Don t Cut Corners: Left Turn Pedestrian & Bicyclist Crash Study

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1 Don t Cut Corners: Left Turn Pedestrian & Bicyclist Crash Study Christopher Brunson New York City Department of Transportation 55 Water Street, New York, NY, Tel: Fax: Arthur Getman New York City Department of Transportation 55 Water Street, New York, NY, Tel: Fax: Seth Hostetter New York City Department of Transportation 55 Water Street, New York, NY, Tel: Fax: Rob Viola New York City Department of Transportation 55 Water Street, New York, NY, Tel: Fax: Word count: 6,965 (including Figures & Tables) Submission date: August 1, 2016

2 Brunson, Getman, Hostetter, Viola ABSTRACT The Left Turn Pedestrian and Bicyclist Crash Study was conducted as part of New York City s Vision Zero effort to address Failure to Yield crashes. New York City Department of Transportation (NYC DOT) conducted a citywide analysis of left turn crashes, a detailed analysis of 1,105 crash reports between 2009 and 2013 at locations with a high frequency of pedestrian and bicyclist left turn crashes, and an evaluation of specific safety treatments. This study concludes with the development of an Action Plan to address left turn pedestrian and bicyclist crashes in NYC. The citywide and detailed analyses provide important insight into how crashes happen, who is involved, when they occur, and where they are most likely to occur. The study concludes that left turn crashes resulting in pedestrians and bicyclists being Killed or Severely Injured (KSI) occurred at over three times the rate of pedestrian and bicyclist right turn KSI. All of the left turn pedestrian and bicyclist injuries and fatalities from occurred at just 18 percent of all New York City intersections. The evaluation of current treatments revealed a varied rate of left turn pedestrian, bicyclist, and motor vehicle injury reductions following treatment implementation.

3 Brunson, Getman, Hostetter, Viola INTRODUCTION New York City Department of Transportation (NYC DOT) presents the Left Turn Pedestrian and Bicycle Crash Study, a part of New York City s Vision Zero effort to improve traffic safety. Driving down failure to yield crashes (where turning vehicles fail to yield to a pedestrian or bicyclist with the right of way) is one of the key focus areas of Vision Zero, targeted by engineering, enforcement and education efforts across the city. Specifically, failure to yield by left turning vehicles is of concern. NYC DOT prepared this study pursuant to Local Law 21 of 2014, one of several City Council bills signed by Mayor Bill de Blasio to support Vision Zero. Between 2010 and 2014, 108 pedestrians and bicyclists were killed in left turn failure to yield crashes. In New York City, motor vehicle left turns account for more than twice as many pedestrian and bicyclist fatalities as right turns and over three times as many serious injuries and fatalities (1). This study includes three different left turn pedestrian and bicyclist injury and fatality analyses: a citywide analysis to assess general trends, a detailed analysis focusing on the locations with the City s greatest concentration of left turn pedestrian and bicyclist injuries and fatalities, and finally, an evaluation of current tools that NYC DOT can use to address left turn crashes. The citywide trends analysis evaluates how, when and where crashes occur as well as who is involved. This macro analysis utilized data from the New York State Department of Transportation (NYSDOT) from Where possible, the analysis looked only at crashes resulting in a pedestrian or bicyclist being killed or severely injured (KSI), though when sample sizes were not large enough to support a robust analysis, total injuries (i.e., KSI plus all other injuries) were used. This citywide analysis found that all left turn pedestrian and bicyclist injuries occurred at just 18 percent of New York City s intersections. The detailed analysis examined 1,105 New York City Police Department crash reports between 2009 and 2013 that described left turn crashes resulting in a pedestrian or bicyclist injury. The analysis found that left turn pedestrian and bicyclist injuries occurred most often when the vehicle was coming from the minor approach (i.e., a minor roadway), the receiving street was 60 feet or wider, the vehicle was coming from a one-way street, and/or the receiving street was a two-way street (10). Finally, evaluating existing treatments implemented in New York City since 1999 provided information on the effectiveness of signs, markings, and signals at reducing left turn pedestrian and bicyclist injuries and KSI. Using the information gathered from these three analyses, NYC DOT developed an action plan to further mitigate left turn crashes in the future. This report describes the findings from the citywide and detailed analyses, provides an overview of the left turn safety treatments currently in use in New York City, and details the results of the treatment evaluation. These findings have informed an action plan to reduce left turn crashes in NYC.

4 Brunson, Getman, Hostetter, Viola LITERATURE REVIEW The majority of available research on left turn crashes focuses on driver behavior and vehicle specifications. There are inherent limitations that make left turns more dangerous than right turns. First, left turns can be taken at a wider angle than right turns, leading to higher speeds and greater pedestrian exposure (2). Next, a driver s vision may be obscured by parked cars on the approach street and by the vehicle s A-pillar, the portion of the vehicle frame between the windshield and the driver-side window (Figure 1). The A-pillar obscures seven linear feet of the driver s view of pedestrians in the crosswalk (3). Finally, the driver workload required to make a left turn makes them more complicated than right turns. Driver workload is the split second decision-making based on a complex series of mental and physical tasks a driver must execute to perform a traffic maneuver. Left turns require drivers to yield to oncoming traffic, searching for gaps in multiple lanes of traffic moving at different speeds, while vehicles behind them wait, causing pressure to execute the turning movement more quickly. After reviewing pedestrian and bicyclist left turn crashes in New York City, researchers at NYC DOT determined that current left turn crash factor explanations failed to account for all causes of these crashes. As such, this study sought to identify additional crash factors and conditions, including roadway geometry and operations specifically in the context of pedestrian and bicyclist crashes FIGURE 1 Pillar blind spots of left and right turning vehicles (3). Additionally, researchers at NYCDOT sought to evaluate the efficacy of treatments that are shown in the literature to reduce left-turn and/or bicycle and pedestrian crashes. There were many instances in the literature where there was found to be a correlation between the use of a protected left turn phase and a reduction in collisions. A study conducted in New York City found that there was a 65% reduction in left-turn bicycle and pedestrian crashes where a protected-only phase was installed compared to a 38% reduction in pedestrian crashes

5 Brunson, Getman, Hostetter, Viola and 52% reduction bicycle crashes over the same time period for a protected-permissive phase. This reduction in crashes was significant at the 5% level for pedestrian crashes. Both treatments were more effective than the control group which saw a 25% and 44% reduction in pedestrian and bicyclist crashes, respectively. Importantly, the study also noted that installation of a protected phase is usually accompanied by a narrowing of the street to create room for a left turn bay (4). A study in State College, PA found that there was a statistically significant 58.7% reduction in pedestrian-vehicle collisions after the installation of a Leading Pedestrian Interval (LPI). These results were magnified at intersections with a greater number of pedestrians and more frequent crashes (5). The 2004 Toolbox on Intersection Safety and Design published by the Institute of Transportation Engineers cites multiple studies showing positive effects on crashes after installation of a protected left turn phase. In Kentucky there was an 85% reduction in left-turn crashes, while in Iowa there was an average 38% crash reduction and a 58% crash reduction when the changes included a left-turn lane (6). The Signalized Intersections: Informational Guide published by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) cites a study which finds that adding a protected left turn is correlated with a 46% estimated reduction in left-turn collisions. The same literature review cites a study showing that prohibiting left turns was associated with a 50% estimated reduction in turning collisions (7). The FHWA also recommends the use of refuge islands as a way to shorten crossing distance for pedestrian, providing a safety area during a multi-stage crossing (8). CITYWIDE ANALYSIS The purpose of the citywide analysis was to identify the general characteristics of left turn bicycle and pedestrian crashes throughout New York City. This analysis yielded findings related to vehicle movement and type, victim age, geographic distribution of the crashes, intersection control type, and street directionality. The citywide analysis utilized the last five years of available pedestrian and bicycle crash data ( ), as supplied by NYSDOT. Data analyzed in this section covers traffic crashes reported to the New York City Police Department (NYPD) from 2010 to The citywide analysis relies primarily on pedestrian and bicyclist fatalities and severe injuries (KSI), as the sample size provided by citywide pedestrian and bicyclist KSI was large enough to provide a comprehensive sample that covers all of the City s geography. However, the dataset is missing certain key variables including vehicle location pre-crash (approach street), street width, and directionality (one-way vs two-way). For that reason, NYC DOT supplemented the citywide analysis with a detailed analysis of individual locations (see Detailed Analysis). In New York City, left turn pedestrian and bicyclist KSI occurred at over three times the rate (19 percent of all pedestrian and bicyclist KSI) of pedestrian and bicyclist right turn KSI (6 percent) between 2010 and Of the total left turn pedestrian and bicyclist KSI, the vast majority (86 percent) were pedestrians.

6 Brunson, Getman, Hostetter, Viola Vehicles Vehicle type involved in left turn pedestrian and bicyclist KSI was not found to be a significant factor. Passenger vehicles (cars, vans, and pick-up trucks) were involved in 79 percent of left turn pedestrian and bicyclist KSI while taxis/liveries were involved in 13 percent and trucks and buses were involved in 8 percent of left turn pedestrian and bicyclist KSI. These figures are similar to non-left turn pedestrian and bicyclist KSI. In non-left turn pedestrian and bicyclist KSI, passenger vehicles were involved in 75 percent of crashes. Taxis/liveries were involved in 16 percent and trucks and buses were involved in 8 percent of such crashes. Age The analysis showed that the crash victim s age is a significant factor. The crash severity for pedestrians and bicyclists increases with age disproportionately to other types of crashes involving a bicyclist or pedestrian. Seniors are disproportionately represented in left turn pedestrian and bicyclist fatalities (Figure 2). Fifty-three percent of all left turn pedestrian and bicyclist fatalities are over 65 years old, compared to 36 percent of all right turn pedestrian and bicyclist fatalities and 30 percent of all other pedestrian and bicyclist crash fatalities. The median age for fatal left turn pedestrian and bicyclist crashes is 67, while the median age for all other fatal crash types is 50. It is likely that seniors are more vulnerable to left turn pedestrian and bicyclist fatalities than other age cohorts partially because left turns are taken at higher speeds than right turns. It is presumed that left turn speeds have an impact on seniors, but are not high enough to impact less frail demographics. Further study is required to better understand the relationship between age and left turn crashes. 30% Distribution of Fatal Left Turn Pedestrian and Bicyclist Crashes by Age 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% % Left Turn Fatalities % Right Turn Fatalities % All Other Fatalities FIGURE 2 Fatal left turn pedestrian and bicyclist crashes by age.

7 Brunson, Getman, Hostetter, Viola There is no significant distinction between driver age for fatal crashes by left turn, right turn, and all other crashes. Unlike fatal left turn pedestrian and bicyclist crash victims, the majority of these crashes involved young-adult and middle-aged drivers. Gender The incidence of left and right turn pedestrian and bicyclist KSI for men and women was proportionally similar to the population distribution of men and women in New York City. Women make up approximately 53 percent of the City s population and also comprise approximately 53 percent of left turn pedestrian and bicyclist KSI. However, of all KSI victims (from both left turn crashes and non-left turn crashes), women accounted for only 28 percent. The difference between the percentage of men and women involved in all pedestrian and bicyclist KSI may partially be attributed to risk taking behavior associated with men, such as crossing against the signal. However, further analysis would be required for a comprehensive understanding of these patterns. Seasonality During the colder months, left turn pedestrian and bicyclist KSI rose by nearly 30 percent, while non-left turn pedestrian and bicyclist KSI were highest in warmer months. Although visibility related to daylight hours was hypothesized to be a factor in this pattern, there was no significant correlation between left turn pedestrian and bicyclist KSI and the presence of darkness. Thirty-one percent of left turn pedestrian and bicyclist KSI occurred at night, which follows a similar pattern as all other types of crashes (37 percent of all other crashes occurred at night). Thus, the increased KSI in fall and winter cannot be attributed to the reduced visibility from seasonal darkness. Geography The citywide analysis also uncovered significant findings about the geographic distribution of crashes. Left turn pedestrian and bicyclist injuries are concentrated in the same locations as pedestrian and bicyclist injuries from all crashes, following the same pattern as the Vision Zero Priority Areas. One hundred percent of New York City s left turn pedestrian and bicyclist crashes have occurred at just 18 percent, or 8,304, of the City s intersections, which are dispersed fairly evenly throughout the five boroughs (Figure 3).

8 Brunson, Getman, Hostetter, Viola FIGURE 3 Density of left turn related bike and pedestrian injuries. Signal Control and Directionality Finally, the analysis showed that the majority (80 percent) of intersections where a left turn pedestrian or bicyclist injury occurred have a signalized approach. Seventy percent of the intersections with these crashes have at least one one-way street (Figure 4). 2-to-2 30% 1-to-1 20% 1-to-2 50% FIGURE 4 Street directionality at intersections for left turn pedestrian and bicyclist injuries.

9 Brunson, Getman, Hostetter, Viola DETAILED ANALYSIS Although the citywide analysis provided citywide trends on left turn pedestrian and bicyclist injuries and fatalities, a more detailed analysis was conducted to better understand the nature of these crashes. NYC DOT researchers reviewed 1,105 crash reports, drawn from the 91 locations with the highest concentration of left turn pedestrian and bicyclist injuries in New York City. The crash report narratives provided important details about the vehicle s exact location prior to the crash, street width and directionality, and crash time. Key details from reports include: vehicle location pre-crash (approach street), street width, and street directionality (oneway vs. two-way). While the citywide analysis utilizes data from , the detailed analysis utilizes data from , the most current data available at the time of analysis. The study group was selected with a threshold of 10 or more left turn pedestrian and/or bicyclist injuries and fatalities between 2009 and These locations represent 0.2 percent of all New York City intersections and six percent of all left turn pedestrian and bicyclist injuries and fatalities. The analysis showed that these injuries typically occur when: The vehicle was coming from a minor approach The receiving street was sixty feet or wider The vehicle was coming from a one-way street The receiving street was a two-way street Width Width was found to be a significant factor especially on the receiving street during a vehicular turn. More than 50 percent of the pedestrian and bicyclist crashes reviewed occurred when a vehicle was turning from a minor street onto a major street, compared with the 23 percent that occurred when a vehicle was turning from a major street onto a minor street and all others, which occurred at intersections with no discernable major and minor distinction. In the study group, street width was also found to be a significant factor; 69 percent of the crashes reviewed occurred on streets that were at least 60 feet wide. Greater street width likely encourages vehicles to make turns with a larger radius, which results in higher speeds (9). Directionality Intersection directionality was also found to be a significant factor in left turn pedestrian and bicyclist crashes. Of the left turn crashes in the study group, nearly one-third (30 percent) occurred at the intersection of two one-way streets, while intersections with this configuration represent only 13 percent of all intersections in New York City. Left turn crashes that result from a vehicle turning from a one-way street onto a one-way street differ from right turn crashes of a similar nature because the driver s vision is obstructed more significantly by the A-pillar on the left side when making a left turn (Figure 1). Nearly two-thirds (61 percent) of the crashes occurred at intersections where the vehicle was turning onto a two-way street. It should be noted that all of the study group intersections were signalized.

10 Brunson, Getman, Hostetter, Viola Common Conditions The analysis of locations with the greatest concentration of left turn pedestrian and bicyclist injuries found that these crashes typically occur where at least one of the following conditions is present: the vehicle turned from the minor approach, the receiving street where the crash occurred is 60 feet or wider, the vehicle was coming from a one-way street, and/or the receiving street was a two-way street (Figure 5). Results from the study group demonstrate a pedestrian and bicyclist left turn problem unique to urban environments with dense one-way networks like New York City FIGURE 5 Common intersection characteristics for left turn pedestrian and bicyclist injuries: minor one-way onto major two-way. EVALUATION OF EXISTING TREATMENTS An analysis of current NYC DOT calming treatments was conducted to observe their effect on left turn pedestrian and bicyclist injuries. All evaluations, crashes, injuries, and fatalities are classified by motor vehicle movement. Table 1 shows an analysis comparing all pedestrian and bicyclist injuries from the three years prior to implementation to all injuries from the three years following implementation, as well as an analysis comparing only pedestrian and bicyclist KSI from the three years prior to implementation and the three years following implementation. Before and after crash analyses were conducted at 478 intersections using NYSDOT crash data ( ) to determine the effectiveness of each treatment.

11 Brunson, Getman, Hostetter, Viola TABLE 1 Summary of Existing Left Turn Traffic Calming Treatment Evaluation on Pedestrian and Bicyclist Injuries Left Turn Pedestrian and Bicyclist Injuries Treatment Type Left Turn Restrictions Left Turn Bays Protected Bicycle Lanes Left Turn Only Signals Study Sample (# of intersections) Years of Crash Data Analyzed Before (3 years) After (3 years) Change -41% -15% -15% -33% -14% LPIs Left Turn Pedestrian and Bicyclist KSI Before (3 years) After (3 years) Change NA NA -53% NA -56% Signs Left turn restrictions or bans are the primary sign treatment used to mitigate left turn pedestrian and bicyclist crashes. This treatment eliminates the possibility of conflict between left turning vehicles and pedestrians, bicyclists, and other vehicles. Fifty-one intersections from were analyzed using a before-after implementation crash analysis. Left turn pedestrian and bicyclist injuries were shown to have decreased 41 percent and total pedestrian and bicyclist injuries decreased 21 percent at these locations. Markings Markings treatments used to address left turn pedestrian and bicyclist crashes include left turn bays and protected bicycle lanes. Left turn bays improve traffic organization by giving left turning vehicles dedicated space to wait before turning left, helping to reduce pressure from vehicles waiting behind as they search for gaps in traffic. A before and after crash analysis was conducted on left turn bays without dedicated left turn signals implemented on two-way streets at 140 intersections between 2009 and 2011 as part of Street Improvement Projects. For motor vehicles (not included in Table 1), the addition of left turn bays resulted in a 45 percent decrease in left turn injuries and a 30 percent decrease in all crash injuries. For pedestrians alone (also not shown in Table 1), the analysis showed a 24 percent reduction in left turn injuries and a 9 percent reduction in all crash injuries. For bicyclists there were too few observed crashes to show any significant change. Protected bicycle lanes create protected space for bicyclists, pedestrians, and vehicles. The design treatment typically includes a pedestrian refuge island between the bicycle lane and the moving vehicle lane at the intersection. Pedestrian refuge islands shorten crossing distances for pedestrians and changes the turning radius at the intersection. Twelve protected bicycle lanes covering 12 lane miles and 149 intersections on six avenues were evaluated. These projects, which were implemented between 2008 and 2010, were shown to reduce left turn crashes

12 Brunson, Getman, Hostetter, Viola resulting in pedestrian and bicyclist KSI by 53 percent and all crash KSI by 20 percent. This treatment specifically addresses the issue of one-way approaches in Manhattan FIGURE 6 Protected bicycle lane in Manhattan. Signals Signal treatments for left turn pedestrian and bicyclist crashes may include left turn only signals and leading pedestrian intervals. Left turn only signals allow left turning vehicles to make left turns without any conflicts. They reduce left turn complexity by eliminating the need for the driver to find long enough gaps in traffic and pedestrian movements to allow a turn. A before and after crash analysis was conducted on left turn only signals (which include protected-only and protected-permissive phasing) installed between 1999 and 2011 at 34 intersections throughout New York City. The analysis shows that left turn pedestrian and bicyclist injuries at these locations declined by 33 percent and pedestrian and bicyclist injuries from all crashes declined by 25 percent. Leading Pedestrian Intervals (LPIs) give pedestrians and bicyclists at least a sevensecond, conflict-free head start to cross an intersection before vehicular traffic is given the corresponding green signal. Between 2003 and 2011, NYC DOT installed 104 LPIs. A before and after analysis of each LPI found that pedestrian and bicyclist injuries resulting from left turn crashes decreased by 14 percent, while pedestrian and bicyclist KSI from left turn crashes decreased by 56 percent. ACTION PLAN The detailed analysis found that left turn pedestrian and bicyclist injury and fatality crashes typically occur when at least one of four common conditions is present at an intersection.

13 Brunson, Getman, Hostetter, Viola The four common conditions are when the vehicle turned from the minor approach, the receiving street where the crash occurred is 60 feet or wider, the vehicle was coming from a one-way street, and/or the receiving street was a two-way street (Figure 5). These conditions enable vehicles to turn left at a wider radius and a faster speed, increasing the risk of a crash with a pedestrian or bicyclist. NYC DOT developed this action plan to address these four conditions and other findings to reduce the risk of left turn pedestrian and bicyclist injuries and fatalities. The Action Plan consists of four key components: implementation, additional treatments analysis, left turn calming pilot, and a public information campaign. Implementation NYC DOT will continue to prioritize the implementation of two left turn crash mitigation treatments that have already proven highly successful at reducing left turn pedestrian and bicyclist crash injuries: protected bicycle lanes and LPIs. The detailed analysis showed that left turn related pedestrian and bicyclist injuries in general and KSI in particular are greatly reduced by the presence of a protected bicycle lane. As such, NYC DOT will continue making progress on its goal to build five miles of protected bicycle paths per year. NYC DOT will also continue to install LPIs across New York City. Vision Zero has prioritized the study and implementation of LPIs at Vision Zero Priority Intersections and at school crosswalks on Vision Zero Priority Corridors. As a result, over 400 new LPIs were installed citywide in 2015, which more than doubled New York City s total LPI inventory. Additional Treatments Several other left turn crash mitigation treatments have proven successful, but require additional study before widespread implementation. NYC DOT will investigate the feasibility of left turn bans and installation of left turn signals at a number of locations with high rates of left turn pedestrian and bicyclist injuries. Restricting left turns is effective and low cost and should be considered before more extensive signal projects, which can require additional costs and agency planning efforts. NYC DOT should dedicate new resources to prioritize left turn signal analysis at locations with high left turn pedestrian and bicyclist injuries. NYC DOT also plans to further investigate the installation of Split LPIs and Split LPIs with bike signals. Split LPIs provide pedestrians a head start when crossing a street with leftturning vehicles. After the head start is over, left turning vehicles receive a flashing amber arrow while pedestrian finish crossing. Split LPIs with a bike signal allow bikes a head start through the intersection before vehicles have a flashing yellow left arrow. As of the end of 2015, NYC DOT has installed 28 Split LPIs and 5 Split LPIs with bike signals (as part of a pilot program). NYC DOT will conduct before and after crash analysis at these sites to determine the effectiveness of both treatments. If proven to be effective at mitigating pedestrian and bicyclist injuries from left turn crashes, NYC DOT will identify additional locations for implementation.

14 Brunson, Getman, Hostetter, Viola Left Turn Calming Pilot In locations where the current left turn crash mitigation treatments are not possible or will not mitigate the most common crash type, NYC DOT will pilot new left turn calming treatments. Drawn from information gathered during the detailed crash report analysis, two new treatments have been identified to both improve motorist visibility and calm left turns from one-way minor streets onto one- and two-way major streets: the enhanced daylighting/slow turn wedge and the hardened centerline. The slow turn wedge/enhanced daylighting aims to tighten and calm left turns for vehicles turning from a one-way street onto a one-way street. The treatment uses channelization markings ten feet from the crosswalk that warn approaching drivers of the treatment and guide the turning radius through the intersection. The slow turn wedge/enhanced daylighting treatment increases the visibility of pedestrians in the crosswalk and mitigates visibility issues caused by the A-pillar. Additionally, the treatment modifies the turning angle from the cross street onto the receiving roadway to create safer, slower left turns with no change in traffic capacity FIGURE 7 The enhanced daylighting/slow turn wedge (left) and the hardened centerline (right). The hardened centerline is designed to tighten and calm left turns for vehicles turning from a one-way street onto a two-way street. The treatment utilizes a plastic curb with vertical delineators along the double yellow line of the receiving roadway and includes channelization markings ten feet from the crosswalk to warn approaching drivers as they enter the intersection. The hardened centerline increases the visibility of pedestrians in the crosswalk and modifies the turning angle from the minor street onto the major street to create safer, slower left turns without reducing traffic capacity. Both the enhanced daylighting/slow turn wedge and the hardened centerline are being piloted at 100 locations throughout New York City. If proven effective, NYC DOT will identify additional locations for further implementation.

15 Brunson, Getman, Hostetter, Viola Public Information Campaign One of the key tenets of Vision Zero is public dialogue and education about safe driving. The public information campaign that accompanies this left turn study aligns with Vision Zero education efforts already underway across New York City. NYC DOT plans to continue to engage in public education efforts focused on left turn crashes through three key campaigns. NYC DOT is already engaged in a public information campaign, Your Choices Matter, targeted at drivers and intended to support New York City s Vision Zero efforts. The third phase of the Your Choices Matter campaign will focus exclusively on crashes at intersections and will utilize general messaging such as traffic crashes are not accidents, pause and look before you turn, and always expect someone in the crosswalk. NYC DOT is developing Turn-Speed iconography to illustrate that turns should be taken at 5 mph, which is a safer speed for pedestrians. Turn-Speed will serve as a sub-brand for topic-specific Vision Zero communications. Lastly, NYC DOT will roll out a comprehensive failure to yield marketing effort in Fiscal Year Strengthening the failure to yield law, a commitment to continued enforcement, and the institutionalization of left-turn engineering strategies will require a coordinated public information campaign across owned, earned, and paid media.

16 Brunson, Getman, Hostetter, Viola REFERENCES 1. New York State Department of Transportation/New York State Department of Motor Vehicles Accident Database, U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration. Take Analysis of Intersection Driving Scenarios: Information Processing Bottlenecks Habib, Phillip A. Pedestrian Safety: The Hazards of Left-Turning Vehicles. 4. Chen, Li., Chen, Cynthia., and Ewing, Reid. Left Turn-Phase: Permissive, Protected, or Both? A Quasi-Experimental Design in New York City. Accident Analysis and Prevention 76 (2015) Fayish, Aaron. C. and Gross, Frank. Safety Effectiveness of Leading Pedestrian Intervals Evaluated by a Before-After Study with Comparison Groups. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2198, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2010, pp Accessed October 31, 2016: 6. Institute of Transportation Engineers Toolbox on Intersection Safety and Design. Accessed October 31, 2016: f dfb9 7. Federal Highway Administration. Signalized Intersections: Informational Guide Accessed October 31, 2016: https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/research/safety/04091/04091.pdf 8. Federal Highway Administration. Pedestrian Accommodations at Intersections. Accessed October 31, 2016: 9. Roudsari, Bahman, Kaufman, Robert, and Koespell, Thomas; Turning at Intersections and Pedestrian Injuries Reed, Matthew. Intersection Kinematics: A Pilot Study of Driver Turning Behavior with Application to Pedestrian Obscuration by A-Pillars. University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute, Ann Arbor, MI, 2008.

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