Managing rhino, even in the absence of poaching

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1 Managing rhino, even in the absence of poaching Howard H. Hendricks Markus Hofmeyr, Sam Ferreira and Mike Knight

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4 Source: Rowan-Martin

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10 Markus Hofmeyr

11 Why should rhinos matter? Species Varied threats Endangered and threatened Existence value Educational value Indicator species value Science value Ecosystems Mega-herbivore disturbance Disturbance key process Heterogeneity Biodiversity Resilience Ecosystem services Sam Ferreira

12 What are conservation objectives? 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Range state reports and strategies Growth Meta-population Genetic Cathy Greaver

13 Where did South Africa come from? Population enhancement and range expansion Year Key event white rhinos in Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park 1961 Development of capture techniques 1968 First hunts 1977 CITES Appendix Management removals intensify st Auction of live rhinos Private ownership allowed 1993 CITES Appendix 2 for South African White Rhinos 2003 CITES Appendix 2 for Swaziland White Rhinos 2008 Poaching intensifies Sam Ferreira

14 SOUTHERN WHITE RHINO SOUTH AFRICAN CONSERVATION SUCCESS Sam Ferreira South Africa Rest of Africa Total Capture tools Hunting CITES Appendix I CITES Removals Auctions Appendix II South Africa Appendix II Swaziland Poaching 0

15 Where are Africa s rhinos? 100% 80% 60% Black White % 20% 0% Data provided by Richard Emslie, AfRSG Sam Ferreira

16 RHINO CONSERVATION IN AFRICA South Africa is key Four range states 96% of black rhinos 99% of white rhinos

17 RHINO CONSERVATION White rhino White Rhino Numbers 20,430 Country Number (2012) South Africa Namibia 524 Kenya 394 Zimbabwe 284 Botswana 185 Swaziland 84 Zambia 10 Uganda 14 Mozambique

18 RHINO CONSERVATION Black rhino Black Rhino Numbers 5,080 Country Number (2012) South Africa 2068 Namibia 1750 Kenya 631 Zimbabwe 424 Botswana 9 Tanzania 127 Swaziland 18 Zambia 27 Malawi 26 Mozambique 0? Angola 1?

19 RHINO CONSERVATION SUCCESS Conservationists applied best practice management Pioneers saw value in what they were doing Large protected areas provided recovery Innovative approaches provided expansion Legal incentives provided more areas Most values of rhinos were recognized

20 SOUTH AFRICA S RHINO CONSERVATION Sound biological and conservation management Recognizing a values associated with rhinos

21 1.4% 6.0% 17.5% 75.1% 0% 0% 24.3% 75.7%

22 Rhino ownership in South Africa 2010 Ownership White rhino Black rhino Private land SANParks Provincial Totals Sam Ferreira

23 Rhino ownership in South Africa 2012 White Rhino SANParks Provinces Private owners Black rhino SANParks Provinces Private owners Sam Ferreira

24 White rhino population manipulation in Kruger Introductions Number of white rhinos Removals 2010 Mike Knight % sold -300 Mike Knight Ferreira, Botha & Emmett 2012

25 What is current status? White rhino 1200 Black rhino 1000 Number of rhinos Ferreira, Botha & Emmett 2012 Ferreira, Greaver & Knight 2011 Sam Ferreira

26 The tenuous basis of numbers Observer bias Availability bias Detectability bias Capture bias

27 Checking population status Survey 40% of Kruger using blocks. Define biases influencing estimates Define population sizes using Jolly- Seber aerial survey estimators Evaluate the trends in population estimates Define optimal survey designs to detect trends Define a survey strategy for Kruger Greaver, Ferreira, Freitag-Ronaldson, Pienaar 2013

28 What rhinos did we see? Surveyed 878 blocks Represent 41.7% coverage of Kruger Bias assessments 56 White rhinos 23 Black rhinos

29 Ferreira et al Optimal sampling efforts? (a) Population estimate % area surveyed (b) % confidence limits % area surveyed

30 Availability Bias White Rhino Black Rhino % 100% Percentage of time visible 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% Percentage of time visible 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% Percentage woody cover Percentage woody cover

31 Regulation and limitation 6.0% Males R² = % Females y = -3E-05x R² = % 4.0% Growth Rate 2.0% 0.0% % 0.0% % -2.0% -4.0% -4.0% Population size Death rates associated with environment and density Birth rates associated with density

32 Rhino population management models 3000 Number of individuals Dispersal limited Survival enhanced Natural limitations Harvested for maximum sustainable yield Landscape specific models Years Several landscape have high densities Several landscape equilibrium dynamics Economic removal half growth rate Mimicking ecological effects lower

33 The changing South African context 2007 to 2010 Annual increase of 4.7% 18,780 white rhinos 758 poached rhinos 1,797 rhinos fewer Sam Ferreira Rhinos increased but could have done so faster if no poaching

34 A GLOBAL CHALLENGE End users market not within South African control Supply sourced largely from South Africa Wildlife Trafficking Greed Poverty Syndicated Crime Illicit wildlife trade Demand Environmental Assets

35 THREAT TO RHINO: POACHING 1004 Country Botswana 1.03% 0.52% 668 Kenya 2.83% 5.82% Malawi 7.69% 11.54% Mozambique 1200% 200% Namibia 0.04% 0.22% South Africa Swaziland Tanzania Rhino 3.18% poaching 0.00% in ZA 1.57% 4.61% 0.00% 0.00% Uganda 0.00% 0.00% Zambia 0.00% 0.00% Zimbabwe 4.10% 1.84% Africa 2.92% 4.07%

36 THREATS Kruger National Park Kruger National Park is iconic High biodiversity, 1.4 million visitors a year Biggest rhino stronghold in the world 2,000,000ha or 20,000 km², 380 km x 60 km 356 km border with Mozambique Lebombo mountain range Part of 3,000,000 ha GLTP 950km circumference of boundaries. 36 Over 1000km around the GLTP SA National Parks and the CSIR strategic technology partnership

37 WHAT CHANGED? HOW TO DEAL WITH IT SYSTEMICALLY? Producer Poacher Poacher Poacher Local organizer Local organizer National Buyer International distributor Syndicate Local trader Consumer Within protected areas Beyond protected areas Traditional response 5 International Consumer Buyer / Driver 4 National - Exporter 3 National Couriers / Buyers / Facilitators 1 (Poacher) & 2 (Receive / Courier) Illegal activities on local level

38 Getting smart?

39 Rhino creation solutions Maximize rhino productivity Strategically remove rhinos Stimulate growth Numbers stable Little poaching Remove asset Periphery Poaching hotspot Growth 6.0% 4.0% 2.0% 0.0% -2.0% -4.0% Population Strategic Rhino Strongholds Intense protection Rhino husbandry One ranger per 10 km 2 Maximize births Partner Stronghold Protected areas Community areas Share expertise Ferreira, Hofmeyr, Malan, Joubert & Solano-Fernandez 2014 In preparation Private Stronghold Private land Consumptive use Share expertise/return not given International Conservancies Expansion Programmes Strategic rhino revenue Fund conservancies Support husbandry

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41 Funding Governance Managing the Threat Safety and Security PRIORITY ACTIONS Transnational Organized Crime Disrupt organized crime Create economic choices Enhance rhino populations Implement long-term sustainability Managing the Rhino Robust Conservation International Cooperation Sam Ferreira

42 Thank you Dr Howard H. Hendricks Snr GM: Policy & Governance Conservation Services Division SOUTH AFRICAN NATIONAL PARKS (SANParks) Leyds Street, Muckleneuk PO Box 787, Pretoria, 0001 Tel: +27 (0) Cell: Fax: +27 (0) Sam Ferreira

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