Walking-Working Surfaces

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1 Walking-Working Surfaces 29 CFR 1910, Subpart D Presented by: Chesapeake Region Safety Council Rod Markley, CSP, CHST, CET Subpart D - Walking-Working Surface Topics we will cover: Background of rule Overview of revisions Timeline to comply Scope & Application Overview of sections Personal Fall Protection Systems ( )

2 Background Walking-Working Surfaces Slips, trips, and falls constitute the majority of general industry incidents About 20% of all disabling occupational injuries result from falls (202,066 serious incidents/year) 15% of all incidental deaths are slip/trip/fall incidents (falls results in 345 fatalities/year) second only to motor vehicles as a cause of fatalities Falls from ladders account for 20% of all fatal and LWD injuries in general industry Background Walking-Working Surfaces Subpart D, Walking-Working Surfaces, was promulgated OSHA Proposed Revision 1976 OSHA Withdrew Proposed Revision 1990 Initial Notice of Proposed Rulemaking 2010 Second Notice of Proposed Rulemaking Comments and Hearing through Cleared OMB 2016 Final Rule January 2017 Effective Date

3 Subpart D Walking-Working Surfaces Purpose of the new Standard: Revises the outdated general industry Walking- Working Surfaces and Personal Protective Equipment (Fall Protection Systems) standards. Reduce slip, trip, and fall hazards, which are a leading cause of worker deaths and lost-workday injuries. OSHA estimates the final rule will prevent 29 worker deaths and 5,842 lost-workday injuries each year. Subpart D - What was revised? Fall protection flexibility Updated scaffold requirements to match OSHA construction standards Phase-in of ladder safety systems or Personal Fall Arrest Systems (PFAS) on fixed ladders Phase-out of qualified climber exception in outdoor advertising Rope descent systems (RDS) and certification of anchorages Personal fall protection system performance and use requirements Inspection of walking-working surfaces Training/retraining and information in manner the worker understands

4 Scope of Subpart D This Subpart applies to all general industry workplaces. It covers all walking-working surfaces unless specifically excluded by an individual section of this subpart. Walking-Working Surface is any horizontal or vertical surface on or through which an employee walks, works, or gains access to a work area or workplace location: Floors Aisles and passageways Ladders Stairways Scaffolds & Rope Descent Systems Elevated Platforms Timeline to Comply with Subpart D January 17, 2017 (60 days from Final Rule) except: Training workers on fall hazards (May 17, 2017) Training workers who use equipment covered by the final rule (May 17, 2017) Inspecting/certifying permanent anchorages for rope descent systems (November 20, 2017) Installing PFAS or ladder safety systems on new fixed ladders over 24 feet and on replacement ladders and sections (November 19, 2018) Ensuring existing fixed ladders over 24 feet (including on outdoor advertising structures) are equipped with a cage, well, PFAS, or ladder safety system (November 19, 2018) Replacing cages and wells (used as fall protection) with ladder safety systems or PFAS on all fixed ladders over 24 feet high (November 18, 2036)

5 Sections of Subpart D Scope & Definitions General Requirements Ladders Step Bolts & Manhole Steps Stairways Dockboards Scaffolds and rope descent systems Duty to have fall protection and falling object protection* Fall protection systems & falling object protection criteria & practices Training requirements Other Applicable Sections of Personal Fall Protection Systems as referenced in Personal fall arrest systems Positioning systems Travel restraint systems Two non-mandatory appendices (C&D) addressing: Appendix C: Planning for, selecting, using and inspecting personal fall arrest systems Appendix D: Test Methods and Procedures for Personal Fall Protection Systems

6 29 CFR General Requirements All places of employment, walking-working surfaces: kept clean, orderly and sanitary Kept free of hazards such as sharp or protruding objects, loose boards, leaks, spills, snow, ice, etc Must support maximum intended loads Provide and ensure safe means of access and egress to and from 29 CFR General Requirements Inspection, maintenance and repair: Regularly and as necessary and maintain in safe condition Correct or repair hazardous conditions before employee uses it again, or else guard to prevent use until fixed When correction/repair involves structural integrity, a qualified person performs or supervises the correction/repair Qualified Person a person who, by possession of a recognized degree, certificate, or professional standing, or who by extensive knowledge, training and experience has successfully demonstrated the ability to solve or resolve problems relating to the subject matter, the work or the project

7 29 CFR Ladders Covers all ladders except: Those used in emergency operations Designed into or integral part of machines or equipment

8 29 CFR General Requirements Ladders with structural or other defects must be immediately tagged Dangerous: Do Not Use or with similar language and removed from service until repaired or replaced Employees must face ladder when climbing up/down Employees must use at least one hand while climbing up or down Employee cannot carry objects/loads that could cause them to lose balance and fall while climbing up or down 29 CFR Ladders In addition to the General Requirements, Specific requirements for: Portable ladders Fixed Ladders Mobile ladder stands

9 29 CFR Step Bolts Environment where corrosion may occur, step bolts must be coated with material to protect against corrosion Designed, constructed and maintained to prevent employee s foot from slipping of end of step bolt Uniform spaced at least 12, not more than 18 Designed to support maximum intended load; installed after 1/17/17, support four times maximum intended load Must be inspected at start of worksift and maintained 29 CFR Manhole Steps Designed to support maximum intended load Has corrugated/knurled/dimpled or surface to minimize slipping Environment where corrosion may occur, constructed or coated with material to protect against corrosion Minimum clear step width of 10 Uniformly spaced not more than 16 vertically Inspected at start of workshift and maintained

10 29 CFR Stairways 29 CFR Stairways Covers all types (standard, spiral, ship, alternating tread-type stairs) except those serving floating roof tanks, scaffolds, and those designed into machines or on self-propelled motorized equipment Handrails, stair rail systems, and guardrail systems must meet the standards in Must have uniform risers and tread depth between landings Spiral, ship or alt-tread stairs used only when demonstrated not feasible to use standard stairs, and installed, used and maintained IAW manufacturer s instructions Standard stairs installed before 1/17/17 meet Table D-1; installed after 1/17/17, must meet paragraph (c)

11 29 CFR Dockboards Capable of supporting maximum intended load Installed after 1/17/17, must be designed, constructed, and maintained to prevent transfer vehicles from running off dockboard edge When demonstrates there is no hazard of running off dockboard edge, may eliminate run-off protection 29 CFR Dockboards Portable dockboards must be secured by anchoring them in place or using devices to prevent from moving out of safe position unless demonstrates infeasibility, in which case must ensure there is sufficient contact between dockboard and surface to prevent movement out of safe position Measures (chocks, sand shoes etc.) must be used to prevent transport vehicle on which dockboard is placed from moving while on dockboard Portable dockboards must be equipped with handholds or other means to permit safe handling of dockboards

12 29 CFR Scaffolds Scaffolds must meet requirements in 29 CFR 1926, Subpart L General Requirements for Scaffolds Capacity Scaffold Platform Construction Criteria for Supported Scaffolds Criteria for Suspended Scaffolds Access Requirements Use Requirements Fall Protection Requirements Falling Object Protection 29 CFR Rope Descent Systems

13 29 CFR Rope Descent Systems Before use, building owner must inform Employer in writing that owner has identified, tested, certified and maintained each anchorage so it is capable of supporting at least 5,000 lbs in any direction for each worker attached Information must be based on annual inspection by qualified person and certification of each anchorage as necessary and at least every 10 years Employer must ensure employee does not use anchorage before receiving the written information from owner; must be kept for duration of job Requirements above must be implement by 11/20/2017 Cannot use RDS for heights greater than 300 feet unless demonstrate infeasibility of other means RDS must be used IAW manufacturer instructions, warnings and limitations Employees must be trained under CFR Duty to Have Fall Protection/Falling Object Protection Must provide protection for each employee exposed to: Falls Falling object hazards

14 29 CFR Duty to Have Fall Protection Does NOT apply to: Portable ladders When inspecting, investigating, or assessing workplace prior/after work (unless Fall Protection Systems have been installed and available for workers to use) Exposed perimeters of entertainment stages and rail-station platforms Powered platforms covered by Aerial lifts covered by Telecommunications work covered by (n)(7)&(8) Electric power generation, transmission and distribution work covered by (g)(2)(i) 29 CFR Duty to Have Fall Protection Unless otherwise addressed, must provide fall protection: Examples include: Guardrail systems Stair rails/handrails Safety net systems Designated Areas Personal fall protection systems Personal Fall Arrest Systems (PFAS) Travel restraint systems Positioning systems

15 29 CFR Duty to Have Fall Protection (Infeasibility) If not feasible to comply on residential roofs, must develop and implement fall protection plan meeting (k) and training pursuant to (a) and (c) If not feasible to comply on the working side of a loading rack, loading dock, or teeming platform, employer must ensure: Only when work activity is in process Access to platform is only allowed to authorized employees Authorized employees are trained IAW CFR Duty to Have Fall Protection Employer must protect from fall hazards 4 or more above lower levels: Unprotected sides and edges Hoist Areas Holes* Dockboards Runways and similar walkways Dangerous equipment* Openings Repair pits, service pits and assembly pits*

16 29 CFR Duty to Have Fall Protection Employer must protect from fall hazards 4 or more above lower levels (cont.): Fixed ladders* Outdoor advertising* Stairways* Scaffolds* and rope descent systems Work on low-slope roofs Slaughtering facility platforms Walking-working surfaces not otherwise addressed 29 CFR Falling Object Protection Employees exposed to falling objects must be protected: Must wear head protection meeting requirements of Subpart I Additionally, the employer must implement one or more of the following: Provide toeboards, screens, or guardrail system Provide canopy structures and keep potential falling objects far enough from edge Provide barricades keeping workers from entering area and keep potential falling objects far enough from edge

17 29 CFR Fall Protection Systems Criteria and Practices Ensure each Fall Protection System and Falling Object Protection, other than Personal Fall Protection Systems, meet the criteria in this section: Guardrail systems Safety Net Systems Designated Areas requires warning line system Covers Handrails and stair rail systems Cages, wells, and platforms used with fixed ladders 29 CFR Fall Protection Systems Criteria and Practices (cont.) Outdoor advertising -unique provisions when employee climbs fixed ladders w/o fall protection, must demonstrate physical capability for climbing fixed ladders without fall protection; complete training or apprenticeship program including hands-on training on safe climbing; performs climbing duties as part of routine work activity Ladder safety systems Personal fall protection systems (PFAS, travel restraint systems, positioning systems) must meet Protection from falling objects toeboards, paneling or screens, canopies Grab handles

18 29 CFR Training Requirements By 5/17/17 Before employees are exposed to fall hazards, employers must: Train workers who use Personal Fall Protection Systems Train workers where required by Subpart D Employees must be trained by a qualified person in: The nature of fall hazards in work area and how to recognize them Procedures to minimize fall hazards Correct procedures for installing, inspecting, operating, maintaining and disassembling Personal Fall Protection Systems 29 CFR Training Requirements (cont.) Correct use of fall protection systems as specified by the Manufacture: Proper hook up Anchoring Tie-off techniques Inspection and storage Must also train on use, care, inspection and storage of equipment covered by Subpart D: Dockboards Rope descent systems Designated areas

19 29 CFR Training Requirements Worker must be retrained when: A change in workplace operations; Changes in equipment; or Inadequacies of knowledge or skill Training must be provided in language and vocabulary that worker will understand 29 CFR Personal Fall Protection Systems Section provides criteria for performance, care, and use of Personal Fall Protection Systems Employer must ensure that each system meets the requirements of this section. Includes: Definitions General requirements for anchorages Personal Fall Arrest Systems (PFAS) Fall restraint systems Positioning systems

20 Walking-Working Surfaces - Review OSHA expects employers to: Inspect and maintain the work place to prevent employees from slip, trip and fall hazards Keep floors in work areas clean and, so far as possible, a dry condition Inspect and provide working conditions that are free of known fall dangers Utilize guardrail or other permissible systems to engineer out fall hazards where possible, but otherwise effectively use Personal Fall Protection Systems, train workers on use, maintain, inspect equipment Provide appropriate ladders, stairways, scaffolds, etc to allow workers to safely access work areas Train workers in a language that they can understand about slip, trip and fall hazards and PPE use Subpart D - Walking-Working Surface Topics we have covered: Background of rule Overview of revisions Timeline to comply Scope & Application Overview of sections Personal Fall Protection Systems ( )

21 Summary Incorporates advances in technology, industry best practices and National Consensus Standards Allows employers to select the fall protection system that works best for them including personal fall protection systems. Addresses Slip/Trip/Fall hazard prevention Walking-Working Surfaces 29 CFR 1910, Subpart D Thank You! Presented by: Chesapeake Region Safety Council Rod Markley, CSP, CHST, CET

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