Detailed study 3.4 Topic Test Investigations: Flight

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1 Name: Billanook College Detailed study 3.4 Topic Test Investigations: Flight Ivanhoe Girls Grammar School Questions 1 and 2 relate to the information shown in the diagram in Figure 1. z Question 1 y Figure 1 For the aeroplane shown in Figure 1 which of the responses, A D, correctly identifies the aeroplane s pitch, roll and yaw axes? A. x axis = pitch axis, y - axis = roll axis, z axis = yaw axis. B. z axis = pitch axis, x - axis = roll axis, y axis = yaw axis. C. y axis = pitch axis, z - axis = roll axis, x axis = yaw axis. D. x axis = pitch axis, z - axis = roll axis, y axis = yaw axis. x Question 2 Which one of the control surfaces, A D, controls the aeroplanes motion about the pitch axis? A. ailerons. B. flaps. C. rudder. D. elevator. Question 3 In terms of Newton s laws, lift is generated because A. the wing exerts an upward force on the air flowing over it and the air exerts an equal downward force. B. air is deflected downward after colliding with the bottom of the wing forcing the wing upward. C. the curvature of the wing forces air to travel over it at a faster speed than the air travelling under it. D. the wing exerts a downward force on the air flowing over it and the air exerts an equal upward force. 2012U2physicsFlightTest.doc IGGS & BC 24/8/16 Page 1 of 9

2 Question 4 Bernoulli s principle explains in terms of air pressure how lift is generated on a wing. Lift is generated because A. the air pressure above the wing is equal to the air pressure beneath it. B. the air pressure above the wing is greater than the air pressure beneath it. C. the air pressure above the wing is less than the air pressure beneath it. D. the amount of air beneath the wing is greater than that above the wing. Question 5 Bernoulli s equation is based upon A. the principle of conservation of energy. B. the principle of conservation of torques. C. the principle of conservation of forces. D. the principle of conservation of matter. Figure 2 shows a wing suit flyer. Wing suit flyers will jump out of an aeroplane, or off the top of a very high and steep mountain, and then glide before eventually opening their parachute to land on the ground. Figure 2 Question 6 During one such flight a wing suit flyer dropped a distance of 1500 m whilst travelling a horizontal distance of 3600 m. What was his glide ratio? A. 1 : 2.40 B : 1 C : 1 D. 1 : U2physicsFlightTest.doc IGGS & BC 24/8/16 Page 2 of 9

3 Questions 7 to 14 relate to the following information and the diagram shown in Figure 2. Figure 3 shows an aeroplane that is flying with a constant speed of 115 ms -1 and at a constant altitude (height) of 20 metres. It has a total mass of 4700 kg and a wing area of 23.2 m 2. P S CM Q CM = centre of mass R Figure 3 Question 7 On the diagram shown in Figure 3 the forces acting on the aeroplane are labelled P, Q, R and S. In the following table which of the choices, A D, correctly matches the force to the appropriate letter. Lift Thrust Weight Drag A. S P R Q B. P S Q R C. S P Q R D. P S R Q Question 8 For the situation described above the total lift force needs to be: A N. B kn. C. greater than 4700 N. D. greater than 46.1 kn. 2012U2physicsFlightTest.doc IGGS & BC 24/8/16 Page 3 of 9

4 The lift coefficient is a measure of the lifting capacity of a wing. It is a dimensionless number and is calculated by using the equation: C L = L 1 2 ρv2 A Where L is the lift force, ρ is the air density, v is the airspeed, and A is the total wing area. Question 9 Given that the average air density at a height of 20 metres is 1.22 kg m 3 and that the wing has an area of 23.2 m 2 then the lift coefficient is closest to: A B C D The graph in Figure 4 shows part of the graph of how the angle of attack of the aeroplane s wing affects its lift coefficient. Figure 4 Question 10 At what angle of attack should the wing be set at, given the lift coefficient in Question 11? A. 7.8 o B. 6.6 o C. 0.0 o D o 2012U2physicsFlightTest.doc IGGS & BC 24/8/16 Page 4 of 9

5 Question 11 If the aeroplane s airspeed is kept constant as the angle of attack is increased then the aeroplane will eventually reach a situation known as: A. maximum lift. B. supersonic flight. C. subsonic flight. D. stall. Question 12 If the aeroplane was travelling east with an airspeed of 115 ms -1 and a wind from the east was blowing with a speed of 10 ms -1 the aeroplane s groundspeed would be: A. 125 ms -1. B. 105 ms -1. C. 115 ms -1. D. 10 ms -1. Question 13 A short time later the wind shifted direction so that it was blowing from the north with a speed of 20 ms -1. If the aeroplane s airspeed was still 115 ms -1, on what bearing would the pilot need to point the aeroplane so that it would head due east? A. 80 o. B. 90 o. C. 110 o. D. none of the above angles. Figure 5 shows a cross section of a new wing design for a Formula 1 racing car being tested in a wind tunnel. The incoming air stream is shown entering the wind tunnel from the right. When measuring the relative air speed the engineers noted that the air was travelling faster over the bottom surface than over the top surface. Figure 5 Question 14 Which of the following statements best relates the air pressures at the top and bottom surfaces? A. The pressure is the same on both surfaces. B. The pressure at the top surface is less than the pressure at the bottom surface. C. The pressure at the bottom surface is less than the pressure at the top surface. D. It is not possible to determine the relative pressures at the top and bottom surfaces. 2012U2physicsFlightTest.doc IGGS & BC 24/8/16 Page 5 of 9

6 Question 15 relates to the following additional information and the diagram shown in Figure 6. Figure 5 shows a top view of the twin-engined aeroplane. Each of its engines is delivering 5200 N of thrust. Each engine is attached to the wings at a distance of 2.0 m from the aeroplane s centre line. The rudder is 6.5 m from the aeroplane s centre of mass. aeroplane centre line CM = centre of mass 2.0 m CM 6.5 m rudder Figure 6 Question 15 If the aeroplane s right hand engine were to suddenly stop working. Which of the choices, A D, provides the correct position that the rudder needs to be placed in, and the size of the force applied to it, that will keep the aeroplane flying in the straight line shown in Figure 3? A. B. rudder rudder rudder rudder C. D N 1600 N 5400 N 1600 N 2012U2physicsFlightTest.doc IGGS & BC 24/8/16 Page 6 of 9

7 The following information relates to Questions 16 to 18. The Hawker 800 is a mid-size twin-engine corporate aircraft that has a crew of two and typically carries 8 passengers. When first produced in the early 1980s it had no winglets at the end of the wings whereas the current version does. Winglets are small upturned wings placed at the end of the main wing. Figure 6 shows the airflow before and after the winglets were installed. As a consequence of installing winglets the fuel efficiency of the current version of the Hawker 800 has improved by 8.0%. When the current model of the Hawker 800 is flying at a constant cruising speed of 738 kmh -1, the thrust produced by each engine (there are two engines) is around 18 kn. The drag on the plane at this speed is about 9.0 kn. Figure 6 Question 16 The reason why the winglets increase fuel efficiency is that they A. increase drag. B. decrease drag. C. increase thrust. D. decrease thrust. Question 17 If the original range of the Hawker 800 was about km, how far extra has the range been extended by the use of winglets? A. 360 km B km C km D km Question 18 When the Hawker 800 is cruising at 738 kmh -1, what is the available power output? A MW B MW C MW D MW 2012U2physicsFlightTest.doc IGGS & BC 24/8/16 Page 7 of 9

8 Question 19 The IS28-B2 glider has a sink rate of 200 feet per minute. If the glider is in a column of air that is rising at 500 feet per minute the glider will: A. descend at a rate of 200 feet per minute. B. descend at a rate of 700 feet per minute. C. climb at a rate of 300 feet per minute. D. climb at a rate of 700 feet per minute. Question 20 Which of the following best describes the phenomenon of induced drag on an aircraft in level flight? A. Induced drag is the combination of form and skin drag and is a function of the shape and material used in the wing s construction. B. Induced drag is produced when the lift produced by a wing acts parallel to the wing surface. C. Induced drag is produced when the lift produced by a wing acts perpendicular to the curved surface of an aerofoil. D. Induced drag is produced when the lift produced by a wing acts in the opposite direction to an aircraft s weight. End of test 2012U2physicsFlightTest.doc IGGS & BC 24/8/16 Page 8 of 9

9 Formula & Data Sheet Motion 1. velocity; acceleration v = x t ; a = v t 2. equations for constant acceleration x = ut at2 x = vt 1 2 at2 x = 1 (u + v)t 2 v = u + at v 2 = u 2 + 2ax 3. Newton's second law F = ma 4. gravitational potential energy near the surface of the Earth U g = mgh 5. elastic potential energy U s = 1 2 kx2 6. kinetic energy E k = 1 2 mv2 7. mechanical work W = Fx 8. power P = W t = E t = Fv 9. momentum; impulse p = mv ; I = Ft 10. acceleration due to gravity g = 9.80ms Investigations: Flight 1. torque τ = Fr 2. glide ratio (lift-to-drag ratio) glide ratio = glide distance loss of altitude 2012U2physicsFlightTest.doc IGGS & BC 24/8/16 Page 9 of 9

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