External Pressure Coefficients on Saw-tooth and Mono-sloped Roofs

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "External Pressure Coefficients on Saw-tooth and Mono-sloped Roofs"

Transcription

1 External Pressure Coefficients on Saw-tooth and Mono-sloped Roofs Authors: Bo Cui, Ph.D. Candidate, Clemson University, 109 Lowry Hall, Clemson, SC , David O. Prevatt, Assistant Professor, Clemson University, 314 Lowry Hall, Clemson, SC , Phone: , ABSTRACT A wind tunnel study to investigate wind pressures on single and multi-span saw-tooth roofs for a 1:100 geometrical scale model of a 1ow-rise building was carried out in atmospheric boundary layer wind tunnel at the Wind Load Test Facility at Clemson University. The purpose of this investigation was to further investigate wind loads on low rise buildings with mono-sloped and saw-tooth roofs and study the validity of ASCE 7-0 specification on these buildings. By using larger models and a higher density of pressure tap than in previous studies, a greater resolution of the pressure variations was achieved. The paper presents representative results of the study that includes point and areaaveraged wind pressure coefficients on models with varying spans and building heights. Local peak pressures and area-averaged pressures obtained in this study are compared with the design values specified in ASCE 7-0 and with results of previous wind tunnel studies. The results presented showed no significant difference in wind pressures between the windward span of the saw-tooth roof and the mono-sloped roof. Comparing results with ASCE 7-0 suggest that the current wind design provisions for mono-sloped roofs may be un-conservative. KEYWORDS: Low-rise building; wind-tunnel modeling; external pressure coefficients, saw-tooth, mono-sloped roof INTRODUCTION Codified provisions for saw-tooth roofs have been included in building design guidelines in the Australian Standard [AS 1170., 1989] and in the ASCE 7 since 1995 [ASCE ]. The current version of [ASCE 7-0] provides the specific values for saw-tooth, multi-span gable and mono-sloped roofs shown in Table 1 below. From the table it is apparent that saw-tooth roofs should be designed for significantly higher wind loads at the corners and edges of the building when compared to gable-roof or multi-span gable buildings, For example, the roofing system installed on a high corner of a saw-tooth roof would be designed an external pressure coefficient of -4.1, while a similar corner location on a mono-sloped roof would be designed for an external pressure coefficient of.9.

2 Roofing systems in US pre-dating the ASCE 7-95 were designed based on the lower design values prescribed for gable roof buildings (i.e..6 at corners). Despite this fact, of higher design wind loads, forensic investigations of two roofing systems installed on saw-tooth buildings in Massachusetts found no unusual signs of increased failure of these systems from high wind loads. This discrepancy in wind design provisions needs to be investigated to determine the validity of current design value relative to prior results from wind tunnel studies. This experimental investigation was conducted to use to turn the validity of current design code values for saw-tooth roof and mono-sloped roofs. Roof slope 10 < θ < 30 (degrees) Area 10ft Area = 100ft Area 500ft Roof Zone Shape Saw-tooth (Span A) Saw-tooth (Span BCD) Mono-slope Gable (7 θ > 7) Multi-Gable TABLE 1 EXTERNAL PRESSURE COEFFICIENTS FOR GABLE, MONO-SLOPED AND SAW-TOOTH ROOFS (ASCE 7-0) [NORMALIZED TO 3-SECOND GUST WIND SPEED AT MEAN ROOF HEIGHT] LITERATURE REVIEW [Holmes, 1987] investigated local and area-averaged pressures on saw-tooth roof buildings based on wind tunnel tests on a 1:00 scaled, 5-span saw-tooth model with a roof slope of 0 degrees. The peak local pressure and area-averaged (3m +/-) wind pressure coefficients were found to be -7.6 and -3.86, respectively, normalized to the mean wind speed at eave height, at the high corner of the windward span (span A). Extending this research to mono-sloped, and 4-span saw-tooth roof buildings, [Saathoff and Stathopoulos, 199] investigated peak local and area-averaged pressure coefficients, using 1:400 scale models with roof slopes of 15 degrees. These researchers concluded that the peak local wind pressure coefficients occurring at the high corners and high edges of the mono-sloped and windward span of the saw-tooth roof buildings were approximately the same, at -9.8 and -10., respectively, (normalized to the mean wind velocity at the lower eave height). In addition, they found that the peak local wind pressure coefficient at the low corner of the saw-tooth roof significantly exceeded the values observed on the mono-sloped model (i.e vs. -4.7). While these previous research results provided valuable wind load design information for mono-sloped and saw-tooth roof buildings, there is an unexplained difference in peak wind loads in ASCE 7 for mono-sloped and saw-tooth roofs that are not supported in previous research results. To address these questions, the Clemson University wind tunnel study was conducted using larger models and a higher density of pressure taps to provide greater resolution of the area-averaged pressure coefficients than was previously possible. In addition, the study includes the effect of building height and number of spans

3 on wind pressure distributions. Table compares the experimental setups of two previous tests with the current study at the Wind Load Test Facility (WLTF). Saathoff and Holmes Stathopoulos (199) (1987) Model Scale 1:400 1:00 1:100 Prototype building dimension Model dimensions 64 ft 00 ft 48 ft tall 1.91in 6in.03in 40 ft 18 ft 40 ft tall.36in 7.68in.34in Present Study Clemson (006) 6 ft 98 ft 53 ft tall 38 ft tall 3 ft tall 3.1in 11.76in 6.36in 4.56in.76in Roof Slope (degrees) No. pressure taps 66 taps 60 taps 90 taps Minimum tributary area per tap 53.8 ft 34.4 ft 4.34ft Number of span of tested model 1, and 4 span 5 span 1,, 3, 4, & 5 span Exposure category Open country Open country Open country o in 10 o deg for 53ft Wind directions (degrees) 0 o, o in 15 o increments & 180 o 0-60 o in 5 o increments 1-span & 5-span, 9070 o in 10 o incr. other tests Turbulence at low eave/mean roof height TABLE COMPARISON OF CLEMSON UNIVERSITY WLTF S WIND TUNNEL TEST SETUP WITH PRIOR TESTS BY SAATHOFF ET. AL. AND BY HOLMES. EXPERIMENTAL CONDITIONS The wind tunnel studies were conducted out in the boundary layer wind tunnel of the Wind Load Test Facility (WLTF) at Clemson University. The wind tunnel is an openflow wind tunnel with a 48-feet long test section, and a cross-section measuring 10 ft. by 7 ft. We simulated upwind terrain using a 1:100 geometric scale and modeled the velocity profile and turbulence intensity for open country exposures. The wind speed at gradient height in the tunnel was approximately 1.5 m/s. The wind velocity and turbulence intensity profiles obtained in this experiment (normalized to 10 m. height at full-scale) are presented in the Figure 1. The building model consisted of five similarly shaped Plexiglas models, one of which having 90 pressure taps installed in the roof as shown in Figure. This instrumented model was interchanged with the other models of different spans to measure the pressure distributions on the entire saw-tooth building. Pressure data from the wind tunnel was collected using eight Scanivalve ZOC33 electronic pressure scanning modules connected to a RAD300 digital remote A/D converter interfacing the pressure scanners with a PC. The pressure taps were attached to the pressure scanners by 1-in. long vinyl tubes having a 63 in. internal diameter Restrictors were installed in each tube to ensure a flat frequency response. Pressure data were sampled at a rate of 300 samples per second and recorded for a 10-second sample

4 time. Based on the velocity scale of 1:4 and the 1:100 length scale ratio of the windtunnel the sample corresponds to a full-scale record of approximately 15 minutes. 100 UTest/Uref 90 z0=36m FIGURE 1 WIND VELOCITY AND TURBULENCE INTENSITY PROFILE (REFERENCE HEIGHT = 10 m AT FULL SCALE) α Wind 5 = 130 INSTRUMENTED SPAN HC Turbulence Intensity ASCE SE LC HE IN LE HC SE LC Span A Span B Span C Span D Span E HC- high corner LC- low corner HE- high edge LE - low edge SE - slope edge IN - interior FIGURE MODEL USED IN STUDY AND TAP LOCATIONS

5 To normalize the pressures, a Pitot tube, located 1 in. below the wind tunnel ceiling, was used as a reference for dynamic wind pressure. The test pressure coefficients were determined using the mean wind speed at the Pitot tube height and then normalized to 3- second gust wind speed at mean roof height, for the purpose of comparison with ASCE values. Equivalent wind pressure coefficients were calculated using the following equations: 1 PASCE = ρ V3s, hgc p (1) 1 P Test = ρ VPitotC p, test () Assuming P ASCE = P Test then 1 ρv PitotC p, test VPitotC p, test ( GC p ) eq = = 1 ρv V3s, h 3s, h (3) where was calculated by the Equation 4 provided by [Simiu and Scanlan, 1996] V 3s, h V 3 s, h β = Vh (1 + c(3s) ) (4) h.5ln( ) z P denotes wind pressure, ρ denotes air density, 0 V 3 s, h 3s gust wind speed at mean roof height, V Pitot the mean wind speed at the Pitot tube height in the wind tunnel, GC p the wind pressure coefficient normalized to 3s gust wind speed at the mean roof height, the wind pressure coefficient normalized to the mean wind speed at the Pitot tube C, p test height in the wind tunnel, V h mean wind speed at mean roof height, z 0 roughness length, h mean roof height, ( GC p ) eq equivalent GCp which is converted by test C p. Area-averaged wind pressure coefficients are necessary for the design of cladding and components with larger tributary areas. While previous studies pneumatically averaged pressures over large areas, for this experiment, a numerical analysis method was used. To calculate area-averaged wind pressure coefficients based on the following equations: n Ai C p( area, j) = C p( i, j) (5) n i= 1 Ai i= 1 C denotes instantaneous area averaged wind pressure coefficient, p( area, j) C p ( i, j) instantaneous point wind pressure coefficient at time-step j, n the number of taps in the area and A i tributary area of the ith tap in the averaged area limitation. Using the time history the statistic values of area-averaged wind pressure coefficients can be obtained.

6 STRUCTURES 006 RESULTS AND ANALYSIS Peak Local Negative Wind Pressure Coefficient Distribution For the purpose of comparing extreme (minimum) wind pressure coefficients on a monosloped roof and on varying span number saw-tooth roofs, mono-sloped and, 3, 4 and 5 span saw-tooth roof models with 53 ft mean roof height in full scale were tested in the wind tunnel. Following the convention of ASCE, the windward and leeward spans of the saw-tooth buildings were denoted as spans A and E, respectively, with spans B, C and D denoting the middle spans. The pressure distributions for the high corners and the high edges of the windward spans of the saw-tooth roof buildings had similar shapes as the mono-sloped roof model. The spatial variation of peak negative pressure coefficients on mono-sloped and span A of the 5-span saw-tooth roof models are shown in Figure 3. The contour plots for the middle spans are similar with one another (not shown here). For the leeward spans, minimum wind pressure coefficient contours for the different span number models were also very similar. C L Mono-sloped Roof Span A of Saw-tooth Roof -3 FIGURE 3 CRITICAL NEGATIVE WIND PRESSURE COEFFICIENTS ON EACH SPAN OF 5-SPAN SAW-TOOTH ROOF (53 MEAN ROOF HEIGHT) The most critical negative wind pressure coefficients always occurred in the high corner of the mono-sloped and on the windward span (span A) of the saw-tooth roofs. o o The critical wind direction varied from 0 to 40 for all buildings.

7 Figure 4 presents the extreme point negative wind pressure coefficients at each zone of the mono-sloped and the -5 span saw-tooth roofs with a mean roof height 53 ft. The values in the high corners and high edges on span A of the multi-span saw-tooth and the mono-sloped roofs were very similar. In the high corner the peak value for the -5 span saw-tooth roofs was -4.6 and -4.3 for the mono-sloped roof. In the high edges the peak values were.8 and.74, respectively. The peak negative wind pressure coefficient on the span A was higher than on other spans. The maximum value on the middle spans and leeward spans of the - through 5-span saw-tooth roofs was.9. For these spans the extreme peak negative wind pressure coefficient occurred in the low corners. The maximum value in magnitude was For span A the measured peak negative wind pressure coefficient was for the - to 5- span saw-tooth roofs, a value lower than the peak value in the high corner of span A, but 9% higher than for the mono-sloped roof (-.99). As the number of spans increased, the peak value in every zone changed. For span A of the saw-tooth roof models and mono-sloped roof model this variation in the high corner and in the high edge was less than 10%, the maximum and minimum values being and respectively. The variation in other regions on span A was from 14% to 5%. On the leeward span (span E), the peak values in each zone varied from 7% to 1%. The largest variation occurred in the sloped edge zone..0 HC LC SE HE LE IN Mono -A 3-A 4-A 5-A Mono: mono-sloped roof;, 3, 4 and 5: the number of spans for a roof A: windward span; E: leeward span 3-B: middle span of 3-span roof; 4-B, 4-C: middle spans of 4-span roof; 5-B, 5-C, 5-D: middle spans of 5-span roof;.0.0 HC LC SE HE LE IN 3-B 4-B 4-C 5-B 5-C 5-D HC LC SE HE LE IN -E 3-E 4-E 5-E FIGURE 4 PEAK NEGATIVE WIND PRESSURE COEFFICIENTS ON MONO-SLOPED ROOF AND VARYING SPAN SAW-TOOTH ROOF (53 ft MEAN ROOF HEIGHT) Area-averaged Wind Pressure Coefficients Increasing the tributary areas caused a sharp reduction in the wind pressure coefficients from point pressures through 100 sq. ft. In the corner zones, the tributary area of a -tap combination is approximately equal to 10 sq. ft. As the tributary areas increased from 10

8 sq. ft. to 100 sq. ft., the negative wind pressure coefficients at the high corners decreased between 30% to 50%. The reduction caused by the increase in area from 100 sq. ft to 150 sq. ft was less than 0% for the high corners. A similar reduction (30% to 50%) in pressure coefficients is seen for the low corners and along the sloping edge zones. There were some differences in extreme area-averaged negative wind pressure coefficients between the various span of the model, of less than 30% (Figure 5). M A 3A 4A.0 5A M: mono-sloped roof;, 3, 4 and 5: the number of spans of a roof A: windward span; E: leeward span 3-B: middle span of 3-span roof; 4-B, 4-C: middle spans of 4-span roof; 5-B, 5-C, 5-D: middle spans of 5-span roof; 3B 4B 4C 5B.0 5C 5D E 3E 4E 5E.0 FIGURE 5 PEAK NEGATIVE WIND PRESSURE COEFFICIENTS IN HIGH CORNER OF MONO-SLOPED ROOF AND EACH SPAN OF THE - THROUGH 5- SPAN SAW-TOOTH ROOFS Effect of Building Height on Negative Wind Pressure Coefficients As expected, the extreme wind negative pressure coefficients were affected by the mean roof height of the model. Figure 6 shows the comparisons of the area-averaged extreme negative wind pressure coefficients for the three mean roof heights of 3 ft, 38 ft and 53 ft. In the high corner zone of the mono-sloped roof and the windward span (span A) of the saw-tooth roofs, these coefficients were in the range of -4.3 to For the middle and leeward spans (Spans BCDE) of the saw-tooth roof, the critical point negative wind pressure coefficients were in the range of.4 to The maximum variation in the critical area-averaged negative wind pressure coefficients between two models of different heights was up to 30%. The peak area-averaged negative wind pressure coefficients in the high corner on the 3 ft mono-sloped roof were larger than on 38 ft and on 53 ft mono-sloped roof models. However for the extreme value in the high corner on the 5-span saw-tooth roof, the peak area-averaged values occurred on the model having the 38 ft mean roof height. The critical area-averaged negative wind pressure coefficients in high corner on span A of saw-tooth roofs and on mono-sloped roofs were very similar. (Note that 3M in Figure 6 denotes mono-sloped building (M), having a mean roof height of 3 ft (3) and so on.)

9 -6.0 3M M 53M 3A A 53A 3BCDE 38BCDE 53BCDE FIGURE 6 AREA-AVERAGED NEGATIVE WIND PRESSURE COEFFICIENTS IN HIGH CORNER OF MONO-SLOPED AND 5- SPAN SAW-TOOTH ROOFS WITH MEAN ROOF HEIGHTS OF 3 ft, 38 ft, AND 53 ft. Comparison of Wind Tunnel Results with ASCE7-0 and Previous Research The peak negative pressure coefficients for the mono-sloped roof building were almost identical to the peak negative coefficients on the windward span (span A) of the 5-span saw-tooth roof (Figure 7). As expected, peak negative pressure coefficients for the middle and leeward spans (spans BCDE) were lower than for the windward span values High Corner -6.0 Low Corner Saw-tooth ASCE A Saw-tooth ASCE A.0.0 Mono ASCE Saw-tooth ASCE BCD Saw-tooth ASCE BCD Saw_A Mono Saw-BCDE Saathoff -Mono Saathoff -Saw-A Holmes -Saw-A Saw_A Saw-BCDE Saathoff Holmes Point wind pressure coefficient FIGURE 7 COMPARISONS OF MOST CRITICAL EXPERIMENTAL NEGATIVE WIND PRESSURE COEFFICIENTS AND ASCE VALUES WITH PREVIOUS RESEARCH RESULTS Our single point peak negative pressure coefficient of was, as expected, well above the -4.6 value reported by Saathoff et al., who used the average pressure coefficients derived from results on ten 16-second long pressure time-histories. Of interest to note, however, is the near identical peak negative pressure coefficients obtained by Saathoff et. al. for the mono-sloped and saw-tooth roofs. Thus, one should expect little difference in the peak negative pressure coefficients between saw-tooth and mono-sloped buildings.

10 The area-averaged negative pressure coefficients that we obtained by numerically integrating the results over several tributary areas revealed a sharp reduction in pressure coefficients for tributary areas greater than 10 sq. ft. for both the mono-sloped and sawtooth roofs. The reductions occurred at smaller tributary areas than provided in the current ASCE 7 design pressure coefficient reduction with areas. (Figure 7). The areaaveraged values reported by Saathoff et. al. for mono-sloped and saw-tooth buildings were also nearly identical and, except for the negative pressure coefficient on the sawtooth roof at 150 sq. ft., all values exceeded the ASCE 7 design pressure coefficient for the windward span of a saw-tooth roof building. The graph of area-averaged negative pressure coefficients on the middle and leeward spans suggest that the negative pressure coefficients in the low corner on areas less than approximately 5 sq. ft. exceeds the ASCE 7 design values. CONCLUSIONS Preliminary results presented in this paper and corroborated by previous research suggest that the peak minimum pressure coefficients for mono-sloped and saw-tooth roof buildings should be approximately the same. ASCE7-0 provides lower design negative wind pressure coefficients for mono-sloped roofs than the results reported here, that may not be supported by the experimental results. Further work is continuing to investigate the sensitivity of extreme pressure coefficients in repeated tests before firm conclusions will be made and to evaluate mono-sloped buildings with different aspect ratios. The extreme wind pressure coefficients at the high corner on the windward span was approximately at least 30% larger than those measured on the other middle or leeward spans. The ASCE7-0 design pressure coefficients appear low for the low corner zones of the middle and leeward spans of the saw-tooth roof. This research found no significant variation in low corners negative pressure coefficients between spans for areas larger than 5 sq. ft. The most critical area-averaged negative wind pressure coefficients on saw-tooth roofs varied with building height. This variation was up to 30% in the high corner. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors wish to acknowledge the generous support of the Department of Civil Engineering at Clemson University, Florida s Department of Consumer Affairs, NOAA and South Carolina Sea Grant Consortium in providing graduate assistant support. REFERENCES: [1] SAA, Minimum Design Loads on Structures (1989), Australian Standard AS 1170., Standards Association of Australian. [] ASCE, Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures (1995), ASCE7-95, ASCE. [3] ASCE, Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures (00), ASCE 7-0, ASCE [4] Holmes, J.D. Wind Loading of Multi-span Buildings First National Structural Engineering Conf., Melbourne, Australia, Aug. 68 (1987) [5] Saathoff Patrick J. and Stathopoulos Theodore Wind Loads on Buildings with Saw-tooth Roofs, Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol. 118 No. Feb. 199 Page [6] Simiu Emil, Scanlan Robert H., Wind Effects on Structures: Fundamentals and Applications to Design, 1996, John Wiley & Sons, WC, WY.

STRUCTURAL DESIGN FIGURE INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE 288aR

STRUCTURAL DESIGN FIGURE INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE 288aR FIGURE 1609.1 288aR 288bR 1609.1.4.1 Building with openings. Where glazing is assumed to be an opening in accordance with Section 1609.1.4, the building shall be evaluated to determine if the openings

More information

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF WIND PRESSURES ON IRREGULAR- PLAN SHAPE BUILDINGS

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF WIND PRESSURES ON IRREGULAR- PLAN SHAPE BUILDINGS BBAA VI International Colloquium on: Bluff Bodies Aerodynamics & Applications Milano, Italy, July, 2-24 8 EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF WIND PRESSURES ON IRREGULAR- PLAN SHAPE BUILDINGS J. A. Amin and A. K. Ahuja

More information

Wind tunnel test and numerical simulation of wind pressure on a high-rise building

Wind tunnel test and numerical simulation of wind pressure on a high-rise building Journal of Chongqing University (English Edition) [ISSN 1671-8224] Vol. 9 No. 1 March 2010 Article ID: 1671-8224(2010)01-0047-07 To cite this article: AL ZOUBI Feras, LI Zheng-liang, WEI Qi-ke, SUN Yi.

More information

Wind Pressure Distribution on Rectangular Plan Buildings with Multiple Domes

Wind Pressure Distribution on Rectangular Plan Buildings with Multiple Domes Wind Pressure Distribution on Rectangular Plan Buildings with Multiple Domes Astha Verma, Ashok K. Ahuja Abstract Present paper describes detailed information of the experimental study carried out on the

More information

WIND-INDUCED PRESSURES ON CANOPIES ATTACHED TO THE WALLS OF LOW-RISE BUILDINGS

WIND-INDUCED PRESSURES ON CANOPIES ATTACHED TO THE WALLS OF LOW-RISE BUILDINGS WIND-INDUCED PRESSURES ON CANOPIES ATTACHED TO THE WALLS OF LOW-RISE BUILDINGS José Daniel Candelario Suárez A Thesis In The Department Of Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering Presented in Partial

More information

Wind Loads on Low-Rise Building Models with Different Roof Configurations

Wind Loads on Low-Rise Building Models with Different Roof Configurations Wind Loads on Low-Rise Building Models with Different Roof Configurations Deepak Prasad, Tuputa Uliate, and M. Rafiuddin Ahmed School of Engineering and Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, The

More information

Determination of the wind pressure distribution on the facade of the triangularly shaped high-rise building structure

Determination of the wind pressure distribution on the facade of the triangularly shaped high-rise building structure Determination of the wind pressure distribution on the facade of the triangularly shaped high-rise building structure Norbert Jendzelovsky 1,*, Roland Antal 1 and Lenka Konecna 1 1 STU in Bratislava, Faculty

More information

UNIVERSITY OF HONG KONG LIBRARY. Hong Kong Collection

UNIVERSITY OF HONG KONG LIBRARY. Hong Kong Collection UNIVERSITY OF HONG KONG LIBRARY Hong Kong Collection CODE OF PRACTICE ON WIND EFFECTS HONG KONG-1983 BUILDING DEVELOPMENT DEPARTMENT HONG KONG PRINTED AND PUBLISHED BY THE GOVERNMENT PRINTER, HONG KONG

More information

Available online at ScienceDirect. Procedia Engineering 161 (2016 )

Available online at  ScienceDirect. Procedia Engineering 161 (2016 ) Available online at www.sciencedirect.com ScienceDirect Procedia Engineering 161 (216 ) 1845 1851 World Multidisciplinary Civil Engineering-Architecture-Urban Planning Symposium 216, WMCAUS 216 Experimental

More information

ASCE D Wind Loading

ASCE D Wind Loading ASCE 7-10 3D Wind Loading 1 All information in this document is subject to modification without prior notice. No part or this manual may be reproduced, stored in a database or retrieval system or published,

More information

Internal pressures in a building with roof opening

Internal pressures in a building with roof opening The Eighth Asia-Pacific Conference on Wind Engineering, December 10 14, 2013, Chennai, India Internal pressures in a building with roof opening Shouying Li 1,Shouke Li 2, Zhengqing Chen 3. 1 Asociate Professor

More information

JAR-23 Normal, Utility, Aerobatic, and Commuter Category Aeroplanes \ Issued 11 March 1994 \ Section 1- Requirements \ Subpart C - Structure \ General

JAR-23 Normal, Utility, Aerobatic, and Commuter Category Aeroplanes \ Issued 11 March 1994 \ Section 1- Requirements \ Subpart C - Structure \ General JAR 23.301 Loads \ JAR 23.301 Loads (a) Strength requirements are specified in terms of limit loads (the maximum loads to be expected in service) and ultimate loads (limit loads multiplied by prescribed

More information

APPLICATION OF COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS (CFD) IN WIND ANALYSIS OF TALL BUILDINGS. Damith Mohotti, Priyan Mendis, Tuan Ngo

APPLICATION OF COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS (CFD) IN WIND ANALYSIS OF TALL BUILDINGS. Damith Mohotti, Priyan Mendis, Tuan Ngo APPLICATION OF COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS (CFD) IN WIND ANALYSIS OF TALL BUILDINGS Damith Mohotti, Priyan Mendis, Tuan Ngo Department of Infrastructures Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Victoria,

More information

WIND-INDUCED LOADS OVER DOUBLE CANTILEVER BRIDGES UNDER CONSTRUCTION

WIND-INDUCED LOADS OVER DOUBLE CANTILEVER BRIDGES UNDER CONSTRUCTION WIND-INDUCED LOADS OVER DOUBLE CANTILEVER BRIDGES UNDER CONSTRUCTION S. Pindado, J. Meseguer, J. M. Perales, A. Sanz-Andres and A. Martinez Key words: Wind loads, bridge construction, yawing moment. Abstract.

More information

Wind tunnel tests of a non-typical stadium roof

Wind tunnel tests of a non-typical stadium roof Wind tunnel tests of a non-typical stadium roof G. Bosak 1, A. Flaga 1, R. Kłaput 1 and Ł. Flaga 1 1 Wind Engineering Laboratory, Cracow University of Technology, 31-864 Cracow, Poland. liwpk@windlab.pl

More information

Wind Flow Validation Summary

Wind Flow Validation Summary IBHS Research Center Validation of Wind Capabilities The Insurance Institute for Business & Home Safety (IBHS) Research Center full-scale test facility provides opportunities to simulate natural wind conditions

More information

Wind pressures in canopies with parapets

Wind pressures in canopies with parapets Wind pressures in canopies with parapets A. Poitevin 1, B. Natalini 2, L. A. Godoy 3 1 Research Assistant, Department of Civil Engineering and Surveying, University of Puerto Rico, poite@msn.com 2 Prof.

More information

Research Article Effects of Side Ratio on Wind-Induced Pressure Distribution on Rectangular Buildings

Research Article Effects of Side Ratio on Wind-Induced Pressure Distribution on Rectangular Buildings Journal of Structures Volume 213, rticle ID 176739, 12pages http://d.doi.org/15/213/176739 Research rticle Effects of Side Ratio on Wind-Induced Pressure Distribution on Rectangular Buildings J.. min 1

More information

Use of Equivalent Building Dimensions (EBD) to Characterize Upwind Terrain Wake Effects for AERMOD

Use of Equivalent Building Dimensions (EBD) to Characterize Upwind Terrain Wake Effects for AERMOD Use of Equivalent Building Dimensions (EBD) to Characterize Upwind Terrain Wake Effects for AERMOD Paper # 425 100 th Annual Meeting of the Air & Waste Management Association June 2007 Ronald Petersen

More information

Wind action on small sky observatory ScopeDome

Wind action on small sky observatory ScopeDome Wind action on small sky observatory ScopeDome A.Flaga a, G. Bosak a, Ł. Flaga b, G. Kimbar a, M. Florek a a Wind Engineering Laboratory, Cracow University of Technology, Cracow, Poland, LIWPK@windlab.pl

More information

Basis of Structural Design

Basis of Structural Design Basis of Structural Design Course 10 Actions on structures: Wind loads Other loads Course notes are available for download at http://www.ct.upt.ro/users/aurelstratan/ Wind loading: normative references

More information

Wind tunnel effects on wingtip vortices

Wind tunnel effects on wingtip vortices 48th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting Including the New Horizons Forum and Aerospace Exposition 4-7 January 2010, Orlando, Florida AIAA 2010-325 Wind tunnel effects on wingtip vortices Xin Huang 1, Hirofumi

More information

lated by the arrangement of spires and roughness blocks to fit the urban terrain (terrain IV, power law index = 0.7) specified in AIJ recommendation (

lated by the arrangement of spires and roughness blocks to fit the urban terrain (terrain IV, power law index = 0.7) specified in AIJ recommendation ( The Seventh International olloquium on Bluff Body Aerodynamics and Applications (BBAA7) Shanghai, hina; September -6, 01 ross spectra of wind pressures on domed roofs in boundary layer wind tunnel Yuan-Lung

More information

FINAL REPORT. Wind Assessment for: NEW OFFICE BUILDING AT ESSENDON FIELDS Essendon, Victoria, Australia

FINAL REPORT. Wind Assessment for: NEW OFFICE BUILDING AT ESSENDON FIELDS Essendon, Victoria, Australia FINAL REPORT Wind Assessment for: NEW OFFICE BUILDING AT ESSENDON FIELDS Essendon, Victoria, Australia Prepared for: Essendon Fields Pty Ltd Essendon Fields House Level 2, 7 English Street Essendon Fields

More information

RESEARCH ON THE WIND LOAD PARAMETERS AND THE WIND FENCES BEHAVIOR FOR WIND FENCES OF RAILWAY BRIDGE

RESEARCH ON THE WIND LOAD PARAMETERS AND THE WIND FENCES BEHAVIOR FOR WIND FENCES OF RAILWAY BRIDGE RESEARCH ON THE WIND LOAD PARAMETERS AND THE WIND FENCES BEHAVIOR FOR WIND FENCES OF RAILWAY BRIDGE Shi-xiong Zheng Professor, School of Civil Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University Chengdu Sichuan

More information

Design wind pressures and forces are determined per equations given in section : q Gf Cp - qi GCpi : at height z above ground Resisting System

Design wind pressures and forces are determined per equations given in section : q Gf Cp - qi GCpi : at height z above ground Resisting System Design Wind Pressure, p, Equation 6-19 (ASCE 7-05) Design wind pressures and forces are determined per equations given in section 6.5.12 System Type Structure Type Equation p : q Gf Cp - qi GCpi Main Wind-Force

More information

AERODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF SPIN PHENOMENON FOR DELTA WING

AERODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF SPIN PHENOMENON FOR DELTA WING ICAS 2002 CONGRESS AERODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF SPIN PHENOMENON FOR DELTA WING Yoshiaki NAKAMURA (nakamura@nuae.nagoya-u.ac.jp) Takafumi YAMADA (yamada@nuae.nagoya-u.ac.jp) Department of Aerospace Engineering,

More information

University of Bristol - Explore Bristol Research. Publisher's PDF, also known as Version of record

University of Bristol - Explore Bristol Research. Publisher's PDF, also known as Version of record Liu, X., Azarpeyvand, M., & Joseph, P. (2015). On the acoustic and aerodynamic performance of serrated airfoils. Paper presented at The 22nd International Congress on Sound and Vibration, Florence, France.

More information

THE INFLUENCE OF WINDWARD PARAPETS ON THE HEIGHT OF LEEWARD SNOW DRIFTS AT ROOF STEPS CHRISTOPHER BRANDON GOODALE. B.S., Kansas State University, 2016

THE INFLUENCE OF WINDWARD PARAPETS ON THE HEIGHT OF LEEWARD SNOW DRIFTS AT ROOF STEPS CHRISTOPHER BRANDON GOODALE. B.S., Kansas State University, 2016 THE INFLUENCE OF WINDWARD PARAPETS ON THE HEIGHT OF LEEWARD SNOW DRIFTS AT ROOF STEPS by CHRISTOPHER BRANDON GOODALE B.S., Kansas State University, 2016 A THESIS submitted in partial fulfillment of the

More information

Validation of Measurements from a ZephIR Lidar

Validation of Measurements from a ZephIR Lidar Validation of Measurements from a ZephIR Lidar Peter Argyle, Simon Watson CREST, Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom p.argyle@lboro.ac.uk INTRODUCTION Wind farm construction projects

More information

Florida State University Libraries

Florida State University Libraries Florida State University Libraries Electronic Theses, Treatises and Dissertations The Graduate School 2015 Pressure Drag Reduction on Patterned Cylindrical Models Inspired by Biomimicry Larissa Mendes

More information

leading edge, where the flow is fully separated. Both for the means and peaks, smooth flow leads to the highest values. A good correlation between cav

leading edge, where the flow is fully separated. Both for the means and peaks, smooth flow leads to the highest values. A good correlation between cav The Seventh International Colloquium on Bluff Body Aerodynamics and Applications (BBAA7) Shanghai, China; September 2-6, 22 Towards a better understanding of pressure equalization Carine van Bentum a,

More information

Aerodynamic Analysis of Blended Winglet for Low Speed Aircraft

Aerodynamic Analysis of Blended Winglet for Low Speed Aircraft , July 1-3, 2015, London, U.K. Aerodynamic Analysis of Blended Winglet for Low Speed Aircraft Pooja Pragati, Sudarsan Baskar Abstract This paper provides a practical design of a new concept of massive

More information

High Swept-back Delta Wing Flow

High Swept-back Delta Wing Flow Advanced Materials Research Submitted: 2014-06-25 ISSN: 1662-8985, Vol. 1016, pp 377-382 Accepted: 2014-06-25 doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/amr.1016.377 Online: 2014-08-28 2014 Trans Tech Publications,

More information

ScienceDirect. Aerodynamic body position of the brakeman of a 2-man bobsleigh

ScienceDirect. Aerodynamic body position of the brakeman of a 2-man bobsleigh Available online at www.sciencedirect.com ScienceDirect Procedia Engineering 112 (2015 ) 424 429 7th Asia-Pacific Congress on Sports Technology, APCST 2015 Aerodynamic body position of the brakeman of

More information

CIVL473 Fundamentals of Steel Design

CIVL473 Fundamentals of Steel Design Loading for most of the structures are obtained from the relevant British Standards, the manufacturers data and similar sources. CIVL473 Fundamentals of Steel Design CHAPTER 2 Loading and Load Combinations

More information

Wind loading on cladding and glazed façades

Wind loading on cladding and glazed façades Wind loading on cladding and glazed façades Dr Mauro OVEREND Lecturer in Architectural Structures School of the Built Environment, University of Nottingham UK Kenneth ZAMMIT PhD Student School of the Built

More information

ANALYSIS OF AERODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF A SUPERCRITICAL AIRFOIL FOR LOW SPEED AIRCRAFT

ANALYSIS OF AERODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF A SUPERCRITICAL AIRFOIL FOR LOW SPEED AIRCRAFT ANALYSIS OF AERODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF A SUPERCRITICAL AIRFOIL FOR LOW SPEED AIRCRAFT P.Sethunathan 1, M.Niventhran 2, V.Siva 2, R.Sadhan Kumar 2 1 Asst.Professor, Department of Aeronautical Engineering,

More information

Energy Output. Outline. Characterizing Wind Variability. Characterizing Wind Variability 3/7/2015. for Wind Power Management

Energy Output. Outline. Characterizing Wind Variability. Characterizing Wind Variability 3/7/2015. for Wind Power Management Energy Output for Wind Power Management Spring 215 Variability in wind Distribution plotting Mean power of the wind Betz' law Power density Power curves The power coefficient Calculator guide The power

More information

EXPERIMENTAL AND ANALYTICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECT OF BODY KIT USED WITH SALOON CARS IN BRUNEI DARUSSALAM

EXPERIMENTAL AND ANALYTICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECT OF BODY KIT USED WITH SALOON CARS IN BRUNEI DARUSSALAM EXPERIMENTAL AND ANALYTICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECT OF BODY KIT USED WITH SALOON CARS IN BRUNEI DARUSSALAM M.G., Yazdani, H. Ullah, T. Aderis and R. Zainulariffin, Faculty of Engineering, Institut

More information

NIST TECHNICAL NOTE 1655 Toward a Standard on the Wind Tunnel Method

NIST TECHNICAL NOTE 1655 Toward a Standard on the Wind Tunnel Method NIST TECHNICAL NOTE 1655 Toward a Standard on the Wind Tunnel Method Emil Simiu Cover Photo: Boundary Layer Wind Tunnel Laboratory, The University of Florence, Prato, Italy. NIST TECHNICAL NOTE 1655 Toward

More information

Available online at Procedia Engineering 200 (2010) (2009) In situ drag measurements of sports balls

Available online at  Procedia Engineering 200 (2010) (2009) In situ drag measurements of sports balls Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Procedia Engineering 200 (2010) (2009) 2437 2442 000 000 Procedia Engineering www.elsevier.com/locate/procedia 8 th Conference of the International Sports Engineering

More information

a high-rise (78 m) building in the city of Antwerp. CFD simulations are performed for the building with and without second-skin facade concept impleme

a high-rise (78 m) building in the city of Antwerp. CFD simulations are performed for the building with and without second-skin facade concept impleme The Seventh International Colloquium on Bluff Body Aerodynamics and Applications (BBAA7) Shanghai, China; September 2-6, 2012 CFD analysis of wind comfort on high-rise building balconies: validation and

More information

Real Life Turbulence and Model Simplifications. Jørgen Højstrup Wind Solutions/Højstrup Wind Energy VindKraftNet 28 May 2015

Real Life Turbulence and Model Simplifications. Jørgen Højstrup Wind Solutions/Højstrup Wind Energy VindKraftNet 28 May 2015 Real Life Turbulence and Model Simplifications Jørgen Højstrup Wind Solutions/Højstrup Wind Energy VindKraftNet 28 May 2015 Contents What is turbulence? Description of turbulence Modelling spectra. Wake

More information

WIND LOADS / MOORING & FISH TAILING. Arjen Koop, Senior Project Manager Offshore Rogier Eggers, Project Manager Ships

WIND LOADS / MOORING & FISH TAILING. Arjen Koop, Senior Project Manager Offshore Rogier Eggers, Project Manager Ships WIND LOADS / MOORING & FISH TAILING Arjen Koop, Senior Project Manager Offshore Rogier Eggers, Project Manager Ships OVERVIEW Wind Loads Wind shielding Fish tailing? 2 WIND LOADS FOR OFFSHORE MARS TLP

More information

Florida Institute of Technology 150 W. University Blvd. Melbourne, Florida (321)

Florida Institute of Technology 150 W. University Blvd. Melbourne, Florida (321) WIND EFFECTS ON EMERGENCY VEHICLES Final Report submitted to: Daniel H. Rocque, Fire Chief SATELLITE BEACH FIRE DEPARTMENT & David Halstead, Senior Management Analyst I DIVISION OF EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT

More information

SEMI-SPAN TESTING IN WIND TUNNELS

SEMI-SPAN TESTING IN WIND TUNNELS 25 TH INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF THE AERONAUTICAL SCIENCES SEMI-SPAN TESTING IN WIND TUNNELS S. Eder, K. Hufnagel, C. Tropea Chair of Fluid Mechanics and Aerodynamics, Darmstadt University of Technology

More information

Gust-front factor: A new framework for the analysis of wind load effects in gust-fronts

Gust-front factor: A new framework for the analysis of wind load effects in gust-fronts Gust-front factor: A new framework for the analysis of wind load effects in gust-fronts Dae Kun Kwon a, Ahsan Kareem a a NatHa Modeling Laboratory, University of Notre Dame, USA ABSTRACT: In comparison

More information

REVIEW OF METHODS AND TECHNIQUES FOR THE ASSESMENT OF WINDS AT PEDESTRIAN LEVEL

REVIEW OF METHODS AND TECHNIQUES FOR THE ASSESMENT OF WINDS AT PEDESTRIAN LEVEL REVIEW OF METHODS AND TECHNIQUES FOR THE ASSESMENT OF WINDS AT PEDESTRIAN LEVEL K.Mohan 1 1 Senior Professor, Gitam School of Architecture, Gitam University, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India Abstract

More information

Wind shear and its effect on wind turbine noise assessment Report by David McLaughlin MIOA, of SgurrEnergy

Wind shear and its effect on wind turbine noise assessment Report by David McLaughlin MIOA, of SgurrEnergy Wind shear and its effect on wind turbine noise assessment Report by David McLaughlin MIOA, of SgurrEnergy Motivation Wind shear is widely misunderstood in the context of noise assessments. Bowdler et

More information

COMPARISON OF WIND LOAD STANDARDS. by SHRINIVAS KOLA, B.S.C.E.. A THESIS CIVIL ENGINEERING

COMPARISON OF WIND LOAD STANDARDS. by SHRINIVAS KOLA, B.S.C.E.. A THESIS CIVIL ENGINEERING COMPARISON OF WIND LOAD STANDARDS by SHRINIVAS KOLA, B.S.C.E.. A THESIS IN CIVIL ENGINEERING Submitted to the Graduate Faculty of Texas Tech University in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the

More information

Effects of seam and surface texture on tennis balls aerodynamics

Effects of seam and surface texture on tennis balls aerodynamics Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Procedia Engineering 34 (2012 ) 140 145 9 th Conference of the International Sports Engineering Association (ISEA) Effects of seam and surface texture on tennis

More information

Wind Regimes 1. 1 Wind Regimes

Wind Regimes 1. 1 Wind Regimes Wind Regimes 1 1 Wind Regimes The proper design of a wind turbine for a site requires an accurate characterization of the wind at the site where it will operate. This requires an understanding of the sources

More information

Folding Reticulated Shell Structure Wind Pressure Coefficient Prediction Research based on RBF Neural Network

Folding Reticulated Shell Structure Wind Pressure Coefficient Prediction Research based on RBF Neural Network International Conference on Information Sciences, Machinery, Materials and Energy (ICISMME 2015) Folding Reticulated Shell Structure Wind Pressure Coefficient Prediction Research based on RBF Neural Network

More information

EWGAE 2010 Vienna, 8th to 10th September

EWGAE 2010 Vienna, 8th to 10th September EWGAE 2010 Vienna, 8th to 10th September Acoustic Emission for monitoring two-phase flow Shuib HUSIN, A. ADDALI, David MBA Cranfield University, School of Engineering, Cranfield, Bedfordshire, M43 0AL,

More information

Pressure distribution on the roof of a model lowrise building tested in a boundary layer wind tunnel

Pressure distribution on the roof of a model lowrise building tested in a boundary layer wind tunnel Graduate Theses and Dissertations Graduate College 2009 Pressure distribution on the roof of a model lowrise building tested in a boundary layer wind tunnel Matthew Robert Goliber Iowa State University

More information

Wind tunnel calibration of cup anemometers. Ole Frost Hansen, WindSensor ApS Svend Ole Hansen, Svend Ole Hansen ApS Leif Kristensen

Wind tunnel calibration of cup anemometers. Ole Frost Hansen, WindSensor ApS Svend Ole Hansen, Svend Ole Hansen ApS Leif Kristensen Wind tunnel calibration of cup anemometers Ole Frost Hansen, WindSensor ApS Svend Ole Hansen, Svend Ole Hansen ApS Leif Kristensen Wind Tunnel Calibration of Cup Anemometers Ole Frost Hansen, Svend Ole

More information

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CIVIL AND STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING Volume 2, No 3, 2012

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CIVIL AND STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING Volume 2, No 3, 2012 NTERNATONAL JOURNAL OF CVL AND STRUCTURAL ENGNEERNG Volume 2, No 3, 2012 Copyright 2010 All rights reserved ntegrated Publishing services Research article SSN 0976 4399 Analysis of tall building for across

More information

LOW PRESSURE EFFUSION OF GASES adapted by Luke Hanley and Mike Trenary

LOW PRESSURE EFFUSION OF GASES adapted by Luke Hanley and Mike Trenary ADH 1/7/014 LOW PRESSURE EFFUSION OF GASES adapted by Luke Hanley and Mike Trenary This experiment will introduce you to the kinetic properties of low-pressure gases. You will make observations on the

More information

Scales of Atmospheric Motion Scale Length Scale (m) Time Scale (sec) Systems/Importance Molecular (neglected)

Scales of Atmospheric Motion Scale Length Scale (m) Time Scale (sec) Systems/Importance Molecular (neglected) Supplement Wind, Fetch and Waves Scales of Atmospheric Motion Scale Length Scale (m) Time Scale (sec) Systems/Importance Molecular 10-7 - 10-2 10-1 (neglected) Coriolis not important Turbulent 10-2 10

More information

PREDICTION OF TOTAL PRESSURE CHARACTERISTICS IN THE SETTLING CHAMBER OF A SUPERSONIC BLOWDOWN WIND TUNNEL

PREDICTION OF TOTAL PRESSURE CHARACTERISTICS IN THE SETTLING CHAMBER OF A SUPERSONIC BLOWDOWN WIND TUNNEL PREDICTION OF TOTAL PRESSURE CHARACTERISTICS IN THE SETTLING CHAMBER OF A SUPERSONIC BLOWDOWN WIND TUNNEL S R Bhoi and G K Suryanarayana National Trisonic Aerodynamic Facilities, National Aerospace Laboratories,

More information

Analysis of Shear Lag in Steel Angle Connectors

Analysis of Shear Lag in Steel Angle Connectors University of New Hampshire University of New Hampshire Scholars' Repository Honors Theses and Capstones Student Scholarship Spring 2013 Analysis of Shear Lag in Steel Angle Connectors Benjamin Sawyer

More information

Energy and mass transfer in gas-liquid reactors.

Energy and mass transfer in gas-liquid reactors. Energy and mass transfer in gas-liquid reactors. John M Smith School of Engineering (D2) University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH, UK j.smith@surrey.ac.uk 1 Energy and mass transfer in gas-liquid reactors.

More information

The Wind Resource: Prospecting for Good Sites

The Wind Resource: Prospecting for Good Sites The Wind Resource: Prospecting for Good Sites Bruce Bailey, President AWS Truewind, LLC 255 Fuller Road Albany, NY 12203 bbailey@awstruewind.com Talk Topics Causes of Wind Resource Impacts on Project Viability

More information

average length of the bluff body surface reattachment will decrease with blockage ratio increasing. Cherry's test results showed that 5% of the blocka

average length of the bluff body surface reattachment will decrease with blockage ratio increasing. Cherry's test results showed that 5% of the blocka The Seventh International Colloquium on Bluff Body Aerodynamics and Applications (BBAA7) Shanghai, China; September 2 6, 2012 Investigation on wind tunnel blockage effect of super high-rise building WANG

More information

WindProspector TM Lockheed Martin Corporation

WindProspector TM Lockheed Martin Corporation WindProspector TM www.lockheedmartin.com/windprospector 2013 Lockheed Martin Corporation WindProspector Unparalleled Wind Resource Assessment Industry Challenge Wind resource assessment meteorologists

More information

LOW PRESSURE EFFUSION OF GASES revised by Igor Bolotin 03/05/12

LOW PRESSURE EFFUSION OF GASES revised by Igor Bolotin 03/05/12 LOW PRESSURE EFFUSION OF GASES revised by Igor Bolotin 03/05/ This experiment will introduce you to the kinetic properties of low-pressure gases. You will make observations on the rates with which selected

More information

Techniques to achieve wind comfort & wind loads on buildings and appurtenances

Techniques to achieve wind comfort & wind loads on buildings and appurtenances Vipac Engineers & Scientists Techniques to achieve wind comfort & wind loads on buildings and appurtenances including shades, verandahs, hoardings and walls. Mr Ian Jones, Managing Director Dr Seifu Bekele,

More information

Experimental Study of UTM New Sport Complex

Experimental Study of UTM New Sport Complex 40, Issue 1 (2017) 70-78 Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences Journal homepage: www.akademiabaru.com/arfmts.html ISSN: 2289-7879 Experimental Study of UTM New Sport Complex

More information

AIRFLOW AROUND CONIC TENSILE MEMBRANE STRUCTURES

AIRFLOW AROUND CONIC TENSILE MEMBRANE STRUCTURES AIRFLOW AROUND CONIC TENSILE MEMBRANE STRUCTURES A. M. ElNokaly 1, J. C. Chilton 2 and R. Wilson 1 1 School of the Built Environment, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2RD, UK 2 School of Architecture,

More information

The Use of Wind Tunnel Measurements in Building Design

The Use of Wind Tunnel Measurements in Building Design 13 The Use of Wind Tunnel Measurements in Building Design Dat Duthinh and Emil Simiu National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States of America 1. Introduction The

More information

The Australia/New Zealand wind actions standard

The Australia/New Zealand wind actions standard The Australia/New Zealand wind actions standard John Holmes a, Richard Flay b a JDH Consulting, P.O. Box 269, Mentone, Victoria, Australia b The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland, New

More information

Wind loads investigations of HAWT with wind tunnel tests and site measurements

Wind loads investigations of HAWT with wind tunnel tests and site measurements loads investigations of HAWT with wind tunnel tests and site measurements Shigeto HIRAI, Senior Researcher, Nagasaki R&D Center, Technical Headquarters, MITSUBISHI HEAVY INDSUTRIES, LTD, Fukahori, Nagasaki,

More information

International Journal of Technical Research and Applications e-issn: , Volume 4, Issue 3 (May-June, 2016), PP.

International Journal of Technical Research and Applications e-issn: ,  Volume 4, Issue 3 (May-June, 2016), PP. DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF FEED CHECK VALVE AS CONTROL VALVE USING CFD SOFTWARE R.Nikhil M.Tech Student Industrial & Production Engineering National Institute of Engineering Mysuru, Karnataka, India -570008

More information

Introduction with New Methods for Train Operation Control in Strong Winds at East Japan Railway Company

Introduction with New Methods for Train Operation Control in Strong Winds at East Japan Railway Company 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 2 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 3 31 Introduction with New Methods for Train Operation Control in Strong Winds at East Japan Railway Company 31 July 214 7,428

More information

Influence of wind direction on noise emission and propagation from wind turbines

Influence of wind direction on noise emission and propagation from wind turbines Influence of wind direction on noise emission and propagation from wind turbines Tom Evans and Jonathan Cooper Resonate Acoustics, 97 Carrington Street, Adelaide, South Australia 5000 ABSTRACT Noise predictions

More information

Available online at Procedia Engineering 200 (2010) (2009)

Available online at  Procedia Engineering 200 (2010) (2009) Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Procedia Engineering 200 (2010) (2009) 000 000 2413 2418 Procedia Engineering www.elsevier.com/locate/procedia 8 th Conference of the International Sports Engineering

More information

Computational Analysis of the S Airfoil Aerodynamic Performance

Computational Analysis of the S Airfoil Aerodynamic Performance Computational Analysis of the 245-3S Airfoil Aerodynamic Performance Luis Velazquez-Araque and Jiří Nožička 2 Department of Mechanical Engineering National University of Táchira, San Cristóbal 5, Venezuela

More information

PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS FOR A TAKEOFF IN SURFING. Akihiko Kimura 1 and Taro Kakinuma 2

PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS FOR A TAKEOFF IN SURFING. Akihiko Kimura 1 and Taro Kakinuma 2 PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS FOR A TAKEOFF IN SURFING Akihiko Kimura 1 and Taro Kakinuma 2 The conditions required for a takeoff in surfing, are discussed, with the waves simulated numerically, considering two

More information

P 2 KKK Bernoulli s Law. Article Code: Area: Fluid Mechanics Keywords: Background Knowledge:

P 2 KKK Bernoulli s Law. Article Code: Area: Fluid Mechanics Keywords: Background Knowledge: Article Code: Area: Fluid Mechanics Keywords: Background Knowledge: Bernoulli s Law When a fluid flows in a pipe, the pressure, P, and the velocity, v, of the fluid in two points, 1 and, of the pipe are

More information

Computational fluid dynamics analysis of a mixed flow pump impeller

Computational fluid dynamics analysis of a mixed flow pump impeller MultiCraft International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology Vol. 2, No. 6, 2010, pp. 200-206 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING, SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY www.ijest-ng.com 2010 MultiCraft Limited.

More information

APPLICATION OF RESEARCH RESULTS AT LM WIND POWER

APPLICATION OF RESEARCH RESULTS AT LM WIND POWER APPLICATION OF RESEARCH RESULTS AT LM WIND POWER Herning / March 27 / 2014 By Jesper Madsen Chief Engineer Aerodynamics and Acoustics AGENDA 1. EUDP Projects 1. DANAERO MW 2. Optimization of vortex generators

More information

A Research on the Airflow Efficiency Analysis according to the Variation of the Geometry Tolerance of the Sirocco Fan Cut-off for Air Purifier

A Research on the Airflow Efficiency Analysis according to the Variation of the Geometry Tolerance of the Sirocco Fan Cut-off for Air Purifier A Research on the Airflow Efficiency Analysis according to the Variation of the Geometry Tolerance of the Sirocco Fan Cut-off for Air Purifier Jeon-gi Lee*, Choul-jun Choi*, Nam-su Kwak*, Su-sang Park*

More information

COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS (CFD) INVESTIGATION TO ASSESS WIND EFFECTS ON A TALL STRUCTURES (WIND FORCE PARAMETERS)

COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS (CFD) INVESTIGATION TO ASSESS WIND EFFECTS ON A TALL STRUCTURES (WIND FORCE PARAMETERS) COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS (CFD) INVESTIGATION TO ASSESS WIND EFFECTS ON A TALL STRUCTURES (WIND FORCE PARAMETERS) G Naga Sulochana 1, H Sarath kumar 2 1M.Tech Student. 2 Assistant Professor 1,2Department

More information

HURRICANE SANDY LIMITED REEVALUATION REPORT UNION BEACH, NEW JERSEY DRAFT ENGINEERING APPENDIX SUB APPENDIX D SBEACH MODELING

HURRICANE SANDY LIMITED REEVALUATION REPORT UNION BEACH, NEW JERSEY DRAFT ENGINEERING APPENDIX SUB APPENDIX D SBEACH MODELING HURRICANE SANDY LIMITED REEVALUATION REPORT UNION BEACH, NEW JERSEY DRAFT ENGINEERING APPENDIX SUB APPENDIX D SBEACH MODELING Rev. 18 Feb 2015 1 SBEACH Modeling 1.0 Introduction Following the methodology

More information

Parasite Drag. by David F. Rogers Copyright c 2005 David F. Rogers. All rights reserved.

Parasite Drag. by David F. Rogers  Copyright c 2005 David F. Rogers. All rights reserved. Parasite Drag by David F. Rogers http://www.nar-associates.com Copyright c 2005 David F. Rogers. All rights reserved. How many of you still have a Grimes rotating beacon on both the top and bottom of the

More information

Wind Project Siting & Resource Assessment

Wind Project Siting & Resource Assessment Wind Project Siting & Resource Assessment David DeLuca, Project Manager AWS Truewind, LLC 463 New Karner Road Albany, NY 12205 ddeluca@awstruewind.com www.awstruewind.com AWS Truewind - Overview Industry

More information

EFFECT OF CORNER CUTOFFS ON FLOW CHARACTERISTICS AROUND A SQUARE CYLINDER

EFFECT OF CORNER CUTOFFS ON FLOW CHARACTERISTICS AROUND A SQUARE CYLINDER EFFECT OF CORNER CUTOFFS ON FLOW CHARACTERISTICS AROUND A SQUARE CYLINDER Yoichi Yamagishi 1, Shigeo Kimura 1, Makoto Oki 2 and Chisa Hatayama 3 ABSTRACT It is known that for a square cylinder subjected

More information

DYNAMIC STALL AND CAVITATION OF STABILISER FINS AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON THE SHIP BEHAVIOUR

DYNAMIC STALL AND CAVITATION OF STABILISER FINS AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON THE SHIP BEHAVIOUR DYNAMIC STALL AND CAVITATION OF STABILISER FINS AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON THE SHIP BEHAVIOUR Guilhem Gaillarde, Maritime Research Institute Netherlands (MARIN), the Netherlands SUMMARY The lifting characteristics

More information

ZIN Technologies PHi Engineering Support. PHi-RPT CFD Analysis of Large Bubble Mixing. June 26, 2006

ZIN Technologies PHi Engineering Support. PHi-RPT CFD Analysis of Large Bubble Mixing. June 26, 2006 ZIN Technologies PHi Engineering Support PHi-RPT-0002 CFD Analysis of Large Bubble Mixing Proprietary ZIN Technologies, Inc. For nearly five decades, ZIN Technologies has provided integrated products and

More information

DESIGN AND CHARACTERISTICS OF A LARGE BOUNDARY- LAYER WIND TUNNEL WITH TWO TEST SECTIONS

DESIGN AND CHARACTERISTICS OF A LARGE BOUNDARY- LAYER WIND TUNNEL WITH TWO TEST SECTIONS The Seventh Asia-Pacific Conference on Wind Engineering, November 8-12, 2009, Taipei, Taiwan DESIGN AND CHARACTERISTICS OF A LARGE BOUNDARY- LAYER WIND TUNNEL WITH TWO TEST SECTIONS Kai Chen 1, Xin-Yang

More information

Flight Corridor. The speed-altitude band where flight sustained by aerodynamic forces is technically possible is called the flight corridor.

Flight Corridor. The speed-altitude band where flight sustained by aerodynamic forces is technically possible is called the flight corridor. Flight Corridor The speed-altitude band where flight sustained by aerodynamic forces is technically possible is called the flight corridor. The subsonic Boeing 747 and supersonic Concorde have flight corridors

More information

A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF MIX FLOW PUMP IMPELLER CFD ANALYSIS AND EXPERIMENTAL DATA OF SUBMERSIBLE PUMP

A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF MIX FLOW PUMP IMPELLER CFD ANALYSIS AND EXPERIMENTAL DATA OF SUBMERSIBLE PUMP IMPACT: International Journal of Research in Engineering & Technology (IMPACT: IJRET) ISSN 2321-8843 Vol. 1, Issue 3, Aug 2013, 57-64 Impact Journals A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF MIX FLOW PUMP IMPELLER CFD ANALYSIS

More information

Computational Investigation of Airfoils with Miniature Trailing Edge Control Surfaces

Computational Investigation of Airfoils with Miniature Trailing Edge Control Surfaces AIAA-24-5 Computational Investigation of Airfoils with Miniature Trailing Edge Control Surfaces Hak-Tae Lee, Ilan M. Kroo Stanford University, Stanford, CA 9435 Abstract Miniature trailing edge effectors

More information

Design of a Solid Wall Transonic Wind Tunnel

Design of a Solid Wall Transonic Wind Tunnel Design of a Solid Wall Transonic Wind Tunnel David Wall * Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama, 36849 A solid wall transonic wind tunnel was designed with optical access from three sides to allow for flow

More information

Available online at ScienceDirect. Procedia Engineering 126 (2015 )

Available online at  ScienceDirect. Procedia Engineering 126 (2015 ) Available online at www.sciencedirect.com ScienceDirect Procedia Engineering 126 (2015 ) 542 548 7th International Conference on Fluid Mechanics, ICFM7 Terrain effects on characteristics of surface wind

More information

THEORY OF WINGS AND WIND TUNNEL TESTING OF A NACA 2415 AIRFOIL. By Mehrdad Ghods

THEORY OF WINGS AND WIND TUNNEL TESTING OF A NACA 2415 AIRFOIL. By Mehrdad Ghods THEORY OF WINGS AND WIND TUNNEL TESTING OF A NACA 2415 AIRFOIL By Mehrdad Ghods Technical Communication for Engineers The University of British Columbia July 23, 2001 ABSTRACT Theory of Wings and Wind

More information

IMAGE-BASED STUDY OF BREAKING AND BROKEN WAVE CHARACTERISTICS IN FRONT OF THE SEAWALL

IMAGE-BASED STUDY OF BREAKING AND BROKEN WAVE CHARACTERISTICS IN FRONT OF THE SEAWALL IMAGE-BASED STUDY OF BREAKING AND BROKEN WAVE CHARACTERISTICS IN FRONT OF THE SEAWALL Weijie Liu 1 and Yoshimitsu Tajima 1 This study aims to study the breaking and broken wave characteristics in front

More information

AIR POLLUTION DISPERSION INSIDE A STREET CANYON OF GÖTTINGER STRASSE (HANNOVER, GERMANY) NEW RESULTS OF THE ANALYSIS OF FULL SCALE DATA

AIR POLLUTION DISPERSION INSIDE A STREET CANYON OF GÖTTINGER STRASSE (HANNOVER, GERMANY) NEW RESULTS OF THE ANALYSIS OF FULL SCALE DATA AIR POLLUTION DISPERSION INSIDE A STREET CANYON OF GÖTTINGER STRASSE (HANNOVER, GERMANY) NEW RESULTS OF THE ANALYSIS OF FULL SCALE DATA Nicolás Mazzeo and Laura Venegas National Scientific and Technological

More information

Aerofoil Profile Analysis and Design Optimisation

Aerofoil Profile Analysis and Design Optimisation Journal of Aerospace Engineering and Technology Volume 3, Issue 2, ISSN: 2231-038X Aerofoil Profile Analysis and Design Optimisation Kondapalli Siva Prasad*, Vommi Krishna, B.B. Ashok Kumar Department

More information