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2 Section 13.1 Pressure Why study gases? An understanding of real world phenomena. An understanding of how science works. Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 2

3 Section 13.1 Pressure A Gas Uniformly fills any container. Mixes completely with any other gas. Exerts pressure on its surroundings. Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 3

4 Section 13.1 Pressure Pressure force Pr essure = area SI units = Newton/meter 2 = 1 Pascal (Pa) 1 standard atmosphere = 101,325 Pa 1 standard atmosphere = 1 atm = 760 mm Hg = 760 torr Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 4

5 Section 13.1 Pressure Barometer Device used to measure atmospheric pressure. Mercury flows out of the tube until the pressure of the column of mercury standing on the surface of the mercury in the dish is equal to the pressure of the air on the rest of the surface of the mercury in the dish. Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 5

6 Section 13.1 Pressure Manometer Device used for measuring the pressure of a gas in a container. Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 6

8 Section 13.1 Pressure Pressure Conversions: An Example The pressure of a gas is measured as 2.5 atm. Represent this pressure in both torr and pascals. Where are we going? We want to convert from units of atm to units of torr and units of pascals. What do we know? 2.5 atm What information do we need? Equivalence statements for the units. Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 8

9 Section 13.1 Pressure Pressure Conversions: An Example The pressure of a gas is measured as 2.5 atm. Represent this pressure in both torr and pascals. How do we get there? æ760 torr ö 2.5 atm ç = torr è 1 atm ø 3 ( ) æ101,325 Pa ö 2.5 atm ç = Pa è 1 atm ø 5 ( ) Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 9

10 Section 13.1 Pressure Exercise The vapor pressure over a beaker of hot water is measured as 656 torr. What is this pressure in atmospheres? a) 1.16 atm b) atm c) atm d) atm 1 atm 656 torr = atm 760 atm Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 10

14 Section 13.2 Pressure and Volume: Boyle s Law Boyle s Law Pressure and volume are inversely related (constant T, temperature, and n, # of moles of gas). PV = k (k is a constant for a given sample of air at a specific temperature) P V = P V Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 14

15 Section 13.2 Pressure and Volume: Boyle s Law Exercise A sample of helium gas occupies 12.4 L at 23 C and atm. What volume will it occupy at 1.20 atm assuming that the temperature stays constant? 9.88 L P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2 (0.956 atm) (12.4 L) = (1.20 atm) (V 2 ) V 2 = 9.88 L Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 15

17 Section 13.3 Volume and Temperature: Charles s Law Graphing Data for Several Gases It is easier to write an equation for the relationship if the lines intersect the origin of the graph. Use absolute zero for the temperature. Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 17

18 Section 13.3 Volume and Temperature: Charles s Law Charles s Law Volume and Temperature (in Kelvin) are directly related (constant P and n). V=bT (b is a proportionality constant) K = C K is called absolute zero. V T = V T Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 18

19 Section 13.3 Volume and Temperature: Charles s Law Exercise Suppose a balloon containing 1.30 L of air at 24.7 C is placed into a beaker containing liquid nitrogen at 78.5 C. What will the volume of the sample of air become (at constant pressure)? V T L = V 1 2 T 1 2 (1.30 L) (V ) 2 = ( K) ( K) V = L 2 Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 19

21 Section 13.4 Volume and Moles: Avogadro s Law Avogadro s Law Volume and number of moles are directly related (constant T and P). V = an (a is a proportionality constant) n V = n V Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 21

22 Section 13.4 Volume and Moles: Avogadro s Law Exercise If 2.45 mol of argon gas occupies a volume of 89.0 L, what volume will 2.10 mol of argon occupy under the same conditions of temperature and pressure? V n 76.3 L = V n 89.0 L V = mol 2.10 mol V = 76.3 L Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 22

23 Section 13.5 The Ideal Gas Law We can bring all of these laws together into one comprehensive law: V = bt (constant P and n) V = an (constant T and P) k P V = (constant T and n) PV = nrt (where R = L atm/mol K, the universal gas constant) Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 23

24 Section 13.5 The Ideal Gas Law Exercise An automobile tire at 23 C with an internal volume of 25.0 L is filled with air to a total pressure of 3.18 atm. Determine the number of moles of air in the tire mol n PV (3.18 atm)(25.0 L) = = = RT L atm ( )( K) mol K 3.27 mol Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 24

25 Section 13.5 The Ideal Gas Law Exercise What is the pressure in a L tank that contains kg of helium at 25 C? 114 atm P æ 1000 g 1 mol He öæ L atm ö ç kg He ( K) nrt 1 kg g He ç + è mol K ø = = è ø = V ( L) 114 atm Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 25

26 Section 13.5 The Ideal Gas Law Exercise At what temperature (in C) does 121 ml of CO 2 at 27 C and 1.05 atm occupy a volume of 293 ml at a pressure of 1.40 atm? 696 C P V P V (1.05 atm)(121 ml) (1.40 atm)(293 ml) = = = T T ( K) T T = 969 K = 696 C Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 26

27 Section 13.6 Dalton s Law of Partial Pressures For a mixture of gases in a container, P Total = P 1 + P 2 + P The total pressure exerted is the sum of the pressures that each gas would exert if it were alone. Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 27

28 Section 13.6 Dalton s Law of Partial Pressures The pressure of the gas is affected by the number of moles of particles present. The pressure is independent of the nature of the particles. Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 28

29 Section 13.6 Dalton s Law of Partial Pressures Two Crucial Things We Learn From This Are: The volume of the individual particles is not very important. The forces among the particles must not be very important. Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 29

30 Section 13.6 Dalton s Law of Partial Pressures Collecting a Gas Over Water Total pressure is the pressure of the gas + the vapor pressure of the water. Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 30

31 Section 13.6 Dalton s Law of Partial Pressures Collecting a Gas Over Water How can we find the pressure of the gas collected alone? Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 31

32 Section 13.6 Dalton s Law of Partial Pressures Exercise Consider the following apparatus containing helium in both sides at 45 C. Initially the valve is closed. After the valve is opened, what is the pressure of the helium gas? P = 2.25 atm Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 32

33 Section 13.6 Dalton s Law of Partial Pressures Exercise 27.4 L of oxygen gas at 25.0 C and 1.30 atm, and 8.50 L of helium gas at 25.0 C and 2.00 atm were pumped into a tank with a volume of 5.81 L at 25 C. Calculate the new partial pressure of oxygen atm Calculate the new partial pressure of helium atm Calculate the new total pressure of both gases atm Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 33

34 Section 13.7 Laws and Models: A Review Scientific Method A law is a generalization of observed behavior. Laws are useful We can predict behavior of similar systems. Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 34

35 Section 13.7 Laws and Models: A Review A model can never be proved absolutely true. A model is an approximation and is destined to be modified. Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 35

36 Section 13.8 The Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases So far we have considered what happens, but not why. In science, what always comes before why. Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 36

37 Section 13.8 The Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases Postulates of the Kinetic Molecular Theory 1. Gases consist of tiny particles (atoms or molecules). Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 37

38 Section 13.8 The Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases Postulates of the Kinetic Molecular Theory 2. The particles are so small, compared with the distances between them that the volume (size) of the individual particles can be assumed to be negligible (zero). Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 38

39 Section 13.8 The Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases Postulates of the Kinetic Molecular Theory 3. The particles are in constant random motion, colliding with the walls of the container. These collisions with the walls cause the pressure exerted by the gas. Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 39

40 Section 13.8 The Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases Postulates of the Kinetic Molecular Theory 4. The particles are assumed not to attract or to repel each other. Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 40

41 Section 13.8 The Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases Postulates of the Kinetic Molecular Theory 5. The average kinetic energy of the gas particles is directly proportional to the Kelvin temperature of the gas. Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 41

42 Section 13.9 The Implications of the Kinetic Molecular Theory Meaning of temperature Kelvin temperature is directly proportional to the average kinetic energy of the gas particles. Relationship between Pressure and Temperature Gas pressure increases as the temperature increases because the particles speed up. Relationship between Volume and Temperature Volume of a gas increases with temperature because the particles speed up. Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 42

43 Section 13.9 The Implications of the Kinetic Molecular Theory Concept Check You are holding two balloons of the same volume. One contains helium, and one contains hydrogen. Complete each of the following statements with different or the same and be prepared to justify your answer. He H 2 Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 43

44 Section 13.9 The Implications of the Kinetic Molecular Theory Concept Check Complete the following statement with different or the same and be prepared to justify your answer. The pressures of the gas in the two balloons are. the same He H 2 Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 44

45 Section 13.9 The Implications of the Kinetic Molecular Theory Concept Check Complete the following statement with different or the same and be prepared to justify your answer. The temperatures of the gas in the two balloons are. the same He H 2 Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 45

46 Section 13.9 The Implications of the Kinetic Molecular Theory Concept Check Complete the following statement with different or the same and be prepared to justify your answer. The numbers of moles of the gas in the two balloons are. the same He H 2 Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 46

47 Section 13.9 The Implications of the Kinetic Molecular Theory Concept Check Complete the following statement with different or the same and be prepared to justify your answer. The densities of the gas in the two balloons are. different He H 2 Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 47

48 Section 13.9 The Implications of the Kinetic Molecular Theory Concept Check Sketch a graph of: I. Pressure versus volume at constant temperature and moles. Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 48

49 Section 13.9 The Implications of the Kinetic Molecular Theory Concept Check Sketch a graph of: II. Volume vs. temperature (K) at constant pressure and moles. Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 49

50 Section 13.9 The Implications of the Kinetic Molecular Theory Concept Check Sketch a graph of: III. Volume vs. moles at constant temperature and pressure. Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 50

51 Section 13.9 The Implications of the Kinetic Molecular Theory Concept Check V Ne = 2V Ar Ne Which of the following best represents the mass ratio of Ne:Ar in the balloons? a) 1:1 b) 1:2 c) 2:1 d) 1:3 e) 3:1 Ar Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 51

52 Section 13.9 The Implications of the Kinetic Molecular Theory Concept Check You have a sample of nitrogen gas (N 2 ) in a container fitted with a piston that maintains a pressure of 6.00 atm. Initially, the gas is at 45 C in a volume of 6.00 L. You then cool the gas sample. Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 52

53 Section 13.9 The Implications of the Kinetic Molecular Theory Concept Check Which best explains the final result that occurs once the gas sample has cooled? a) The pressure of the gas increases. b) The volume of the gas increases. c) The pressure of the gas decreases. d) The volume of the gas decreases. e) Both volume and pressure change. Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 53

54 Section 13.9 The Implications of the Kinetic Molecular Theory Concept Check The gas sample is then cooled to a temperature of 15 C. Solve for the new condition. (Hint: A moveable piston keeps the pressure constant overall, so what condition will change?) 5.43 L V T = V T 6.00 L V2 = ( ) ( ) V = 5.43 L Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 54

55 Section Gas Stoichiometry Molar Volume of an Ideal Gas For 1 mole of an ideal gas at 0 C and 1 atm, the volume of the gas is L. STP = standard temperature and pressure ( mol)( L atm/k mol)( K) nrt V = = = L P atm 0 C and 1 atm Therefore, the molar volume is L at STP. Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 55

56 Section Gas Stoichiometry Exercise A sample of oxygen gas has a volume of 2.50 L at STP. How many grams of O 2 are present? 3.57 g 1 mol O g O 2.50 L O = 3.57 g O 22.4 L O mol O Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 56

57 Section Gas Stoichiometry Exercise Consider the following reaction: Zn(s) + 2HCl(aq) 2 2 If g of solid zinc reacts with ml of 4.00 M hydrochloric acid, what volume of hydrogen gas is produced at 25 C and 1.00 atm? ZnCl (aq) + H (g) a) L b) 4.89 L c) 5.61 L d) 9.78 L Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 57

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