Report to the Benjamin Hair-Just Swim For Life Foundation on JACS4 The Jefferson Area Community Survey

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1 Report to the Benjamin Hair-Just Swim For Life Foundation on JACS4 The Jefferson Area Community Survey Prepared by: Kara Fitzgibbon, M.A. Research Analyst Matthew Braswell, M.A. Research Analyst Yuliya Dudaronak, M.A. Research Analyst Kathryn F. Wood, Ph.D. Project Director Thomas M. Guterbock, Ph.D. Director February 2014 Weldon Cooper Center for Public Service University of Virginia CSR Project 13.16

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4 BENJAMIN HAIR-JUST SWIM FOR LIFE I. Introduction Purpose The fourth edition of the Jefferson Area Community Survey was conducted by the Center for Survey Research (CSR) at the University of Virginia. This omnibus telephone survey of 904 randomly selected individuals living in Charlottesville City, Albemarle County, Nelson County, Fluvanna County, Greene County, and Louisa County was conducted in the fall of 2013, with all production-phase calling completed between November 2013 and January The JACS is designed to offer area non-profit groups, government agencies, and academic researchers a cost-effective way to gather regional information from a representative sample of area residents. Benjamin Hair-Just Swim for Life sponsored a series of questions on the JACS to learn more about swimming skill and access in our community. Reporting of JACS results is abbreviated to keep costs down, with each client report containing the following sections: Introduction. This section presents a summary of methods and a demographic profile of respondents from either the sample as a whole or their particular subsample. Results. This section presents frequencies as well as demographic crosstabulations for client-sponsored variables. Appendix A Questionnaire. This section presents the questionnaire for the JACS as a whole. Appendix B Methods. Appendix C Open-ended Responses. Summary of Methods The JACS is conducted by telephone in order to ensure the broadest possible representation of the region. The survey used a triple-frame sample design, combining a landline-based Random Digit Dial (RDD) sample, a sample of directory-listed landline households, and a RDD sample of cell-phone numbers from the region. We conducted all interviews from CSR's Computer-Aided Telephone Interviewing (CATI) laboratory in Charlottesville, Virginia. Production interviews were conducted from November 21, 2013 through January 14, The interviewing staff was composed of carefully trained personnel, most of whom had prior experience as CSR interviewers in similar studies Based on a total of 904 respondents answering the overall quality of life question, the survey has a sampling error of plus or minus 4.25 percentage points. 1 Subgroup Analysis The responses were broken out and analyzed by several demographic categories. The demographic variables listed below were those principally used in our subgroup analysis. In some cases, categories were combined to facilitate comparison. Area of Residence. Comparisons were made between respondents from the City of Charlottesville, Albemarle County, Louisa County, Fluvanna County, Greene County, and Nelson County. Gender. Women were compared with men. Age. Age was divided into five categories: 18-25, 26-37, 38-49, 50-64, and over 64. Education level. Comparisons were made between persons with some high school, high school graduates, some college, four-year degrees, some graduate work, and professional and doctorate degrees. 1 This estimate of the margin of error does not take into account other potential sources of error such as coverage error and measurement error. 2 University of Virginia

5 Household income. Four categories of self-reported annual household incomes were compared: less than $35,000; $35,000 -$49,999; $50,000 - $74,999; and more than $75,000. Race/ethnicity. Whites, Blacks, Hispanics, Asians and others were compared. Although combined into a single variable for purposes of reporting, two separate questions in the interview ask about race and ethnicity. 2 Home ownership. Respondents who own their homes were compared to those who rent or have other means of accessing housing. Demographic Profile Responses were weighted such that the county of residence breakdown for the sample mirrors that of the entire population of Charlottesville, Albemarle County, Louisa County, Fluvanna County, Greene County and Nelson County, as indicated in Figure I-1. 3 Figure I-1: County Profile The gender breakdown of the weighted sample is presented in Figure I-2. Women make up 54.8 percent of respondents in our weighted sample. Figure I-2: Gender Profile 2 Respondents are first asked if they consider themselves to be of Hispanic origin. They are then asked to choose what category of race best describes you, using a list that does not include Hispanic as a race. This follows the definition in the U.S. Census, which considers Hispanic to be an ethnic category and makes clear that Hispanics can be of any race. However, many Hispanic respondents take a different view and when asked to state their race insist that they are Hispanic (or Latino). These respondents are classified in our survey as Hispanic on the race question. In the graphs in this report that display race and ethnicity jointly, the Hispanic bar represents respondents who describe their race and/or their ethnicity as Hispanic or Latino. As indicated in Figure I-3, slightly under one third (31.2%) of respondents are aged in our weighted sample. Approximately one fifth (20.3%) are 64 or older and one tenth (10.0%) are aged (Note that these categories cover age ranges of different sizes: eight years in the case of the group, fifteen years in the case of the group, and twenty-eight years in the case of the over 64 group.) 3 Based on the American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates. As our calling slightly oversampled Charlottesville City and Albemarle Country relative to population size, only 618 weighted responses are from these two areas.

6 BENJAMIN HAIR-JUST SWIM FOR LIFE Figure I-3: Age Profile Figure I-5: Income Profile (4 categories) As indicated in Figure I-4, our weighted sample of respondents is considerably more highly educated than the US population as a whole with 27.5 percent of respondents having completed at least some graduate education, and almost three fourths of respondents (74.8%) having completed at least some college. Figure I-4: Education Profile (6 categories) Slightly more than four fifths (80.7%) of respondents in the weighted sample identified themselves as white, 10.8 percent as black, 4.5 percent as something else, and 1.7 percent identified as Asian. As noted above, respondents were also asked what race they considered themselves to be, and, in a separate question, whether they considered themselves to be Hispanic. 2.3 percent of respondents identified their race and/or their ethnicity as Hispanic or Latino. Figure I-6: Race / Ethnicity Profile (5 categories) In terms of household income, approximately two fifths (41.6%) of respondents in the weighted sample were in the highest income category of over $75,000 per year, and slightly more than one quarter (27.1%) of respondents were in the lowest income category of under $35,000 per year. 4 University of Virginia

7 Finally, as indicated in Figure I-7, approximately seven out of ten respondents (70.9%) in the weighted sample own their own homes. Figure I-7: Do you own or rent your residence?

8 BENJAMIN HAIR-JUST SWIM FOR LIFE II. Results: Adults The fourth Jefferson Area Community Survey (JACS4) includes 10 questions sponsored by the Benjamin Hair Just Swim for Life Foundation. The questions gauge the ability of respondents and their children to swim and explore possible reasons why they may not be able to swim very well or at all. Adults Ability to Swim The first question reads as follows: How would you describe your ability to swim? Four alternative responses were presented to the respondents: not being able to swim at all, able to swim a little in deep water, able to swim the length of a 25 yard pool, and able to swim confidently more than 25 yards. Because all of the respondents on the JACS are adults, this question gauges the swimming ability of adults in our region. As shown in Figure II-1, over half of the respondents (56.1%) indicated that they can swim confidently more than 25 yards, and another 19.9 percent indicated that they could swim the length of a 25-yard pool. A combined total of approximately one quarter of respondents indicated that they could swim only a little in deep water (9.6%) or could not swim at all (14.5%). Figure II-1: How would you describe your ability to swim? 6 University of Virginia

9 Reasons for Limited Swimming Abilities among Adults The following questions address key factors that might influence respondents ability to swim. The respondents were asked which of the following factors might have played a role in limiting their ability to swim. Figures II-2, III-3, and III-4 display the results for adults who cannot swim, can swim a little, and combined results for those who cannot swim or can swim a little. As shown in Figure II-2, over half of respondents (51.1%) indicated that they never learned to swim as a child as a reason for not being able to swim. A little over forty percent cite being afraid of water as a factor. Having no pool or lake nearby is an issue for 13 percent of respondents, and almost the same number of adults (12%) has no time for swimming. Figure II-2: Key reasons for not being able to swim about one fifth of the respondents (21.4% and 21.8%, respectively). Figure II-3: Key reasons for only being able to swim a little Figure II-4 combines responses for those who cannot swim and those who can only swim a little to provide a comprehensive picture for respondents limited ability to swim. As shown in Figure II-4, the single most common reason for limited swimming abilities is never learning to swim as a child. Close to a third of respondents (29.8%) cite being afraid of water as a reason. Physical disability is a reason for 9.7% respondents. Figure II-3 demonstrates that the largest group of adults who can only swim a little cite Other as the main reason for not being able to swim better. Almost a quarter of respondents (23.1%) indicated that the reason is that they never learned to swim as child. No pool or lake close by and No time for swimming emerged as important reasons for

10 BENJAMIN HAIR-JUST SWIM FOR LIFE Figure II-4: Key reasons for not being able to swim or only being able to swim a little Subgroup Analysis The tables on the following pages indicate how the responses to the questions break down by subgroups in the sample of respondents, according to: a) county/independent city, b) age, c) gender, d) education, e) income, f) race and g) homeowner status. Table 1 indicates the responses for swim ability. The first row of Table 1 shows the exact same Total results as does Figure II-1 above. Results show that Blacks and Asians report considerably less confidence in their swimming ability than do Whites, Hispanics, and respondents who identify with another racial group. Men are more confident swimmers than are women. Educational attainment and income both demonstrate a positive correlation with swimming ability. 8 University of Virginia

11 Tables 2 through 9 indicate the demographic breakdown for reasons respondents gave for not being able to swim at all or for swimming only a little. Table 2 shows the demographic breakdown for those respondents who indicated that the reason for their limited swimming ability is being afraid of water. Compared with those in other areas, respondents in Nelson and Greene County were most likely to cite being afraid of water as a reason for their limited ability to swim. Those citing being afraid of water were also most likely to be between 38 and 49 years old and earn $35k to $50k. There is a correlation between one s education level and being afraid of water, with over 40% of respondents with less than high school education citing this factor, while only 7.2% of respondents with some graduate school did the same. There is a pronounced difference based upon gender and race, with female respondents more likely than male respondents to include being afraid of water as a reason (32.7% versus 19.3%). Asian respondents in particular were substantially more likely than members of all other racial and ethnic groups (White, Hispanic, Asian, and Other) to report this factor. A third of respondents who rent their residences have limited swimming abilities because they are afraid of water, compared with about a quarter of those who own their residence. Table 3 is the breakdown of different demographics variables for respondents who indicated that their limited swimming ability is due to never learning to swim as a child. Over half of the respondents in Greene and Nelson County cite this as a reason for not being to swim or only being able to swim a little. Over two thirds of respondents under 25 years of years choose this as a reason, and men and women are equally likely to never learn to swim as a child. There is a correlation between level of education and the likelihood of never learning to swim as a child, with almost half of respondents with less than high school education choosing this as a factor, while only 22.2% of those with advanced degrees do the same. Asians are the most likely to choose not learning as a child as a reason for their limited ability to swim, while White and Black respondents have an equal likelihood of choosing this as a reason. Table 4 shows the demographic characteristics of respondents who chose No pool or lake close by as one of the reasons for not being able to swim at all or well. About a third of residents of Greene and Nelson countries cite this as one of the reasons. Having no pool or lake nearby is more likely to be an issue for younger respondents, especially for the group under 25 years old. There is no pronounced difference by gender. The influence of education and income variables is split, with groups on both lower and higher levels reporting that limited availability of pools and/or lakes prevented them from learning to swim. For education, it means that almost a quarter of high school graduates and a close to a third of PhDs cite this as a reason. Within income category, those earning under $35k and between $50k and $75k are most likely to include this reason. Over half of those who identify as Hispanics or Other race category chose this reason for not being able to swim. Table 5 provides demographic profiles for adults who indicated that they cannot swim better because swimming is too expensive. Almost a third of Greene County residents cite expense as a reason for not being able to swim at all or swim well. The expense associated with swimming is a much bigger issue for those who are younger (33.7%), less educated, and earn less than $35k. Hispanics are much more likely than any other racial or ethnic

12 BENJAMIN HAIR-JUST SWIM FOR LIFE group to cite expense as a reason for not swimming. Table 6 shows demographic characteristics of respondents who chose Don t like to wear a swimsuit as one of the factors. The residents of Fluvanna and Louisa Counties are somewhat more likely to report the dislike for wearing a swimsuit as a reason for limited swimming ability. Respondents under 25 years of age are the least likely to choose this as an issue. There is a profound difference by gender, with male respondents being twice more likely than females to cite discomfort over wearing a swimming suite as a factor in their swimming ability. This discomfort is also an issue for those with some college and a 4 year degree. A third of respondents earning between $50k and $75k reported this being a factor. Whites and those identifying as Other race category are the most likely to include this reason in their answer. Table 7 shows demographic information for respondents who included time pressure as one of the reasons for not being able to swim better. A third of Fluvanna residents report time constrains as a reason for the inability to swim well. Having no time for swimming becomes more of an issue as respondents get older, with a full quarter of those between 38 and 49 years of age citing it as one of the reasons. Those with some college and some graduate work are the most likely to be too busy to learn how to swim well. Higher levels of income correlate with having less time to swim. Asians and those identifying as Other are the most likely to cite lack of time as a reason, while Whites and Blacks have reported similar levels of being too busy to swim. Table 8 describes demographic characteristics of respondents who have a physical disability that prevented them from swimming. Over a quarter of residents of Nelson County are affected by disability that prevents them from learning how to swim well. Age is a significant factor, with disability being an issue for 6.6% of those between 50 and 65 years old, and almost one fifth of those over 64 years old. Respondents with less than high school education cite disability as a reason at the same rate as those with some graduate work (a little over 17% each). Respondents earning less than $35k are the most likely to struggle with disability that prevents them from swimming well. Those who identify as members of Other racial category are the most likely to city physical disability as a factor. Table 9 gives demographic information about the respondents who indicated that they have other reasons limiting their ability to swim well. Almost half of Fluvanna County and a third of Charlottesville City residents report having other reasons preventing them from swimming well. These respondents are more likely to be older, more educated, earn more, and own their residence. The largest racial and ethnic group for this category is Hispanics (33.2%), while Whites and Blacks are equally likely to choose Other as a reason (a little under 25% each group). Appendix C provides a complete list of openended responses to the Swim for Life questions, including the Other reasons respondents provided for why they could not swim very well or at all. Among the most common are a lack of desire to swim and past traumatic experiences involving water. 10 University of Virginia

13 Table 1: How would you describe your ability to swim? You cannot swim at all Count Row N % You can swim a little in deep water Count Row N % Ability to swim You can swim the length of a 25-yard pool Count Row N % You can swim confidently more than 25 yards Count Row N % Count Total % % % % % County of residence Age Gender Education Income Race Do you own or rent your residence? Total Row N % Albemarle % % % % % Greene % 4 6.1% % % % Fluvanna % 6 6.4% % % % Nelson % 4 6.2% 3 5.0% % % Louisa % 9 7.1% % % % Charlottesville % % % % % % 5 5.3% % % % % % % % % % 4 2.9% % % % % % % % % Over % % % % % Male % % % % % Female % % % % % Less than HS % % % % % High School grad % % % % % Some college % % % % % 4 year degree % % % % % Grad work 5 2.5% % % % % Adv Grad/PhD 3 4.0% 3 5.3% % % % Up to $35k % % % % % $35k to $50k % % % % % $50k to $75k % % % % % Over $75k % % % % % White % % % % % Black % % % % % Hispanic % % 1 3.6% % % Asian % % 1 5.3% 0 0.0% % Other % % 4 9.7% % % Owns [Dwelling is owneroccupied] % % % % % Rents % % % % % Other 1 2.8% % % % %

14 BENJAMIN HAIR-JUST SWIM FOR LIFE Table 2: Why can t you swim or swim better? Afraid of Water Afraid of water Selected Not selected Total Count Row N % Count Row N % Count Row N % Total % % % County of residence Age (5 Categories) Gender Education (6 Categories) Income (4 Categories) Race (5 Categories) Do you own or rent your residence? Albemarle % % % Greene % % % Fluvanna % % % Nelson % % % Louisa % % % Charlottesville % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % Over % % % Male % % % Female % % % Less than HS % % % High School grad % % % Some college % % % 4 year degree % % % Grad work 1 7.2% % % Adv Grad/PhD % % % Up to $35k % % % $35k to $50k % % % $50k to $75k % % % Over $75k % % % White % % % Black % % % Hispanic 0 0.0% % % Asian % % % Other % % % Owns [Dwelling is owner-occupied] % % % Rents % % % Other 1 9.5% % % 12 University of Virginia

15 Table 3: Why can t you swim or swim better? Never Learned as a Child Never learned as a child Selected Not selected Total Count Row N % Count Row N % Count Row N % Total % % % County of residence Age (5 Categories) Gender Education (6 Categories) Income (4 Categories) Race (5 Categories) Do you own or rent your residence? Albemarle % % % Greene % % % Fluvanna % % % Nelson % % % Louisa % % % Charlottesville % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % Over % % % Male % % % Female % % % Less than HS % % % High School grad % % % Some college % % % 4 year degree % % % Grad work % % % Adv Grad/PhD % % % Up to $35k % % % $35k to $50k % % % $50k to $75k % % % Over $75k % % % White % % % Black % % % Hispanic % % % Asian % % % Other 0 0.0% % % Owns [Dwelling is owner-occupied] % % % Rents % % % Other 1 9.5% % %

16 BENJAMIN HAIR-JUST SWIM FOR LIFE Table 4: Why can t you swim or swim better? No Pool or Lake Close By No pool or lake close by Selected Not selected Total Count Row N % Count Row N % Count Row N % Total % % % County of residence Age (5 Categories) Gender Education (6 Categories) Income (4 Categories) Race (5 Categories) Do you own or rent your residence? Albemarle % % % Greene % % % Fluvanna % % % Nelson % % % Louisa % % % Charlottesville 4 7.1% % % % % % % % % % % % % % % Over % % % Male % % % Female % % % Less than HS 3 9.5% % % High School grad % % % Some college % % % 4 year degree 1 3.2% % % Grad work 0 2.3% % % Adv Grad/PhD % % % Up to $35k % % % $35k to $50k 0 1.7% % % $50k to $75k % % % Over $75k 1 4.2% % % White % % % Black % % % Hispanic % % % Asian 0 0.0% % % Other % % % Owns [Dwelling is % % % owner-occupied] Rents % % % Other % % % 14 University of Virginia

17 Table 5: Why can t you swim or swim better? Too Expensive Too expensive Selected Not selected Total Count Row N % Count Row N % Count Row N % Total % % % County of residence Age (5 Categories) Gender Education (6 Categories) Income (4 Categories) Race (5 Categories) Do you own or rent your residence? Albemarle 6 7.1% % % Greene % % % Fluvanna 2 6.2% % % Nelson % % % Louisa 0 0.0% % % Charlottesville 1 1.5% % % % % % % % % % % % % % % Over % % % Male 0 0.6% % % Female % % % Less than HS % % % High School grad % % % Some college 1 2.8% % % 4 year degree 0 1.1% % % Grad work 0 0.0% % % Adv Grad/PhD 0 6.3% % % Up to $35k % % % $35k to $50k 1 3.8% % % $50k to $75k 2 5.0% % % Over $75k 0 1.0% % % White 7 5.9% % % Black 3 4.7% % % Hispanic % % % Asian 0 0.0% % % Other 0 0.0% % % Owns [Dwelling is 6 4.6% % % owner-occupied] Rents 4 4.9% % % Other % % %

18 BENJAMIN HAIR-JUST SWIM FOR LIFE Table 6: Why can t you swim or swim better? Don t Like to Wear a Swimsuit Don't like to wear a swimsuit Selected Not selected Total Count Row N % Count Row N % Count Row N % Total % % % County of residence Age (5 Categories) Gender Education (6 Categories) Income (4 Categories) Race (5 Categories) Do you own or rent your residence? Albemarle 7 9.4% % % Greene 0 0.0% % % Fluvanna % % % Nelson 1 9.4% % % Louisa % % % Charlottesville 5 9.3% % % % % % % % % % % % % % % Over % % % Male % % % Female % % % Less than HS 0 1.8% % % High School grad 7 8.3% % % Some college % % % 4 year degree % % % Grad work 1 9.6% % % Adv Grad/PhD 0 0.0% % % Up to $35k 5 6.8% % % $35k to $50k 0 1.7% % % $50k to $75k % % % Over $75k 2 7.6% % % White % % % Black 0 0.7% % % Hispanic 0 0.0% % % Asian 0 3.3% % % Other % % % Owns [Dwelling is % % % owner-occupied] Rents % % % Other 0 7.1% % % 16 University of Virginia

19 Table 7: Why can t you swim or swim better? No Time for Swimming No time for swimming Selected Not selected Total Count Row N % Count Row N % Count Row N % Total % % % County of residence Age Gender Education Income Race Do you own or rent your residence? Albemarle % % % Greene % % % Fluvanna 2 5.1% % % Nelson 1 9.0% % % Louisa % % % Charlottesville % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % Over % % % Male % % % Female % % % Less than HS 1 3.8% % % High School grad % % % Some college % % % 4 year degree % % % Grad work % % % Adv Grad/PhD 0 0.0% % % Up to $35k 7 9.2% % % $35k to $50k % % % $50k to $75k % % % Over $75k % % % White % % % Black % % % Hispanic 0 0.0% % % Asian % % % Other % % % Owns [Dwelling is % % % owner-occupied] Rents % % % Other 0 0.0% % %

20 BENJAMIN HAIR-JUST SWIM FOR LIFE Table 8: Why can t you swim or swim better? Physical Disability Physical disability Selected Not selected Total Count Row N % Count Row N % Count Row N % Total % % % County of residence Age Gender Education Income Race Do you own or rent your residence? Albemarle 6 7.3% % % Greene 1 4.9% % % Fluvanna % % % Nelson % % % Louisa 3 9.2% % % Charlottesville 4 8.3% % % % % % % % % % % % % % % Over % % % Male 4 5.9% % % Female % % % Less than HS % % % High School grad 7 9.4% % % Some college 1 1.6% % % 4 year degree 1 2.8% % % Grad work % % % Adv Grad/PhD 0 7.2% % % Up to $35k % % % $35k to $50k 1 3.3% % % $50k to $75k 2 5.9% % % Over $75k 1 2.8% % % White % % % Black 4 5.7% % % Hispanic 0 0.0% % % Asian 0 0.0% % % Other % % % Owns [Dwelling is % % % owner-occupied] Rents 7 9.5% % % Other % % % 18 University of Virginia

21 Table 9: Why can t you swim or swim better? Other Other Selected Not selected Total Count Row N % Count Row N % Count Row N % Total % % % County of residence Age Gender Education Income Race Do you own or rent your residence? Albemarle % % % Greene 1 4.3% % % Fluvanna % % % Nelson % % % Louisa 2 6.9% % % Charlottesville % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % Over % % % Male % % % Female % % % Less than HS % % % High School grad % % % Some college % % % 4 year degree % % % Grad work % % % Adv Grad/PhD % % % Up to $35k % % % $35k to $50k % % % $50k to $75k % % % Over $75k % % % White % % % Black % % % Hispanic % % % Asian 0 0.0% % % Other 1 7.5% % % Owns [Dwelling is % % % owner-occupied] Rents % % % Other 0 0.0% % %

22 BENJAMIN HAIR-JUST SWIM FOR LIFE III. Results: Children A subgroup of questions sponsored by the Ben Hair Swim for Life Foundation asked respondents about the ability of their children to swim. The questions pertained only to children ages 4 through 17. Demographic Profile In asking questions about children s swimming ability, the interviewers asked respondents to answer the questions with the oldest child living at their home in mind. The following two demographic tables provide gender and age data for the children about whom respondents answered these questions. As indicated in Figure I-31, girls and boys are represented equally in the sample. Figure III-1: Gender Profile Figure III-2: Age Profile As show in Figure III-3, approximately nine out of ten children in the sample do not receive free or reduced cost school lunches. Figure III-3: School Lunch Profile As shown in Figure IIII-2, each age group represents approximately a third of the sample. 20 University of Virginia

23 Children s Ability to Swim The first question reads as follows: How would you describe the ability of this child to swim? This question gauges the swimming ability of the oldest child in the family. As shown in Figure III-4, close to half of the respondents (45.4%) indicated that their oldest child can swim confidently more than 25 yards, and another 19.4 percent indicated that he/she could swim the length of a 25-yard pool. A combined total of approximately one third of respondents indicated that the child could swim only a little in deep water (22.5%) or could not swim at all (12.7%). of water. Over a third of respondents (36.5%) cited not having a close place for the child to swim at as a reason. Another third of responds (31.2%) offered not having enough time to take child for lessons is an explanation. Figure III-5: Key reasons for the child not being able to swim Figure III-4: How would you describe the ability of the child to swim? Figure III-6 demonstrates that parents of children who can only swim a little cite Other and No time for lessons as two main reasons for the child not being able to swim better (41.6% and 36% respectively). No pool or lake close is an influence for about one sixth of the respondents. Figure III-6: Key reasons for the child only being able to swim a little Reasons for Limited Swimming Abilities among Children The following questions address key reasons that might influence children s ability to swim. The respondent was asked which of the following factors might explain the oldest child s ability to swim. Figures III-5, III-6, and III-7 display the results for children who cannot swim, can swim a little, and combined results for those who cannot swim or can swim a little. As shown in Figure II-1 III-5, almost 40 percent of respondents (38.2%) indicated that the child cannot swim because he/she is afraid Figure VI-3 combines responses for those whose oldest child cannot swim or can only

24 BENJAMIN HAIR-JUST SWIM FOR LIFE swim a little. As shown in Figure III-7, the two main reasons cited by the responds to explain their child s limited ability to swim were No time to take child for lessons (34.2%) and Other (32%). Almost a quarter (23.5%) of respondents indicated that not having a place to swim close by is a factor. One fifth of respondents (21.4%) cite the child being afraid of water as a reason. Figure III-7: Key reasons for the child not being able to swim or only being able to swim a little. Subsequent rows of Table 1 break responses down by: a) respondent s county/independent city, b) age of the oldest child, c) gender of the oldest child, d) respondent s education, e) respondent s income, f) respondent s race, g) respondent s homeowner status, and h) oldest child s participation in school lunch program. The tables therefore display results broken down by three demographic variables that describe the child (age, gender, and school lunch) and five demographic variables that describe the parent/respondent (county, education, income, race, and homeowner status). Appendix C provides a complete list of openended responses to the Swim for Life questions, including the Other reasons respondents provided for why their child could not swim very well or at all. Among the most common is the feeling that the child is too young to swim. Table 10 on the following page indicates how responses to the question of swim ability breaks down for different population subgroups. The first row of 10 shows the exact same Total results as does Figure II-1 above. Results show that Blacks and Hispanics report considerably less confidence in their child s swimming ability than do Whites, Asians, and respondents who identify with another racial group. Male children are reported to be more confident swimmers than are females, with over two thirds (68.6%) of boys being able to swim at least the length of a 25-yard pool, while only about sixty percent of girls (59.7%) are able to do the same. Younger children are considerably less likely to be able to swim. Parents income has a positive correlation with child s swimming ability. Children who are on school free lunch program are less likely to be confident swimmers. Subgroup Analysis 22 University of Virginia

25 Table 11 shows the demographic breakdown for those respondents who indicated child being afraid of water as a reason for his or her limited swimming ability. Respondents in Nelson and Louisa County were most likely to cite being afraid of water as a reason for their child s limited ability to swim. Being afraid of water is more likely to be an issue for younger children, especially those between 4 and 8 years old. There is no gender difference in being afraid of water. There is a correlation between parent s income level and being afraid of water, with three forth of respondents who earn less than $50k citing this factor for their child, while only 22.3% of respondents earning over $50k did the same. Black and White respondents report that their child is afraid of water at similar levels. Over a third of respondents who rent their residences indicated that the child s limited swimming abilities is the result being afraid of water, while only one sixth of those who own their residence did the same. Table 12 provides demographic information for those who cited having nowhere close for child to swim as a reason. Roughly half of the respondents in Nelson and Greene Counties and the City of Charlottesville indicate that having no pool or lake nearby limited their child s ability to swim. Parents earning between $35k and $75k are more likely to cite this as an issue for their child than parents on either extreme of the income scale. Parents of girls are somewhat more likely to report this as an influence. There is a profound difference base on whether the child is on a free lunch program, with almost three fourths (73.7%) of these children being limited by availability of a place to swim in. Table 13 shows the demographics for the respondents who chose too expensive for child to swim as one of the factors. Almost half of Charlottesville City residents report that expense is one of the reasons for the child s limited swimming ability. Parents of kids under 8 and over 14 years of age are most likely to include swimming related expenses as a factor. Surprisingly, the correlation between parents income and expense as a reason is rather slight: while 14 percent of those earning under $35k included this reason, so did 12 percent of those in the upper income bracket. However, those whose child is on a free or reduced cost lunch program referenced swimming expenses more often than those, whose child does not receive free or reduced lunch at school. Home-owners (17.9%) were more likely to cite this reason in comparison to those who rent their residence (9.2%). Table 14 provides the demographic profile for those respondents who indicated that they do not have time to take child for swimming lessons. Respondents in the City of Charlottesville (47.7%) and Louisa County (48.3%) were most likely to cite this reason. Over fifty percent of respondents (56.6%) with an oldest child over 14 chose time pressure as a factor, while less than a third (31.6%) of those with kids under 8 and a quarter (23.9%) of those between 9 and 13 years of age chose this explanation. Time pressure is more pronounced for those earning over $75k. There is a profound difference by race, with Black respondents citing this reason about three times more often than Whites (62.8% versus 21.1%). Parents whose child does not receive a free or reduced cost lunch are substantially more likely to cite time pressure as a reason (38.7%), than those whose child is on a free (0%) or reduced cost (21.6%) lunch program at school.

26 BENJAMIN HAIR-JUST SWIM FOR LIFE Table 10: How would you describe your child s ability to swim? [He/She] cannot swim at all Count Row N % [He/She] can swim a little in deep water Count Row N % Child's ability to swim [He/She] can swim the length of a 25-yard pool Count Row N % [He/She] can swim confidently more than 25 yards Count Row N % Total Count Row N % Total % % % % % County of residence Age of oldest child living at home Gender of oldest child living at home Education Income Race Do you own or rent your residence? Child's school lunch program Albemarle % % % % % Greene % % % % % Fluvanna 2 7.0% % % % % Nelson % % 0 4.8% % % Louisa % % % % % Charlottesville 2 6.1% 1 3.1% % % % 4 to % % % % % 9 to % % % % % 14 to % % % % % Male % % % % % Female % % % % % Less than HS % 0 0.0% % % % High School grad % % % % % Some college 5 6.7% % % % % 4 year degree % % % % % Grad work 3 5.3% % % % % Adv Grad/PhD % % 1 7.3% % % Up to $35k 2 5.5% % % % % $35k to $50k % % % % % $50k to $75k % % % % % Over $75k % % % % % White % % % % % Black % % % 1 2.1% % Hispanic % 0 4.0% 1 7.5% % % Asian 0 0.0% 0 0.0% % 0 0.0% % Other 0 0.0% % % % % Owns % % % % % Rents % % % % % Other % % 0 0.0% % % My child is on a free lunch % % % % % program My child is on a reduced cost lunch % % % % % program My child does not receive free or % % % % % reduced cost lunches 24 University of Virginia

27 Table 11: Why can t your oldest child swim or swim better? Child is Afraid of Water Child is afraid of water Selected Not selected Total Count Row N % Count Row N % Count Row N % Total % % % Albemarle 2 4.7% % % Greene % % % County of residence Fluvanna % % % Nelson % % % Louisa % % % Charlottesville 0 0.0% % % Age of oldest child living at home Gender of oldest child living at home Education Income Race Do you own or rent your residence? Child's school lunch program 4 to % % % 9 to % % % 14 to % % % Male % % % Female % % % Less than HS 0 0.0% % % High School grad % % % Some college 2 7.0% % % 4 year degree % % % Grad work % % % Adv Grad/PhD 0 0.0% % % Up to $35k % % % $35k to $50k % % % $50k to $75k 0 0.0% % % Over $75k % % % White % % % Black % % % Hispanic 0 0.0% % % Asian 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 0 0.0% Other 0 0.0% % % Owns [Dwelling is owner-occupied] % % % Rents % % % Other 0 0.0% % % My child is on a free lunch program % % % My child is on a reduced cost lunch % % % program My child does not receive free or reduced % % % cost lunches

28 BENJAMIN HAIR-JUST SWIM FOR LIFE Table 12: Why can t your oldest child swim or swim better? Nowhere close for child to swim Nowhere close for child to swim Selected Not selected Total Count Row N % Count Row N % Count Row N % Total % % % Albemarle % % % Greene % % % County of residence Fluvanna % % % Nelson % % % Louisa % % % Charlottesville % % % Age of oldest child living at home Gender of oldest child living at home Education Income Race Do you own or rent your residence? Child's school lunch program 4 to % % % 9 to % % % 14 to % % % Male % % % Female % % % Less than HS % 0 0.0% % High School grad 2 6.2% % % Some college % % % 4 year degree % % % Grad work 1 9.9% % % Adv Grad/PhD % % % Up to $35k % % % $35k to $50k % % % $50k to $75k % % % Over $75k % % % White % % % Black % % % Hispanic 0 0.0% % % Asian 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 0 0.0% Other 0 0.0% % % Owns [Dwelling is owner-occupied] % % % Rents % % % Other 0 0.0% % % My child is on a free lunch program % % % My child is on a reduced cost lunch 1 9.2% % % program My child does not receive free or reduced % % % cost lunches 26 University of Virginia

29 . Table 13: Why can t your oldest child swim or swim better? Too expensive for child to swim Too expensive for child to swim Selected Not selected Total Count Row N % Count Row N % Count Row N % Total % % % Albemarle % % % Greene 0 4.3% % % County of residence Fluvanna % % % Nelson % % % Louisa % % % Charlottesville % % % Age of oldest child living at home Gender of oldest child living at home Education Income Race Do you own or rent your residence? Child's school lunch program 4 to % % % 9 to % % % 14 to % % % Male % % % Female % % % Less than HS % 0 0.0% % High School grad % % % Some college % % % 4 year degree % % % Grad work % % % Adv Grad/PhD 0 0.0% % % Up to $35k % % % $35k to $50k % % % $50k to $75k 1 5.1% % % Over $75k % % % White % % % Black % % % Hispanic 0 0.0% % % Asian 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 0 0.0% Other 0 0.0% % % Owns [Dwelling is owner-occupied] % % % Rents 2 9.2% % % Other 0 0.0% % % My child is on a free lunch program % % % My child is on a reduced cost lunch % % % program My child does not receive free or reduced % % % cost lunches

30 BENJAMIN HAIR-JUST SWIM FOR LIFE Table 14: Why can t your oldest child swim or swim better? No time to take child for lessons No time to take child for lessons Selected Not selected Total Count Row N % Count Row N % Count Row N % Total % % % County of residence Age of oldest child living at home Gender of oldest child living at home Education Income Race Do you own or rent your residence? Child's school lunch program Albemarle % % % Greene 0 0.0% % % Fluvanna % % % Nelson 0 0.0% % % Louisa % % % Charlottesville % % % 4 to % % % 9 to % % % 14 to % % % Male % % % Female % % % Less than HS % 0 0.0% % High School grad % % % Some college % % % 4 year degree % % % Grad work % % % Adv Grad/PhD 0 0.0% % % Up to $35k % % % $35k to $50k % % % $50k to $75k 0 0.0% % % Over $75k % % % White % % % Black % % % Hispanic 0 0.0% % % Asian 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 0 0.0% Other % % % Owns [Dwelling is owner-occupied] % % % Rents % % % Other % % % My child is on a free lunch program My child is on a reduced cost lunch program My child does not receive free or reduced cost lunches 0 0.0% % % % % % % % % 28 University of Virginia

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