2.01 than predicted. 3. Change in vertical position of the unswept horizontal tail from low to high resulted in a positive trim change with or without the wing. 4. Incorporating 45O sweepback in the horizontal tall on the midwing configuration at a Mach number of 1.41 decreased the positive trim change of the high-tail configuration but had no appreciable effect on the longitudinal characteristics of the low-tail configuration. Langley Aeronautical Laboratory, National Advisory Committee for Aeron&utics, Langley Field, Va., December 13, 1957.
9 8 NACA RM L58AO7 REFERENCES 1. Goodman, Alex: Effects of Wing Position and Horizontal-Tail Position. on the Static Stability Characteristics of Models With Unswept and 45O Sweptback Surfaces With Some Reference to Mutual Interference. NACA TN 2504, Queijo, M. J., and Wolhart, Walter D.: Experimental Investigation of the Effect of Vertical-Tail Size and Length of and Fuselage Shape and Length on the Static Lateral Stability Characteristics of a Model With 45O Sweptback Wing and Tail Surfaces. NACA Rep. 1049, (Supersedes NACA TIl ) 3. Morrison, William D., Jr., and Alford, William J., Jr.: Effects of Horizontal-Tail Position and a Wing Leading-Edge Modification Consisting of a Nl-Span Flap and a Partial-Span Chord-Extension on the Aerodynamic Characteristics in Pitch at Eigh Subsonic Speeds of a Model With a 45O Sweptback Wing. NACA T!N 3952, (Supersedes NACA RM ~53~06.) 4. Furlong, G. Chester, and McHugh, James G. : A Summary and Analysis of the Low-Speed Longitudinal Characteristics of Wings Swept at High Reynolds Number. NACA Rep. 1339, (Supersedes NACA RM ~52~16.) 5. Heitmeyer, John C.: Effect of Vertical Position of the Wing on the c Aerodynamic Characteristics of Three Wing-Body Cmbinations. NACA RM A5=5a, Spearman, M. Leroy: Investigation of the Aerodynamic Characteristics in Pitch and Sideslip of a 45O Sweptback-Wing Airplane Model With Various Vertical Locations of the Wing and Horizontal. Tail - Effect of Wing Location &metric and Dihedral for the Wing-Body Combination, M = NACA RM ~55~18, Spearman, M. Leroy, and Driver, Cornelius: Investigation of Aerodynamic Characteristics in Pitch and Sideslip a of 45 Sweptback-Wing Airplane Model With Various Vertical Locations and of Horizontal Wing Tail - Static Longitudinal Stability and Control, M = NACA RM ~55~06, Nielsen, Jack N., Kaatkri, George E., and h&stasioj Robert F.: A Method for Calculating the Lift and Center of Pressure of Wing-Body- Tail Combinations at Subsonic, Transonic, and Supersonic Speeds. NACA RM A53GO8, Vh._
10 3. NACA RM L58AO7 9 m wing: Area. sq in Span.... in Root chord. in Tip chord. in Taper ratio Aspect ratio Mean geometric chord. in Spanwise location of meen geometric chord. percent wlng semispan.. Incidence. deg Sweep of 75-percent-chord line. deg... 0 Airfoil section percent circular-arc Length-diameter ratio Body: c Horizontal Tail: Trapezoidal. Area. sq in span.... in Root chord. in Tip chord Taper ratio Airfoil section percent hexagonal kea. sq in Span.... in Root chord. in TLp chord. in Taper ratio Aspect ratio Sweep of quarter-chord line. deg NACA 63~006 hpect ratio... Sweep of 75-percent-chord line. deg Sweptback. Airfoil section... Vertical tail: kea to body center line. sq in Span from body center line. in Root chord. in Tip chord. in Taper ratio Aspect ratio Sweep of leading edge. deg Airfoil section... Wedge nose. slab side with constant thickness of inch Ventral fin: Exposed area. sq in
11 10 TABU S W Y OF TR7M CKARACTERISTCCS Low g High LOW mgo a M =
12 * L "..
13 NACA FtM ~58~07 - -" Unswept Swept " L 0.25~ line line. (b) Horizontal tails. Figure 1. - Concluded.
14 NACA RM L58A07 - (a) Variation of longitudinal characteristics with angle of attack. Figure 2.- Effect of wing vertical position on the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of the w3ng-body configuration. M = 1.41.
15 14 NACA FiM L58A07 (b) Variation of longitudinal characteristics with lift. Figure 2. - Concluded.
16 . NACA l?m L58A07 L, 15 F (a) Variation of longitudinal characteristics with angle of attack. Figure 3.- Effect of wing vertical position on the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of the wing-body configuration. M = deg
17 a. deg (a) Concluded. Flgure 3. - Continued..
18 B I LO 12 CL (b) Variation of longitudinal characteristics w ith lift. Figure 3. - Continued.
20 ... * r Figure 4.- Effect of wing vertical posl~on on the variation of center of pressure with angle of attack for the --body configuration.
21 I = B a. dea pigure 5.- Effect of wing vertical position on the variation of lift-drag ratio with of attack for the wing-body configuration. Qt t....
22 N P..
23 I CL
24 ... I. 0 D4 Ctl.12, J CD N w.....
25 0 W 06.I2.I co (b) Low tail. Flgure 7. - Concluded.
26 W. I...
27 I. a. 0 W J Cm (b) Low tail. Figure 8. - concluded....
28 F c;, cm
31 I : l 0.I 2.3, c, =, (b) Law tail. p&ure Concluded I
32 I r..
33 ..... a, dea.ob O J B. 7 C'D (b) Low tail. Figure 11.- Concluded....,
34 3 NACA RM L58A07-33 Cm Q~ deg QI &g (a) High hil. (b) Low tail. Figure 12.- Longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of wing-off configuration with the unswept horizontal tail at various vertical positions. M = 1.41.
35 34 NACA RPI ~ 58~07. (a) High tail. Figure 13.- Longitudiml aerodynamic characteristics of wing-off configuration with the unswept horizontaj. tail at various vertical po8itioiu. M = 2.01.
36 NACA RM L58A07-35 (b) Law tail. Figure Concluded.
37 NACA RM ~58~07 L I (a) M = Figure 14.- Effect of wing position on the longitudinal stability characteristics of the complete configurations with variom horizontaltail positions.
38 NACA RM L58A07 " 37.I 0 -.I Cm I CL (b) M = Figure 14.- Concluded.
39 - NACA RM L58A07 Cm (a) M = Figu re 15.- Effect of horizontal-tail position on the longitudinal 8 tability of the complete configurations with various wing positions.
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