# Learning Objectives 081 Principles of Flight

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 Learning Objectives 081 Principles of Flight Conventions for questions in subject The following standard conventions are used for certain mathematical symbols: * multiplication. > = greater than or equal to. < = less than or equal to. SQ RT ( ) square root of the function, symbol or number in between bracket s. 2. Normally it should be assumed that the effect of a variable under review is the only variation that needs to be addressed, unless specifically stated otherwise. 3. Candidates can expect questions on dedicated topics as described in detail within this Syllabus and associated Learning Objectives. 4. Candidates are expected in simple calculations to be able to convert knots into m/s and know the appropriate conversion factors by heart. 5. For those questions related to propellers (subject ) as a simplification of the physical reality, the inflow speed into the propeller plane is taken as the aeroplane s TAS. In addition, when discussing propeller rotational direction, it will always be specified as seen from behind the propeller plane. 6. Throughout subject 081 Fly by Wire is not considered. 7. In the subsonic range as covered under compressibility effects normally are not considered, unless specifically mentioned. Syllabus PRINCIPLES OF FLIGHT PRINCIPLES OF FLIGHT AEROPLANE SUBSONIC AERODYNAMICS Basics, laws and definitions Laws and definitions List the SI-units of measurement for mass, acceleration, weight, velocity, density, temperature, pressure, force, wing loading and power. Define mass, force, acceleration and weight. State and interpret Newton s Laws. State and interpret Newton s first law. State and interpret Newton s second law. State and interpret Newton s third law. Explain air density.

2 List the atmospheric properties that effect air density. Explain how temperature and pressure changes affect density. Define static pressure. Define dynamic pressure. Define the formula for dynamic pressure. Apply the formula for a given altitude and speed. State Bernoulli s equation. Define total pressure. Apply the equation to a Venturi. Describe how the IAS is acquired from the Pitot -static system. Describe the relationship between density, temperature and pressure for air. Describe the Equation of Continuity. Define IAS, CAS, EAS, TAS Basics about airflow Describe steady and unsteady airflow. Explain the concept of a streamline. Describe and explain airflow through a stream tube Aerodynamic forces and moments on aerofoils Describe the force resulting from the pressure distribution around an aerofoil. Resolve the resultant force into the components lift and drag. Describe the direction of lift and drag. Define the aerodynamic moment. List the factors that affect the aerodynamic moment. Describe the aerodynamic moment for a symmetrical aerofoil. Describe the aerodynamic moment for a positively and negatively cambered aerofoil. Forces and equilibrium of forces Refer to Define angle of attack Shape of an aerofoil section Describe the following parameters of an aerofoil section: - leading edge. - trailing edge. - chord line. - thickness to chord ratio or relative thickness. - location of maximum thickness. - camber line. - camber. - nose radius. Describe a symmetrical and an asymmetrical aerofoil section Wing shape

3 Describe the following parameters of a wing: - span. - tip and root chord. - taper ratio. - wing area. - wing planform. - mean geometric chord. - mean aerodynamic chord MAC. - aspect ratio. - dihedral angle. - sweep angle. - wing twist: - geometric. - aerodynamic. angle of incidence. note: In certain textbooks angle of incidence is used as angle of attack, for JAR-FCL purposes this use is discontinued and the angle of incidence is defined as the angle between the aeroplane longitudinal axis and the wing root chord line Two-dimensional airflow around an aerofoil Streamline pattern Describe the streamline pattern around an aerofoil. Describe converging and diverging streamlines and their effect on static pressure and velocity. Describe upwash and downwash Stagnation point Describe the stagnation point Pressure distribution Describe pressure distribution and local speeds around an aerofoil including effects of camber and angle of attack. Describe where the minimum local static pressure is typically situated on an aerofoil Centre of pressure and aerodynamic centre Explain centre of pressure and aerodynamic centre Lift and downwash Explain the association between lift and downwash Drag and wake List two physical phenomena that cause drag. Describe skin friction drag. Describe pressure (form) drag. Explain why drag and wake cause a loss of energy (momentum) Influence of angle of attack Explain the influence of angle of attack on lift Flow separation at high angles of attack. Refer to The lift graph

4 Describe the lift and angle of attack graph. Explain the significant points on the graph. Describe lift against graph for a symmetrical aerofoil Coefficients Explain why coefficients are used in general The lift coefficient C L Describe the lift formula and perform simple calculations. Define the C LMAX and C stall on the graph The drag coefficient C D Describe the drag formula and perform simple calculations. Indicate minimum drag on the graph. Explain why the C L C D ratio is important as a measure of performance. State the normal values of C L C D Three-dimensional airflow about an aeroplane Define angle of attack. note: angle of attack definition requires a line. For 3-D, the SET has chosen the longitudinal axis and for 2-D, chord line. Explain the difference between the angle of attack and the attitude of an aeroplane Streamline pattern Describe the general streamline pattern around the wing, tail section and fuselage. Explain and describe the causes of spanwise flow over top and bottom surfaces. Describe tip vortices and local. Explain how tip vortices vary with angle of attack. Explain upwash and downwash due to tip vortices. Describe span-wise lift distribution including the effect of wing planform. Describe the causes, distribution and duration of the wake turbulence behind an aeroplane. Describe the influence of flap deflection on the tip vortex. List the parameters that influence the wake turbulence Induced drag Explain what causes the induced drag. State the factors that affect induced drag. Describe the relationship between induced drag and total drag in the cruise. Describe the effect of mass on induced drag at a given IAS. Describe the means to reduce induced drag: - aspect ratio. - winglets. - tip tanks. - speed Total drag - wing twist. - camber change. Explain the relationship between induced drag and: State that total drag consists of parasite drag and induced drag.

5 Parasite drag List the types of drag that are included in parasite drag. Describe form (pressure) drag. Describe interference drag. Describe friction drag Parasite drag and speed Describe the relationship between parasite drag and speed Induced drag and speed Refer to Intentionally left blank Total drag and speed Explain the total drag speed graph and the constituent drag components. Indicate the speed for minimum drag Intentionally left blank The total drag speed graph Describe the effect of aeroplane gross mass on the graph. Describe the effect of pressure altitude on: - drag IAS graph. - drag TAS graph. Describe speed stability from the graph. Describe non-stable, neutral and stable IAS regions. Explain what happens to the IAS and drag in the non-stable region if speed suddenly decreases Ground effect Explain what happens to the tip vortices, downwash, airflow pattern, lift and drag in ground effect Effect on take -off and landing characteristics of an aeroplane Describe the influence of ground effect on take-off and landing characteristics and performance of an aeroplane. Describe the difference between: - high and low wing characteristics. - high and low tail characteristics The relationship between the lift coefficient and speed in steady, straight and level flight Represented by a graph Explain using a graph, the effect on speed of C L changes at a given weight The stall Flow separation at increasing angles of attack.

6 Define the boundary layer. Describe the thickness of a typical boundary layer. List the factors that effect the thickness. Describe the laminar layer. Describe the turbulent layer. Define the transition point. List the differences between laminar and turbulent boundary layers. Define the separation point and describe its location as a function of angle of attack. Define the critical of stall angle of attack. Describe and explain the normal post stall behaviour of a wing / aeroplane. Describe the dangers of using the controls close to the stall The stall speed Name V S0, V S1, V SR, V S1g. Describe and explain the influence of the following parameters on the stall speed: - centre of gravity. - thrust component. - slipstream. - wing loading. - mass. - wing contamination. - angle of sweep. - altitude (for compressibility effects see ). Define the load factor n. Explain why the load factor increases in a turn. Describe and explain the Influence of the load factor (n) on the stall speed. note: Sometimes accelerated stall is also erroneously referred to as high speed stall. This latter expression will not be used for the subject Stall warning Explain why stall warning is necessary. Explain when aerodynamic and artificial stall warnings are used. Explain why CS 23/25 and FAR require a margin to stall speed. Describe: - buffet. - stall strip. - flapper switch (leading edge stall warning vane). - angle of attack vane. - angle of attack probe. - stick shaker Special phenomena of stall

7 Describe the basic stall requirements for CS/FAR transport category aeroplanes. Name the effect of ice, frost or snow on the stagnation point. - Explain the absence of stall warning. - Explain the abnormal behaviour of the stall. Describe and explain cause and effects of the stabiliser stall (negative tail stall). Describe when to expect in-flight icing. Explain how the effect is changed when retracting/extending lift augmentation devices. Explain the effect of a contaminated wing. - Explain what on-ground icing is. - Describe the aerodynamic effects of de/anti-ice fluid after the holdover time has been reached. - Describe the aerodynamic effects of heavy tropical rain on stall speed and drag C LMAX augmentation Trailing edge flaps and the reasons for use in take-off and landing Describe trailing edge flaps and the reasons for their use during take-off and landing. Identify the differing types of trailing edge flaps given a relevant diagram. - Split flaps. - Plain flaps. - Slot ted flaps. - Fowler flaps. Describe their effect on wing geometry. - Describe how the wing s effective camber increases. - Describe how the effective chord line differs from the normal chord line. Describe their effect on: - location of centre of pressure. - pitching moments. - stall speed. Describe flap asymmetry. - Explain the effect on aeroplane controllability. Describe trailing edge flap effect on take-off and landing. - Explain the advantages of lower nose attitudes. Explain why take-off and landing speeds/distances are reduced Leading edge devices and the reasons for use in take-off and landing

8 Describe leading edge high lift devices. Identify the differing types of leading edge high lift devices given a relevant diagram: - Krueger flaps. - variable camber flaps. - slats. State their effect on wing geometry. Describe the function of the slot. - Describe how the wing s effective camber increases. - Describe how the effective chord line differs from the normal chord line. State their effect on the stall speed, also in comparison with trailing edge flaps. Describe slat asymmetry. - Describe the effect on aeroplane controllability. Explain the reasons for using leading edge high lift devices on take-off and landing. - Explain the disadvantage of increased nose up attitudes. - Explain why take-off and landing speeds/distances are reduced Vortex generators Explain the purpose of vortex generators. Describe their basic operating principle. State their advantages and disadvantages Means to reduce the C L C D ratio Spoilers and the reasons for use in the different phases of flight. Describe the aerodynamic functioning of spoilers: - roll spoilers. - flight spoilers (speed brakes). - Ground spoilers (lift dumpers) Speed brakes and the reasons for use in the different phases of flight Describe speed brakes and the reasons for use in the different phases of flight The boundary layer Different types. Refer to Their advantages and disadvantages on pressure drag and friction drag Aerodynamic degradation Ice and other contaminants Describe the locations on an aeroplane where ice build-up will occur during flight. Name the factors of influence to the aerodynamic effects of ice and other contaminants - lift (maximum lift coefficient) - drag - stall speed - stalling angle of attack - stability and controllability HIGH SPEED AERODYNAMICS

9 Speeds Speed of sound Define speed of sound Mach number Explain the variation of the speed of sound with altitude. Describe the influence of temperature on the speed of sound. Define Mach number as a function of TAS and speed of sound Influence of temperature and altitude on Mach number. Explain the absence of change of Mach number with varying temperature at constant flight level and Calibrated Airspeed. Referring to and explain relationship of Mach number, TAS and IAS during climb and descent at constant Mach number and IAS and explain variation of lift coefficient, angle of attack, pitch and flight path angle. Referring to and explain that V MO can be exceeded during a descent at constant Mach number and that M MO can be exceeded during a climb at constant IAS Compressibility State that compressibility means that density can change along a streamline. Describe how the streamline pattern changes due to compressibility. State that Mach number is a measure of compressibility Subdivision of aerodynamic flow List the subdivision of aerodynamic flow: - subsonic flow. - transonic flow Shock waves - supersonic flow. State that transport aeroplanes normally cruise at Mach numbers above M crit. Define a shock wave Effects of exceeding Mcrit M crit Buffet onset Define M crit Name the consequences if exceeding M crit - shock stall - drag - lift - pitching moment and the requirement for Mach trim and the location of centre of pressure and aerodynamic centre. - control effectiveness Explain the concept of buffet margin and describe the influence of the following parameters: - angle of attack. - Mach number. - pressure altitude. - mass. - load factor. - angle of bank. - CG location.

10 Explain how the buffet onset boundary chart can be used to determine manoeuvre capability. Describe the effect of exceeding the speed for buffet onset. Explain aerodynamic ceiling and coffin corner. Explain the concept of the 1.3g altitude. Find (using an example graph): - buffet free range. - aerodynamic ceiling at a given mass. - load factor and bank angle at which buffet occurs at a given mass, Mach number and pressure altitude Means to influence M crit Wing sweep Explain the influence of the angle of sweep on M crit Vortex generators Explain the use of vortex generators as a means to avoid or restrict flow separation Intentionally left blank STABILITY Static and dynamic stability Basics and definitions Define static stability. Identify a statically stable, neutral and unstable condition (positive, neutral and negative static stability). Explain manoeuvrability. Explain why static stability is the opposite of manoeuvrability. Define dynamic stability. - Identify a dynamically stable, neutral and unstable motion. (positive, neutral and negative dynamic stability). - Identify periodic and aperiodic motion. Explain what combinations of static and dynamic stability will return an aeroplane to the equilibrium state after a disturbance Precondition for static stability Sum of forces Explain the equilibrium of forces and moments as the condition for the concept of static stability. Identify the forces considered in the equilibrium of forces Sum of moments Identify the moments considered in the equilibrium of moments: moments about all three axes. Discuss effect of sum of moments not being zero Intentionally left blank Static and dynamic longitudinal stability Methods for achieving balance Explain the stabiliser and the canard as the means to satisfy the condition of nullifying the total sum of the moments about the lateral axis. Explain the influence of the location of the wing centre of pressure relative to the centre of gravity on the magnitude and direction of the balancing force on stabiliser and canard.

11 Explain the influence of the indicated airspeed on the magnitude and direction of the balancing force on stabiliser and canard. Explain the influence of the balancing force on the magnitude of the wing/fuselage lift. Explain the use of the elevator deflection or stabiliser angle for the generation of the balancing force. Explain the elevator deflection required to balance thrust changes Static longitudinal stability Neutral point Explain the changes in aerodynamic forces when varying angle of attack for a static longitudinally stable aeroplane. Discuss effect of CG location on pitch manoeuvrability. Define neutral point. Explain why the location of the neutral point is only dependent on the aerodynamic design of the aeroplane Factors affecting neutral point Indicate the location of the neutral point relative to the locations of the aerodynamic centre of the wing and tail/canard. Explain the influence of the downwash variations with angle of attack variation on the location of the neutral point. Explain the contribution of engine nacelles Location of centre of gravity Explain the influence of the CG location on static longitudinal stability of the aeroplane. Explain the CG forward and aft limits with respect to: - longitudinal control forces. - elevator effectiveness. - stability. Define static margin Static directional stability Define static directional stability. Explain the effects of static directional stability being too weak or too strong Factors affecting static directional stability Describe how the following aeroplane components contribute to static directional stability: - wing - fin - dorsal fin - ventral fin - angle of sweep of the wing - angle of sweep of the fin - fuselage at high angles of attack - strakes Explain why both the fuselage and the fin contribution reduce static directional stability when the CG moves aft Static lateral stability Define static lateral stability. Explain the effects of static lateral stability being too weak or too strong.

12 Factors affecting static lateral stability Explain the contribution to the static lateral stability of: - dihedral, anhedral. - high wing, low wing. - sweep angle of the wing. - ventral fin. - vertical tail. Define dihedral effect Intentionally left blank CONTROL General Basics, the three planes and three axes Define: - lateral axis. - longitudinal axis. - normal axis. Define: - pitch angle. - bank angle. - yaw angle. Describe the motion about the three axes. Name and describe the devices that control these motions Camber change Explain how camber is changed by movement of a control surface Angle of attack change Explain the influence of local angle of attack change by movement of a control surface Pitch (longitudinal) control Elevator/all flying tails Explain the working principle of the elevator/all flying tail and describe its function. Describe the loads on the tailplane over the whole speed range Downwash effects Ice on tail Explain the effect of downwash on the tailplane angle of attack. Explain in this context the use of a T-tail or stabiliser trim. Explain how ice can change the aerodynamic characteristics of the tailplane. Explain how this can affect the tail's proper function Location of centre of gravity Explain the relationship between elevator deflection and CG location to produce a given aeroplane response. Explain effect of forward CG limit on pitch control Moments due to engine thrust Describe the effect of engine thrust on pitching moments for different engine locations Yaw (directional) control

13 Explain the working principle of the rudder and describe its function. - State the relationship between rudder deflection and the moment about the normal axis. Describe the effect of sideslip on the moment about the normal axis Rudder limiting Explain why and how rudder deflection is limited on transport aeroplanes Roll (lateral) control Ailerons Explain the functioning of ailerons. Describe the adverse effects of ailerons (refer to and ). - Explain in this context the use of inboard and outboard ailerons. - Explain outboard aileron lockout and conditions under which this feature is used. Describe the use of aileron deflection in normal flight, flight with sideslip, cross wind landings, horizontal turns, flight with one engine out. Define roll rate. List the factors that effect roll rate. - Flaperons, aileron droop Intentionally left blank Spoilers Adverse yaw Explain how spoilers can be used to control the rolling movement in combination with or instead of the ailerons. Explain how the use of ailerons induces adverse yaw Means to avoid adverse yaw Explain how the following reduce adverse yaw: - frise ailerons. - differential aileron deflection. - rudder aileron cross-coupling. - roll spoilers Roll/yaw interaction Explain the secondary effect of roll. Explain the secondary effect of yaw Means to reduce control forces Aerodynamic balance Describe the purpose of aerodynamic balance. - Describe the working principle of the nose and horn balance. - Describe the working principle of internal balance. Describe the working principle and the application of: - balance tab. - anti-balance tab. - spring tab. - servo tab Artificial means

14 Mass balance Trimming Describe fully powered controls. Describe power assisted controls. Explain why artificial feel is required. Explain the inputs to an artificial feel system. Refer to for mass balance. Refer to and for bob weight Reasons to trim Trim tabs Stabiliser trim State the reasons for trimming devices. Explain the difference between a trim tab and the various balance tabs. Describe the working principle of a trim tab including cockpit indications. Explain the advantages and disadvantages of a stabiliser trim compared with a trim tab. Explain elevator deflection when the aeroplane is trimmed in the case of fully powered and power assisted pitch controls. - Explain the factors influencing stabiliser setting. - Explain the influence of take-off stabiliser trim setting on rotation characteristics and stick force during take-off rotation at extremes of CG position. Discuss the effects of jammed and runaway stabiliser. Explain the landing considerations with a jammed stabiliser LIMITATIONS Operating limitations Flutter Describe the phenomenon of flutter and list the factors: - elasticity. - backlash. - aero-elastic coupling. - mass distribution. - structural properties. - IAS. - List the flutter modes of an aeroplane: - wing. - tailplane. - fin. - control surfaces including tabs. Describe the use of mass balance to alleviate the flutter problem by adjusting the mass distribution: - wing mounted pylons. - control surface mass balance. List the possible actions in the case of flutter in flight Aileron reversal

17 Describe the forces acting on an aeroplane in a straight steady glide. Describe the relationship between the glide angle and the lift/drag ratio. Describe the relationship between angle of attack and the best lift/drag ratio. Explain the effect of wind component on glide angle, duration and distance. Explain the effect of mass change on glide angle, duration and distance. Explain the effect of configuration change on glide angle, duration and distance. Describe the relation between TAS and sink rate including minimum glide angle and minimum sink rate Steady co-ordinated turn Describe the forces acting on an aeroplane in a steady co-ordinated turn. Describe the difference between a co-ordinated and an uncoordinated turn and explain how to correct an uncoordinated turn using turn and slip indicator. Define angular velocity. Define rate of turn and rate one turn Asymmetric thrust Describe the effects on the aeroplane during flight with asymmetric thrust including both jet engine and propeller driven aeroplanes. Discuss critical engine, include effect of crosswind when on the ground. Explain effect of steady asymmetric flight on a conventional (ball) slip indicator Moments about the normal axis Describe the moments about the normal axis. Explain the yawing moments about the CG. Describe the change to yawing moment caused by power changes. Describe the changes to yawing moment caused by engine distance from CG. Describe the methods to achieve balance Intenti onally left blank Forces parallel to the lateral axis Explain: - the force on the vertical fin. - the fuselage side force due to sideslip. - the use of bank angle to tilt the lift vector. Explain how bank angle and sides lip are related in a steady asymmetric flight. Explain why the bank angle must be limited. Explain the effect on fin angle of attack due to sideslip Influence of aeroplane mass Explain why controllability with one engine inoperative is a typical problem encountered at low aeroplane mass Intentionally left blank Secondary propeller effects Describe propeller effects: - slip stream. - torque reaction. - asymmetric blade effect.

18 Intentionally left blank V MCA Define V MCA V MCL Define V MCL V MCG Describe how V MCA is determined. Explain influence of CG location. Describe how V MCL is determined. Explain influence of CG location. Define V MCG. Describe how V MCG is determined. Explain influence of CG location Influence of density. Describe the influence of density. Explain why V MCA, V MCL and V MCG reduces with an increase in altitude and temperature.

### Flight Control Systems Introduction

Flight Control Systems Introduction Dr Slide 1 Flight Control System A Flight Control System (FCS) consists of the flight control surfaces, the respective cockpit controls, connecting linkage, and necessary

### A103 AERODYNAMIC PRINCIPLES

A103 AERODYNAMIC PRINCIPLES References: FAA-H-8083-25A, Pilot s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge, Chapter 3 (pgs 4-10) and Chapter 4 (pgs 1-39) OBJECTIVE: Students will understand the fundamental aerodynamic

### Principles of glider flight

Principles of glider flight [ Lecture 2: Control and stability ] Richard Lancaster Email: Richard@RJPLancaster.net Twitter: @RJPLancaster ASK-21 illustrations Copyright 1983 Alexander Schleicher GmbH &

### Aero Club. Introduction to Flight

Aero Club Presents Introduction to RC Modeling Module 1 Introduction to Flight Centre For Innovation IIT Madras Page2 Table of Contents Introduction:... 3 How planes fly How is lift generated?... 3 Forces

### Detailed study 3.4 Topic Test Investigations: Flight

Name: Billanook College Detailed study 3.4 Topic Test Investigations: Flight Ivanhoe Girls Grammar School Questions 1 and 2 relate to the information shown in the diagram in Figure 1. z Question 1 y Figure

### II.E. Airplane Flight Controls

References: FAA-H-8083-3; FAA-8083-3-25 Objectives Key Elements Elements Schedule Equipment IP s Actions SP s Actions Completion Standards The student should develop knowledge of the elements related to

### Homework Exercise to prepare for Class #2.

Homework Exercise to prepare for Class #2. Answer these on notebook paper then correct or improve your answers (using another color) by referring to the answer sheet. 1. Identify the major components depicted

### PILOT S HANDBOOK of Aeronautical Knowledge AC61-23C

PILOT S HANDBOOK of Aeronautical Knowledge AC61-23C Revised 1997 Chapter 1 Excerpt Compliments of... www.alphatrainer.com Toll Free: (877) 542-1112 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION

### DEFINITIONS. Aerofoil

Aerofoil DEFINITIONS An aerofoil is a device designed to produce more lift (or thrust) than drag when air flows over it. Angle of Attack This is the angle between the chord line of the aerofoil and the

### PRIMARY FLIGHT CONTROLS. AILERONS Ailerons control roll about the longitudinal axis. The ailerons are attached to the outboard trailing edge of

Aircraft flight control systems are classified as primary and secondary. The primary control systems consist of those that are required to safely control an airplane during flight. These include the ailerons,

### HIGH ALTITUDE AERODYNAMICS

HIGH ALTITUDE AERODYNAMICS CRITICAL ASPECTS OF MACH FLIGHT In recent years, a number of corporate jet airplanes have been involved in catastrophic loss of control during high-altitude/high-speed flight.

### Jet Propulsion. Lecture-17. Ujjwal K Saha, Ph. D. Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati

Lecture-17 Prepared under QIP-CD Cell Project Jet Propulsion Ujjwal K Saha, Ph. D. Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati 1 Lift: is used to support the weight of

### ATPL Principles of Flight - deel 2

ATPL Principles of Flight - deel 2 1. If flaps are deployed at constant IAS in straight and level flight, the magnitude of tip vortices will eventually: (flap span less then wing span) A decrease B remain

### Principles of glider flight

Principles of glider flight [ Lecture 1: Lift, drag & glide performance ] Richard Lancaster Email: Richard@RJPLancaster.net Twitter: @RJPLancaster ASK-21 illustrations Copyright 1983 Alexander Schleicher

### OUTLINE SHEET BASIC THEORY. 2.1 DEFINE scalar, in a classroom, in accordance with Naval Aviation Fundamentals, NAVAVSCOLSCOM-SG-200

Sheet 1 of 7 OUTLINE SHEET 2-1-1 BASIC THEORY A. INTRODUCTION This lesson is a basic introduction to the theory of aerodynamics. It provides a knowledge base in aerodynamic mathematics, air properties,

### Flight Corridor. The speed-altitude band where flight sustained by aerodynamic forces is technically possible is called the flight corridor.

Flight Corridor The speed-altitude band where flight sustained by aerodynamic forces is technically possible is called the flight corridor. The subsonic Boeing 747 and supersonic Concorde have flight corridors

### Credit value: 10 Guided learning hours: 60

Unit 66: Theory of Flight Unit code: QCF Level 3: Credit value: 10 Guided learning hours: 60 Aim and purpose A/600/7123 BTEC Nationals This unit will provide learners with an understanding of the atmosphere

### Straight and Level. Basic Concepts. Figure 1

Basic Concepts Straight and Level This lesson should start with you asking the student what they did in the last lesson, what do they remember, and determining if they have remembered correctly. We must

### Uncontrolled copy not subject to amendment. Principles of Flight

Uncontrolled copy not subject to amendment Principles of Flight Principles of Flight Learning Outcome 1: Know the principles of lift, weight, thrust and drag and how a balance of forces affects an aeroplane

### V mca (and the conditions that affect it)

V mca (and the conditions that affect it) V mca, the minimum airspeed at which an airborne multiengine airplane is controllable with an inoperative engine under a standard set of conditions, is arguably

### Fighter aircraft design. Aerospace Design Project G. Dimitriadis

Fighter aircraft design Aerospace Design Project 2017-2018 G. Dimitriadis General configuration The elements of the general configuration are the following: Wing Wing placement Airfoil Number of engines

air cadet publication ACP 33 flight volume 2 - principles of flight No Amendment List Date Amended by Date Incorporated 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 i ACP 33 FLIGHT CONTENTS Volume 1... History

### Howard Torode. Member of General Aviation Group and Chairman BGA Technical Committee

Efficient Light Aircraft Design Options from Gliding Howard Torode Member of General Aviation Group and Chairman BGA Technical Committee Presentation Aims Recognise the convergence of interest between

### CASE STUDY FOR USE WITH SECTION B

GCE A level 135/01-B PHYSICS ASSESSMENT UNIT PH5 A.M. THURSDAY, 0 June 013 CASE STUDY FOR USE WITH SECTION B Examination copy To be given out at the start of the examination. The pre-release copy must

### Flight Controls. Chapter 5. Introduction

Chapter 5 Flight Controls Introduction This chapter focuses on the flight control systems a pilot uses to control the forces of flight, and the aircraft s direction and attitude. It should be noted that

### TAKEOFF & LANDING IN ICING CONDITIONS

Original idea from Captain A. Wagner T TAKEOFF & LANDING IN ICING CONDITIONS here have been a number of accidents related to take-off in conditions in which snow and/or other forms of freezing precipitation

### PRE-TEST Module 2 The Principles of Flight Units /60 points

PRE-TEST Module 2 The Principles of Flight Units 1-2-3.../60 points 1 Answer the following questions. (20 p.) moving the plane (4) upward / forward. Opposed to that is 1. What are the names of the four

1. Introduction This example loads report is intended to be read in conjunction with BCAR Section S and CS-VLA both of which can be downloaded from the LAA webpage, and the excellent book Light Aircraft

### WHAT IS GLIDER? A light engineless aircraft designed to glide after being towed aloft or launched from a catapult.

GLIDER BASICS WHAT IS GLIDER? A light engineless aircraft designed to glide after being towed aloft or launched from a catapult. 2 PARTS OF GLIDER A glider can be divided into three main parts: a)fuselage

### LEVEL FOUR AVIATION EVALUATION PRACTICE TEST

Below you will find a practice test for the Level 4 Aviation Evaluation that covers PO431, PO432, PO436, and PO437. It is recommended that you focus on the material covered in the practice test as you

### Part 66 Cat. B1 / B2 Module 8 BASIC AERODYNAMICS. Vilnius Issue 1. Effective date FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY Page 1 of 74

Part 66 Cat. B1 / B2 Module 8 BASIC AERODYNAMICS Vilnius-2017 Issue 1. Effective date 2017-07-28 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY Page 1 of 74 Table of Contents Part-66 Module 8. Basic Aerodynamics (Cat. B1

### Applications of Bernoulli s principle. Principle states that areas with faster moving fluids will experience less pressure

Applications of Bernoulli s principle Principle states that areas with faster moving fluids will experience less pressure Artery o When blood flows through narrower regions of arteries, the speed increases

### ME 239: Rocket Propulsion. Forces Acting on a Vehicle in an Atmosphere (Follows Section 4.2) J. M. Meyers, PhD

ME 239: Rocket Propulsion Forces Acting on a Vehicle in an Atmosphere (Follows Section 4.2) J. M. Meyers, PhD 1 Commonly acting forces on a vehicle flying in a planetary atmosphere: Thrust Aerodynamic

### Chapter 5 Wing design - selection of wing parameters - 3 Lecture 21 Topics

Chapter 5 Wing design - selection of wing parameters - 3 Lecture 21 Topics 5.3.2 Choice of sweep ( ) 5.3.3 Choice of taper ratio ( λ ) 5.3.4 Choice of twist ( ε ) 5.3.5 Wing incidence(i w ) 5.3.6 Choice

### 1. GENERAL AERODYNAMICS

Chapter 1. GENERAL AERODYNAMICS Unless otherwise indicated, this handbook is based on a helicopter that has the following characteristics: 1 - An unsupercharged (normally aspirated) reciprocating engine.

### FUSELAGE. An aircraft s main body section that holds crew and passengers or cargo It is derived from the French word Fusele Spindle shaped

DAY 2 FUSELAGE FUSELAGE An aircraft s main body section that holds crew and passengers or cargo It is derived from the French word Fusele Spindle shaped FUSELAGE FUSELAGE ASSEMBLAGE TYPES OF FUSELAGE STRUCTURE

### Aerodynamic Analysis of Blended Winglet for Low Speed Aircraft

, July 1-3, 2015, London, U.K. Aerodynamic Analysis of Blended Winglet for Low Speed Aircraft Pooja Pragati, Sudarsan Baskar Abstract This paper provides a practical design of a new concept of massive

### Lift for a Finite Wing. all real wings are finite in span (airfoils are considered as infinite in the span)

Lift for a Finite Wing all real wings are finite in span (airfoils are considered as infinite in the span) The lift coefficient differs from that of an airfoil because there are strong vortices produced

### AERODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF SPIN PHENOMENON FOR DELTA WING

ICAS 2002 CONGRESS AERODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF SPIN PHENOMENON FOR DELTA WING Yoshiaki NAKAMURA (nakamura@nuae.nagoya-u.ac.jp) Takafumi YAMADA (yamada@nuae.nagoya-u.ac.jp) Department of Aerospace Engineering,

### Airplane controls. The three primary flight controls are the ailerons, elevator and rudder.

Airplane controls The three primary flight controls are the ailerons, elevator and rudder. Ailerons: The two ailerons, one at the outer trailing edge of each wing, are movable surfaces that control movement

### Attitude Instrument Flying and Aerodynamics

Attitude Instrument Flying and Aerodynamics 2.1 TURNS 1. An airplane requires a sideward force to make it turn. a. When the airplane is banked, lift (which acts perpendicular to the wingspan) acts not

### IMPACT OF FUSELAGE CROSS SECTION ON THE STABILITY OF A GENERIC FIGHTER

IMPACT OF FUSELAGE CROSS SECTION ON THE STABILITY OF A GENERIC FIGHTER Robert M. Hall NASA Langley Research Center Hampton, Virginia ABSTRACT Many traditional data bases, which involved smooth-sided forebodies,

### Reynolds Number Effects on Leading Edge Vortices

Reynolds Number Effects on Leading Edge Vortices Taken From AIAA-2002-2839 Paper Reynolds Numbers Considerations for Supersonic Flight Brenda M. Kulfan 32nd AIAA Fluid Dynamics Conference and Exhibit St.

### EFFECT OF GURNEY FLAPS AND WINGLETS ON THE PERFORMANCE OF THE HAWT

Chapter-6 EFFECT OF GURNEY FLAPS AND WINGLETS ON THE PERFORMANCE OF THE HAWT 6.1 Introduction The gurney flap (wicker bill) was a small flat tab projecting from the trailing edge of a wing. Typically it

Advisory Circular (AC) Stall, Compliance File No. 5009-6-525 AC No. 525-020 RDIMS No. 528401-V3 Issue No. 01 Issuing Branch Aircraft Certification Effective Date 2004-12-01 1.0 INTRODUCTION... 2 1.1 Purpose...

### Aerobatic Trimming Chart

Aerobatic Trimming Chart From RCU - Chip Hyde addresses his view of Engine/Motor thrust. I run almost no right thrust in my planes and use the thottle to rudd mix at 2% left rudd. to throttle at idle.

### AE2610 Introduction to Experimental Methods in Aerospace AERODYNAMIC FORCES ON A WING IN A SUBSONIC WIND TUNNEL

AE2610 Introduction to Experimental Methods in Aerospace AERODYNAMIC FORCES ON A WING IN A SUBSONIC WIND TUNNEL Objectives The primary objective of this experiment is to familiarize the student with measurement

### Aerodynamics for Professional Pilots

Aerodynamics for Professional Pilots 4 th Edition - 2010 Ray Preston B.Sc., M.Ed. Introduction The subject we are studying is called aerodynamics, which means that it has to do with air and motion. You

### PERFORMANCE MANEUVERS

Ch 09.qxd 5/7/04 8:14 AM Page 9-1 PERFORMANCE MANEUVERS Performance maneuvers are used to develop a high degree of pilot skill. They aid the pilot in analyzing the forces acting on the airplane and in

### Low-Speed Wind-Tunnel Investigation of the Stability and Control Characteristics of a Series of Flying Wings With Sweep Angles of 50

NASA Technical Memorandum 464 Low-Speed Wind-Tunnel Investigation of the Stability and Control Characteristics of a Series of Flying Wings With Sweep Angles of 5 Scott P. Fears Lockheed Engineering & Sciences

### Longitudinal Stability of the Lancair 320/360 with Original and MKII Horizontal Stabilizers

Longitudinal Stability of the Lancair 320/360 with Original and MKII Horizontal C. Zavatson 4-23-2014, Rev B 1 Contents 2 Introduction... 4 2.1 Stability... 4 3 Objective and Test Approach... 5 4 Test

### ANALYSIS OF AERODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF A SUPERCRITICAL AIRFOIL FOR LOW SPEED AIRCRAFT

ANALYSIS OF AERODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF A SUPERCRITICAL AIRFOIL FOR LOW SPEED AIRCRAFT P.Sethunathan 1, M.Niventhran 2, V.Siva 2, R.Sadhan Kumar 2 1 Asst.Professor, Department of Aeronautical Engineering,

### JOURNAL PUBLICATIONS

1 JOURNAL PUBLICATIONS 71. Lee, T., Mageed, A., Siddiqui, B. and Ko, L.S., (2016) Impact of ground proximity on aerodynamic properties of an unsteady NACA 0012 airfoil, submitted to Journal of Aerospace

### CHAPTER 5 WING DESIGN

HAPTER 5 WING DESIGN Mohammad Sadraey Daniel Webster ollege Table of ontents hapter 5... 1 Wing Design... 1 5.1. Introduction... 1 5.. Number of Wings... 4 5.3. Wing Vertical Location... 5 5.3.1. High

### BASIC AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES

Slide 1 BASIC AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES The basic aircraft structure serves multiple purposes. Such as aircraft aerodynamics; which indicates how smooth the aircraft flies thru the air (The Skelton of the aircraft

### Conceptual Aerodynamic Design of Delta-type Tailless Unmanned Aircraft

IJUSEng 2014, Vol. 2, No. S2, 1-15 http://dx.doi.org/10.14323/ijuseng.2014.4 Technical Note Conceptual Aerodynamic Design of Delta-type Tailless Unmanned Aircraft Alexander S. Goodman Marques Aviation

Parasite Drag by David F. Rogers http://www.nar-associates.com Copyright c 2005 David F. Rogers. All rights reserved. How many of you still have a Grimes rotating beacon on both the top and bottom of the

### Flightlab Ground School 7. Longitudinal Dynamic Stability

Flightlab Ground School 7. Longitudinal Dynamic Copyright Flight Emergency & Advanced Maneuvers Training, Inc. dba Flightlab, 2009. All rights reserved. For Training Purposes Only Introduction to is the

### Wing-Body Combinations

Wing-Body Combinations even a pencil at an angle of attack will generate lift, albeit small. Hence, lift is produced by the fuselage of an airplane as well as the wing. The mating of a wing with a fuselage

### SEMI-SPAN TESTING IN WIND TUNNELS

25 TH INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF THE AERONAUTICAL SCIENCES SEMI-SPAN TESTING IN WIND TUNNELS S. Eder, K. Hufnagel, C. Tropea Chair of Fluid Mechanics and Aerodynamics, Darmstadt University of Technology

### HOW TO FLY AIRPLANES

HOW TO FLY AIRPLANES Complimentary Ebook Available from bob@safe-flight.net HOW TO FLY AIRPLANES BASIC AIRCRAFT CONTROL Robert Reser, Publisher bob@safe-flight.net Tempe, Arizona Copyright 2012-2016 by

### Comparing GU & Savier airfoil equipped half canard In S4 wind tunnel (France)

Some notes about Comparing GU & Savier airfoil equipped half canard In S4 wind tunnel (France) Matthieu Scherrer Adapted from Charlie Pujo & Nicolas Gorius work Contents Test conditions 3. S-4 Wind-tunnel.............................................

### Improvement of an Artificial Stall Warning System for Sailplanes

Improvement of an Artificial Stall Warning System for Sailplanes Loek M. M. Boermans and Bart Berendsen Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Aerospace Engineering P.O.Box 5058, 2600 GB Delft, The

### STUDIES ON THE OPTIMUM PERFORMANCE OF TAPERED VORTEX FLAPS

ICAS 2000 CONGRESS STUDIES ON THE OPTIMUM PERFORMANCE OF TAPERED VORTEX FLAPS Kenichi RINOIE Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 113-8656, JAPAN Keywords: vortex flap,

### SULAYMANIYAH INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT MATS

KURDISTAN REGIONAL GOVERNMENT SULAYMANIYAH INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT MATS APPENDIX " O " SPEED CONTROL GUIDANCE ( First Edition ) April 2012 Prepared By Fakhir.F. Mohammed Civil Aviation Consultant APPENDIX

### Figure 1 Figure 1 shows the involved forces that must be taken into consideration for rudder design. Among the most widely known profiles, the most su

THE RUDDER starting from the requirements supplied by the customer, the designer must obtain the rudder's characteristics that satisfy such requirements. Subsequently, from such characteristics he must

### BOEING COMMERCIAL AIRPLANE GROUP FLIGHT OPERATIONS TECHNICAL BULLETIN

BOEING COMMERCIAL AIRPLANE GROUP FLIGHT OPERATIONS TECHNICAL BULLETIN NUMBER: 707 717 727 737 747 02-1 B-717-02-09 02-1 02-2 13 747-400 757 767 777 DC-8 50 68 68 10 DC-8-02-01 DC-9 DC-10 MD-80 MD-90 MD-10

### Preliminary Analysis of Drag Reduction for The Boeing

Preliminary Analysis of Drag Reduction for The Boeing 747-400 By: Chuck Dixon, Chief Scientist, Vortex Control Technologies LLC 07. 31. 2012 Potential for Airflow Separation That Can Be Reduced By Vortex

LESSON 4 Aircraft Motion and Control L Quick Write Colonel Lowe had the training, the experience, and the ability to stay calm in the middle of chaos. He used these qualities to rescue others. What are

### DISCLAIMER: This scanned version of the Schweizer 2-33A Sailplane manual is provided without warranty of completeness or accuracy.

DISCLAIMER: This scanned version of the Schweizer 2-33A Sailplane manual is provided without warranty of completeness or accuracy. It is solely as a service to builders of scale model aircraft who are

### Rigging the Pitts by Doug Sowder, IAC #14590

Rigging the Pitts by Doug Sowder, IAC #14590 Pitts not flying so straight anymore? Don t believe that a Pitts can fly hands-off? Maybe you need to set aside a Saturday and do some rigging. The maintenance

### Improved Aerodynamic Characteristics of Aerofoil Shaped Fuselage than that of the Conventional Cylindrical Shaped Fuselage

International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research Volume 4, Issue 1, January-213 1 Improved Aerodynamic Characteristics of Aerofoil Shaped Fuselage than that of the Conventional Cylindrical Shaped

### Induced Drag Reduction for Modern Aircraft without Increasing the Span of the Wing by Using Winglet

International Journal of Mechanical & Mechatronics Engineering IJMME-IJENS Vol:10 No:03 49 Induced Drag Reduction for Modern Aircraft without Increasing the Span of the Wing by Using Winglet Mohammad Ilias

### Drag Divergence and Wave Shock. A Path to Supersonic Flight Barriers

Drag Divergence and Wave Shock A Path to Supersonic Flight Barriers Mach Effects on Coefficient of Drag The Critical Mach Number is the velocity on the airfoil at which sonic flow is first acquired If

### A Different Approach to Teaching Engine-Out Glides

A ifferent Approach to Teaching Engine-Out Glides es Glatt, Ph., ATP/CFI-AI, AGI/IGI When student pilots begin to learn about emergency procedures, the concept of the engine-out glide is introduced. The

### Chapter 5 Wing Design

hapter 5 Wing Design Mohammad Sadraey Daniel Webster ollege TABLE OF ONTENTS hapter 5... 167 Wing Design... 167 5.1. Introduction... 167 5.. Number of Wings... 170 5.3. Wing Vertical Location... 171 5.3.1.

### Figure 1. Curtis 1911 model D type IV pusher

This material can be found in more detail in Understanding Flight 1 st and 2 nd editions by David Anderson and Scott Eberhardt, McGraw-Hill, 2001, and 2009 A Physical Description of Flight; Revisited David

### Principles of Flight. Chapter 4. From the Library at Introduction. Structure of the Atmosphere

From the Library at www.uavgroundschool.com Chapter 4 Principles of Flight Introduction This chapter examines the fundamental physical laws governing the forces acting on an aircraft in flight, and what

### THEORY OF WINGS AND WIND TUNNEL TESTING OF A NACA 2415 AIRFOIL. By Mehrdad Ghods

THEORY OF WINGS AND WIND TUNNEL TESTING OF A NACA 2415 AIRFOIL By Mehrdad Ghods Technical Communication for Engineers The University of British Columbia July 23, 2001 ABSTRACT Theory of Wings and Wind

### See the diagrams at the end of this manual for judging position locations.

Landing Events Penalties General Judges should use airport diagrams, satellite pictures or other means to determine, as accurately as possible, assessments of landing pattern penalties. Judges should be

### Taildragger Technique

Taildragger Technique Rudder Usage There is no mystery involved in the takeoff of a conventional gear aeroplane. There are, however, certain elements of flight that may require the acquisition of new and

### Write important assumptions used in derivation of Bernoulli s equation. Apart from an airplane wing, give an example based on Bernoulli s principle

HW#3 Sum07 #1. Answer in 4 to 5 lines in the space provided for each question: (a) A tank partially filled with water has a balloon well below the free surface and anchored to the bottom by a string. The

### THE APPLICATION OF HYBRID LAMINAR FLOW CONTROL AND VARIABLE CAMBER FLAP AS A FLOW CONTROL ON THE WING FOR REGIONAL AIRCRAFT FAMILY

ICAS 2002 CONGRESS THE APPLICATION OF HYBRID LAMINAR FLOW CONTROL AND VARIABLE CAMBER FLAP AS A FLOW CONTROL ON THE WING FOR REGIONAL AIRCRAFT FAMILY Prasetyo Edi Head of Configuration Design Department

### Lesson 5 Buffet Boundaries VMO/MMO Limits

Copyright Avfacts 2000. Buffet page 1. Lesson 5 Buffet Boundaries VMO/MMO Limits General High speed jet aircraft may suffer both high and low speed stall buffet. The high speed buffet is caused by flow

### 1. A tendency to roll or heel when turning (a known and typically constant disturbance) 2. Motion induced by surface waves of certain frequencies.

Department of Mechanical Engineering Massachusetts Institute of Technology 2.14 Analysis and Design of Feedback Control Systems Fall 2004 October 21, 2004 Case Study on Ship Roll Control Problem Statement:

### Flightlab Ground School 10. Spins

Flightlab Ground School 10. Spins Copyright Flight Emergency & Advanced Maneuvers Training, Inc. dba Flightlab, 2009. All rights reserved. For Training Purposes Only A Short Sermon There s a distinction

### Flying Wings. By Henry Cole

Flying Wings By Henry Cole FLYING WINGS REPRESENT THE THEORETICAL ULTIMATE IN AIRCRAFT DESIGN. USE THESE IDEAS, AVAILABLE AFTER A YEAR, OF RESEARCH, TO DEVELOP PRACTICAL MODELS. The rubber version of this

### Maximum Rate Turns. Objective To carry out a balanced, maximum rate, level turn using full power.

Advanced Manoeuvres Maximum Rate Turns To achieve the maximum rate of turn, the greatest possible force toward the centre of the turn is required. This is achieved by inclining the lift vector as far as

### Stalls and Spins. Tom Johnson CFIG

Stalls and Spins Tom Johnson CFIG Do we need all of this? Lift The force created by moving the wing through the air. Angle of Attack: The angle between the relative wind and the wing chord line. Stalls

### WIND-INDUCED LOADS OVER DOUBLE CANTILEVER BRIDGES UNDER CONSTRUCTION

WIND-INDUCED LOADS OVER DOUBLE CANTILEVER BRIDGES UNDER CONSTRUCTION S. Pindado, J. Meseguer, J. M. Perales, A. Sanz-Andres and A. Martinez Key words: Wind loads, bridge construction, yawing moment. Abstract.

### VII.E. Normal and Crosswind Approach and Landing

References: FAA-H-8083-3; POH/AFM Objectives Key Elements Elements Schedule Equipment IP s Actions SP s Actions Completion Standards The student should be able to perform a normal approach and landing

### Aerodynamic investigation of Winglets on Wind Turbine Blades using CFD

Risø-R-1543(EN) Aerodynamic investigation of Winglets on Wind Turbine Blades using CFD Jeppe Johansen and Niels N. Sørensen Risø National Laboratory Roskilde Denmark February 26 Author: Jeppe Johansen

### HOW AND WHY DO GLIDERS FLY - WHAT SHAPE SHOULD THEY BE?

HOW AND WHY DO GLIDERS FLY - WHAT SHAPE SHOULD THEY BE? What is flight? We all understand that air is a fluid, not dissimilar to, if lighter than, water, and we can all appreciate that an immerse body

### AIRCRAFT STRUCTURAL DESIGN & ANALYSIS K. RAMAJEYATHILAGAM

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURAL DESIGN & ANALYSIS K. RAMAJEYATHILAGAM To invent an airplane is nothing To build one is something But to fly is everything Lilienthal DAY 1 WHAT IS AN AIRCRAFT? An aircraft is a vehicle,

### Compiled by Matt Zagoren

The information provided in this document is to be used during simulated flight only and is not intended to be used in real life. Attention VA's - you may post this file on your site for download. Please

### Flight Profiles are designed as a guideline. Power settings are recommended and subject to change based

MANEUVERS AND PROCEDURES Flight Profiles are designed as a guideline. Power settings are recommended and subject to change based upon actual conditions (i.e. aircraft weight, pressure altitude, icing conditions,

### CIVIL AIR PATROL United States Air Force Auxiliary Cadet Program Directorate. Cessna 172 Maneuvers and Procedures

CIVIL AIR PATROL United States Air Force Auxiliary Cadet Program Directorate Cessna 172 Maneuvers and Procedures This study guide is designed for the National Flight Academy Ground School. The information