The Quasigeostrophic Assumption and the Inertial-Advective Wind

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "The Quasigeostrophic Assumption and the Inertial-Advective Wind"

Transcription

1 The Quasigeostrophic Assumption and the Inertial-Aective Wind The full equation of horizontal motion relates the changes in the horizontal wind vector d V h to pressure gradient and Coriolis accelerations (discounting friction). The two component equations of horizontal motion in Cartesian coordinates that result are du = g z x + fv (1) x component = g z y fu (2) y component The u-component of the geostrophic wind is obtained from (2) u g = g f z y (3)

2 divide both sides of equation (2) by f and substitute (3) into the result and solve for the acceleration. = f (u g u) (4) This equation states that there will be northward or southward acceleration of the air parcel if the real wind differs from the geostrophic wind. Let s assume that we have initially only zonal flow (a jet stream in the upper troposphere that lies along a line of latitude) that is unaccelerated (i.e., geostrophic flow). Then equation (1) is zero. The issue now is whether we can anticipate the development of any north-south motions given the fact that we have balanced (geostrophic flow). Equations (2) and (4) say that we can. The real wind can always be broken into a geostrophic and an ageostrophic component u = u g + u a v = v g + v a (5a) (5b) Substitute (5a) into (4) = fu a = f (u g u) (6) 2

3 Equation (6) gives the ageostrophic wind that occurs if the wind is not in geostrophic balance. Note that the far right hand side of (6) mathematically says that subgeostrophic flow will be associated with northward accelerations and vice versa. This ageostrophic wind is called the inertial aective wind (you ll see why below). The quasigeostrophic assumption is that we try to add back some of the acceleration to the left hand side of the full equation of horizontal motion in which the acceleration is assumed to be zero for geostrophic flow. To do that, we replace V in the full equation of horizontal motion on the left hand side with the geostrophic wind. This gives, when one expands out the Lagrangian derivative V g dv d = V g t + V g (7) in which the subscript h (denoting horizontal) is dropped. Note that we replaced the real wind with the geostrophic wind and did not include the ageostrophic portion of the wind. By replacing the real wind with the geostrophic wind on the right hand side, we re saying that the geostrophic wind almost is the same as the real wind. This adds back a bit of the acceleration (which we have found out is related to divergence) that the geostrophic assumption strictly does not allow (since, except for the effect of the northward variation of the Coriolis parameter, the geostrophic wind is non-divergent). Note that even if we assume that the geostrophic wind is unaccelerated, there can be local changes in the geostrophic wind. 3

4 V g t = V g The term to the right of the equals sign is essentially the aection of the geostrophic wind by itself. In other words, as an air parcel in geostrophic balance moves into a region with a different pressure gradient, it will initially have its initial speed that will be out of balance with the pressure gradient. (This is sort of like a ball rolling down an inclined plane to a flat surface, proceeding along the flat surface, where there is no gradient, by its own momentum). The first term to the right of the equals sign in (7) is the local change of the geostrophic wind. This is due to changes in pressure gradients (in turn due to isallobaric effects), and the motion of troughs and ridges, for example. If we start with the assumptions that the wind flow is zonal, this term is small or zero. With these assumptions, equation (7) becomes d V V g (8) Putting (8) back into (6) we get 4

5 ! V g! V g = fu a = f (u g u)! V g! V g = fu a = f (u g u) (9a,b) which states that the magnitude of the aection of the horizontal geostrophic wind by itself is associated with an acceleration (even though the wind is geostrophic) that can be estimated by a term that is proportional to the difference of the real wind from the geostrophic wind. The conceptual interpretation of (9b) is that positive aection of inertia (when winds are supergeostrophic) is associated with southward accelerations. This occurs when faster winds move into regions of lower pressure gradients (in exit regions of jet streaks). Negative aection of inertia (when winds are subgeostrophic) is associated with northward accelerations. This occurs when slower winds move into regions of higher pressure gradients (in entrance regions of jet streaks). This ageostrophic wind in equation (9a,b), u a, is called the inertialaective wind because it is proportional to the magnitude of the aection of the geostrophic wind by itself, essentially the aection of the wind s intertia. It can be viewed as what the air parcel has to do to get into geostrophic balance as it moves into a region of pressure gradient different than that which it was in initial balance. The left hand side of (9a,b) is quasigeostrophic because we see that there are some accelerations that develop even though we make the assumption that the wind is geostrophic. We ll now apply (9a,b)) this to the real atmosphere by taking your first look at jet streak dynamics. 5

Atmospheric Forces and Force Balances METR Introduction

Atmospheric Forces and Force Balances METR Introduction Atmospheric Forces and Force Balances METR 2021 Introduction In this lab you will be introduced to the forces governing atmospheric motions as well as some of the common force balances. A common theme

More information

Standard atmosphere Typical height (m) Pressure (mb)

Standard atmosphere Typical height (m) Pressure (mb) Standard atmosphere Pressure (mb) Typical height (ft) Typical height (m) 1013.25 0 0 1000 370 110 850 4780 1460 700 9880 3010 500 18280 5570 300 30050 9160 Whiteman 2000 Pressure decreases exponentially

More information

Chapter 6: Air Pressure Measuring air pressure Variations due to temperature and water vapor Development of pressure systems Generation of winds

Chapter 6: Air Pressure Measuring air pressure Variations due to temperature and water vapor Development of pressure systems Generation of winds Chapter 6: Air Pressure Measuring air pressure Variations due to temperature and water vapor Development of pressure systems Generation of winds Understanding Air Pressure: -pressure exerted by the weight

More information

Mesoscale Atmospheric Systems. Upper-level fronts. 13 and 20 March 2018 Heini Wernli. 13 March 2018 H. Wernli 1

Mesoscale Atmospheric Systems. Upper-level fronts. 13 and 20 March 2018 Heini Wernli. 13 March 2018 H. Wernli 1 Mesoscale Atmospheric Systems Upper-level fronts 13 and 20 March 2018 Heini Wernli 13 March 2018 H. Wernli 1 Upper-level fronts Formation of fronts is favored by presence of quasi-horizontal boundaries:

More information

McKnight's Physical Geography 11e

McKnight's Physical Geography 11e Chapter 2 Lecture McKnight's Physical Geography 11e Lectures Chapter 5 Atmospheric Pressure and Wind Michael Commons Ohio Northern University Atmospheric Pressure and Wind The Nature of Atmospheric Pressure

More information

Zonal (East-West) Currents. Wind-Driven Ocean Currents. Zonal (East-West) Currents. Meridional (N-S) Currents

Zonal (East-West) Currents. Wind-Driven Ocean Currents. Zonal (East-West) Currents. Meridional (N-S) Currents Wind-Driven Ocean Currents Similarities between winds & surface currents Zonal (East-West) Currents Trade winds push currents westward north & south of the equator Equatorial currents. Up to 100 cm/sec.

More information

Movement and Position

Movement and Position Movement and Position Syllabus points: 1.2 plot and interpret distance-time graphs 1.3 know and use the relationship between average speed, distance moved and 1.4 describe experiments to investigate the

More information

Position and displacement

Position and displacement /1/14 Position and displacement Objectives Describe motion in 1D using position, distance, and displacement. Analyze motion in 1D using position, distance, and displacement. Correctly use and interpret

More information

Phys 101 College Physics I ` Student Name: Additional Exercises on Chapter 3

Phys 101 College Physics I ` Student Name: Additional Exercises on Chapter 3 Phys 0 College Physics I ` Student Name: Additional Exercises on Chapter ) A displacement vector is.0 m in length and is directed 60.0 east of north. What are the components of this vector? Choice Northward

More information

Global Winds AOSC 200 Tim Canty

Global Winds AOSC 200 Tim Canty Global Winds AOSC 200 Tim Canty Class Web Site: http://www.atmos.umd.edu/~tcanty/aosc200 Topics for today: Global Wind Patterns Deserts Jet Stream Monsoons Ocean transport Ocean cycles Lecture 16 Oct 24

More information

ATMS 310 Tropical Dynamics

ATMS 310 Tropical Dynamics ATMS 310 Tropical Dynamics Introduction Throughout the semester we have focused on mid-latitude dynamics. This is not to say that the dynamics of other parts of the world, such as the tropics, are any

More information

Energy of Anticyclone. by T. Ando. Meteorological Research Tristitute (Received July 9, 1951) Abstract

Energy of Anticyclone. by T. Ando. Meteorological Research Tristitute (Received July 9, 1951) Abstract 551.515.71 Energy of Anticyclone by T. Ando Meteorological Research Tristitute (Received July 9, 1951) Abstract The various kinds of energies of anticyclones which are considered as the centers of action

More information

Sea and Land Breezes METR 4433, Mesoscale Meteorology Spring 2006 (some of the material in this section came from ZMAG)

Sea and Land Breezes METR 4433, Mesoscale Meteorology Spring 2006 (some of the material in this section came from ZMAG) Sea and Land Breezes METR 4433, Mesoscale Meteorology Spring 2006 (some of the material in this section came from ZMAG) 1 Definitions: The sea breeze is a local, thermally direct circulation arising from

More information

CEE 452/652. Week 3, Lecture 1 Mass emission rate, Atmospheric Stability. Dr. Dave DuBois Division of Atmospheric Sciences, Desert Research Institute

CEE 452/652. Week 3, Lecture 1 Mass emission rate, Atmospheric Stability. Dr. Dave DuBois Division of Atmospheric Sciences, Desert Research Institute CEE 452/652 Week 3, Lecture 1 Mass emission rate, Atmospheric Stability Dr. Dave DuBois Division of Atmospheric Sciences, Desert Research Institute Today s topics Review homework Review quiz Mass emission

More information

Figure 1: Graphical definitions of superelevation in terms for a two lane roadway.

Figure 1: Graphical definitions of superelevation in terms for a two lane roadway. Iowa Department of Transportation Office of Design Superelevation 2A-2 Design Manual Chapter 2 Alignments Originally Issued: 12-31-97 Revised: 12-10-10 Superelevation is the banking of the roadway along

More information

Discussion Session 3 2D Relative Motion Week 04

Discussion Session 3 2D Relative Motion Week 04 PHYS 100 Discussion Session 3 2D Relative Motion Week 04 The Plan This week is about two main ideas, practicing vector addition and understanding relative motion. You ll accomplish both by looking at two

More information

How coriolis forces influence turbidity currents.

How coriolis forces influence turbidity currents. How coriolis forces influence turbidity currents. Mathew Wells and Remo Cossu, University of Toronto, Canada nna Wåhlin, Göteborg University, Sweden Jeff Peakall, University of Leeds, UK 1 Questions 1)

More information

Wind and Air Pressure

Wind and Air Pressure Wind and Air Pressure When air moves above the surface of the Earth, it is called wind. Wind is caused by differences in air pressure. When a difference in pressure exists, the air will move from areas

More information

Review of Equivalent Neutral Winds and Stress

Review of Equivalent Neutral Winds and Stress Review of Equivalent Neutral Winds and Stress Mark A. Bourassa Center for Ocean-Atmospheric Prediction Studies, Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Institute & Department of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Science

More information

Four forces on an airplane

Four forces on an airplane Four forces on an airplane By NASA.gov on 10.12.16 Word Count 824 Level MAX TOP: An airplane pictured on June 30, 2016. Courtesy of Pexels. BOTTOM: Four forces on an airplane. Courtesy of NASA. A force

More information

2.4. Applications of Boundary Layer Meteorology

2.4. Applications of Boundary Layer Meteorology 2.4. Applications of Boundary Layer Meteorology 2.4.1. Temporal Evolution & Prediction of the PBL Earlier, we saw the following figure showing the diurnal evolution of PBL. With a typical diurnal cycle,

More information

Kinematics-Projectiles

Kinematics-Projectiles 1. A volleyball hit into the air has an initial speed of 10 meters per second. Which vector best represents the angle above the horizontal that the ball should be hit to remain in the air for the greatest

More information

Air moves towards ITCZ in tropics because of rising air - convection. Horizontal extent of Hadley cell is modified by Friction Coriolis Force

Air moves towards ITCZ in tropics because of rising air - convection. Horizontal extent of Hadley cell is modified by Friction Coriolis Force Air moves towards ITCZ in tropics because of rising air - convection Horizontal extent of Hadley cell is modified by Friction Coriolis Force Speed from rotation Objects at rest on Earth move at very different

More information

Unit 2 Review: Projectile Motion

Unit 2 Review: Projectile Motion Name: Unit 2 Review: Projectile Motion Date: 1. A projectile is fired from a gun near the surface of Earth. The initial velocity of the projectile has a vertical component of 98 meters per second and a

More information

Chapter 11 Waves. Waves transport energy without transporting matter. The intensity is the average power per unit area. It is measured in W/m 2.

Chapter 11 Waves. Waves transport energy without transporting matter. The intensity is the average power per unit area. It is measured in W/m 2. Chapter 11 Waves Energy can be transported by particles or waves A wave is characterized as some sort of disturbance that travels away from a source. The key difference between particles and waves is a

More information

Kinematic Differences between Set- and Jump-Shot Motions in Basketball

Kinematic Differences between Set- and Jump-Shot Motions in Basketball Proceedings Kinematic Differences between Set- and Jump-Shot Motions in Basketball Hiroki Okubo 1, * and Mont Hubbard 2 1 Department of Advanced Robotics, Chiba Institute of Technology, 2-17-1 Tsudanuma,

More information

Motion Control of a Bipedal Walking Robot

Motion Control of a Bipedal Walking Robot Motion Control of a Bipedal Walking Robot Lai Wei Ying, Tang Howe Hing, Mohamed bin Hussein Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor, Malaysia. Wylai2@live.my

More information

A Diagnostic Comparison of Alaskan and Siberian Strong Anticyclones

A Diagnostic Comparison of Alaskan and Siberian Strong Anticyclones 15 MAY 2011 J O N E S A N D C O H E N 2599 A Diagnostic Comparison of Alaskan and Siberian Strong Anticyclones JUSTIN E. JONES AND JUDAH COHEN Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc., Lexington, Massachusetts

More information

1. A cannon shoots a clown directly upward with a speed of 20 m/s. What height will the clown reach?

1. A cannon shoots a clown directly upward with a speed of 20 m/s. What height will the clown reach? Physics R Date: 1. A cannon shoots a clown directly upward with a speed of 20 m/s. What height will the clown reach? How much time will the clown spend in the air? Projectile Motion 1:Horizontally Launched

More information

Downslope Wind Storms

Downslope Wind Storms Downslope Wind Storms How does acceleration over the wing affect pressure field? Equation of Motion for frictionless flow: V t = l k α p+g If we assume a horizontally homogeneous, hydrostatic reference

More information

Current issues regarding induced acceleration analysis of walking using the integration method to decompose the GRF

Current issues regarding induced acceleration analysis of walking using the integration method to decompose the GRF Current issues regarding induced acceleration analysis of walking using the integration method to decompose the GRF George Chen May 17, 2002 Stanford Neuromuscular Biomechanics Lab Group Muscle contribution

More information

Air Pressure and Wind

Air Pressure and Wind Air Pressure and Wind 19.1 Understanding Air Pressure Air Pressure Defined Air pressure is the pressure exerted by the weight of air. Air pressure is exerted in all directions down, up, and sideways. The

More information

Traveling on a Rotating Sphere

Traveling on a Rotating Sphere Traveling on a Rotating Sphere Table of Contents Page Click the titles below to jump through the lesson 2 Spin-offs of a Rotating Sphere 3 What Do You Know? 3 Heated Fluid Circulation 4 Where Do The Trade

More information

time v (vertical) time

time v (vertical) time NT4E-QRT20: PROJECTILE MOTION FOR TWO ROCKS VELOCITY AND ACCELERATION GRAPHS II Two identical rocks are thrown horizontally from a cliff with Rock A having a greater velocity at the instant it is released

More information

1. The principle of fluid pressure that is used in hydraulic brakes or lifts is that:

1. The principle of fluid pressure that is used in hydraulic brakes or lifts is that: University Physics (Prof. David Flory) Chapt_15 Thursday, November 15, 2007 Page 1 Name: Date: 1. The principle of fluid pressure that is used in hydraulic brakes or lifts is that: A) pressure is the same

More information

Numerical study on the wrist action during the golf downswing

Numerical study on the wrist action during the golf downswing Numerical study on the wrist action during the golf downswing C.C. Chen, Y. Inoue and K. Shibara Department of Intelligent Mechanical Systems Engineering, Kochi University of Technology, Kochi-prefecture,

More information

The Physics of Lateral Stability 1

The Physics of Lateral Stability 1 The Physics of Lateral Stability 1 This analysis focuses on the basic physics of lateral stability. We ask Will a boat heeled over return to the vertical? If so, how long will it take? And what is the

More information

Chapter. Air Pressure and Wind

Chapter. Air Pressure and Wind Chapter Air Pressure and Wind 19.1 Understanding Air Pressure Air Pressure Defined Air pressure is the pressure exerted by the weight of air. 19.1 Understanding Air Pressure Air Pressure Defined Air pressure

More information

Chapter 7: Circulation And The Atmosphere

Chapter 7: Circulation And The Atmosphere Chapter 7: Circulation And The Atmosphere Highly integrated wind system Main Circulation Currents: series of deep rivers of air encircling the planet Various perturbations or vortices (hurricanes, tornados,

More information

INTERACTION OF STEP LENGTH AND STEP RATE DURING SPRINT RUNNING

INTERACTION OF STEP LENGTH AND STEP RATE DURING SPRINT RUNNING INTERACTION OF STEP LENGTH AND STEP RATE DURING SPRINT RUNNING Joseph P. Hunter 1, Robert N. Marshall 1,, and Peter J. McNair 3 1 Department of Sport and Exercise Science, The University of Auckland, Auckland,

More information

Chapter 3 PRESSURE AND FLUID STATICS

Chapter 3 PRESSURE AND FLUID STATICS Fluid Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications, 2nd Edition Yunus A. Cengel, John M. Cimbala McGraw-Hill, 2010 Chapter 3 PRESSURE AND FLUID STATICS Lecture slides by Hasan Hacışevki Copyright The McGraw-Hill

More information

Kinematics Review. What distance did the object travel in moving from point A to point B? A) 2.5 m B) 10. m C) 20. m D) 100 m

Kinematics Review. What distance did the object travel in moving from point A to point B? A) 2.5 m B) 10. m C) 20. m D) 100 m Kinematics Review 1. Base your answer to the following question on the diagram below which represents a 10-kilogram object at rest at point A. The object accelerates uniformly from point A to point B in

More information

Lecture 13. Global Wind Patterns and the Oceans EOM

Lecture 13. Global Wind Patterns and the Oceans EOM Lecture 13. Global Wind Patterns and the Oceans EOM Global Wind Patterns and the Oceans Drag from wind exerts a force called wind stress on the ocean surface in the direction of the wind. The currents

More information

1 An object moves at a constant speed of 6 m/s. This means that the object:

1 An object moves at a constant speed of 6 m/s. This means that the object: Slide 1 / 57 1 n object moves at a constant speed of 6 m/s. This means that the object: Increases its speed by 6 m/s every second ecreases its speed by 6 m/s every second oesn t move Has a positive acceleration

More information

The evolution of vortices in vertical shear. 11: Large-scale asymmetries

The evolution of vortices in vertical shear. 11: Large-scale asymmetries Q..?. R. Meteorol. Soc. (2000), 126, pp. 3137-3159 The evolution of vortices in vertical shear. 11: Large-scale asymmetries By SARAH C. JONES* Universitat Munchen, Germany (Received 28 April 1999; revised

More information

STABILITY OF MULTIHULLS Author: Jean Sans

STABILITY OF MULTIHULLS Author: Jean Sans STABILITY OF MULTIHULLS Author: Jean Sans (Translation of a paper dated 10/05/2006 by Simon Forbes) Introduction: The capsize of Multihulls requires a more exhaustive analysis than monohulls, even those

More information

Physics 2048 Test 1 Fall 2000 Dr. Jeff Saul Name:

Physics 2048 Test 1 Fall 2000 Dr. Jeff Saul Name: Physics 2048 Test 1 Fall 2000 Dr. Jeff Saul Name: READ THESE INSTRUCTIONS BEFORE YOU BEGIN Before you start the test, WRITE YOUR NAME ON EVERY PAGE OF THE EXAM. Calculators are permitted, but no notes

More information

Atmospheric Circulation

Atmospheric Circulation Atmospheric Circulation Why do we say Earth's temperature is moderate? It may not look like it, but various processes work to moderate Earth's temperature across the latitudes. Atmospheric circulation

More information

Two dimensional kinematics. Projectile Motion

Two dimensional kinematics. Projectile Motion Two dimensional kinematics Projectile Motion 1. You throw a ball straight upwards with a velocity of 40m/s. How long before it returns to your hand? A. 2s B. 4s C. 6s D. 8s E. 10s 1.You throw a ball straight

More information

QUESTION 1. Sketch graphs (on the axes below) to show: (1) the horizontal speed v x of the ball versus time, for the duration of its flight;

QUESTION 1. Sketch graphs (on the axes below) to show: (1) the horizontal speed v x of the ball versus time, for the duration of its flight; QUESTION 1 A ball is thrown horizontally from a cliff with a speed of 10 ms -1 shown in the diagram at right. Neglecting the effect of air resistance and taking gravitational acceleration to be g +9.8ms

More information

Adaptor Core Technology:

Adaptor Core Technology: Adaptor Core Technology: The Inception and Adapting of Calculus Based Truths within Geometric Entities Written By: Nick Siefers (Nicks@900global.com) Director of Operations 900 Global would like to introduce

More information

Optimization of a Golf Driver

Optimization of a Golf Driver Optimization of a Golf Driver By: Max Dreager Cole Snider Anthony Boyd Frank Rivera Final Report MAE 494: Design Optimization Due: May 10 Abstract In this study, the relationship between a golf ball and

More information

Scales of Atmospheric Motion Scale Length Scale (m) Time Scale (sec) Systems/Importance Molecular (neglected)

Scales of Atmospheric Motion Scale Length Scale (m) Time Scale (sec) Systems/Importance Molecular (neglected) Supplement Wind, Fetch and Waves Scales of Atmospheric Motion Scale Length Scale (m) Time Scale (sec) Systems/Importance Molecular 10-7 - 10-2 10-1 (neglected) Coriolis not important Turbulent 10-2 10

More information

SPORTS BIOMECHANICS FOR CRICKET COACHES

SPORTS BIOMECHANICS FOR CRICKET COACHES SPORTS BIOMECHANICS FOR CRICKET COACHES Level 4: Sports Biomechanics English & Wales Cricket Board February 2013 Dr Paul Hurrion: ECB Level 4 - Sports Biomechanics OVERVIEW * SPORTS SCIE CE * SPORTS MEDICI

More information

For further information, and additional background on the American Meteorological Society s Education Program, please contact:

For further information, and additional background on the American Meteorological Society s Education Program, please contact: Project ATMOSPHERE This guide is one of a series produced by Project ATMOSPHERE, an initiative of the American Meteorological Society. Project ATMOSPHERE has created and trained a network of resource agents

More information

Basis of Structural Design

Basis of Structural Design Basis of Structural Design Course 10 Actions on structures: Wind loads Other loads Course notes are available for download at http://www.ct.upt.ro/users/aurelstratan/ Wind loading: normative references

More information

A Study of Olympic Winning Times

A Study of Olympic Winning Times Connecting Algebra 1 to Advanced Placement* Mathematics A Resource and Strategy Guide Updated: 05/15/ A Study of Olympic Winning Times Objective: Students will graph data, determine a line that models

More information

Numerical Simulation of Boundary Layer Structure and Cross-Equatorial Flow in the Eastern Pacific*

Numerical Simulation of Boundary Layer Structure and Cross-Equatorial Flow in the Eastern Pacific* 1812 J O U R N A L O F T H E A T M O S P H E R I C S C I E N C E S VOLUME 62 Numerical Simulation of Boundary Layer Structure and Cross-Equatorial Flow in the Eastern Pacific* R. JUSTIN SMALL International

More information

Atmospheric & Ocean Circulation-

Atmospheric & Ocean Circulation- Atmospheric & Ocean Circulation- Overview: Atmosphere & Climate Atmospheric layers Heating at different latitudes Atmospheric convection cells (Hadley, Ferrel, Polar) Coriolis Force Generation of winds

More information

NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION ON WATER DISCHARGE CAPABILITY OF SLUICE CAISSON OF TIDAL POWER PLANT

NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION ON WATER DISCHARGE CAPABILITY OF SLUICE CAISSON OF TIDAL POWER PLANT Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Asian and Pacific Coasts (APAC ) December 4 6,, Hong Kong, China NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION ON WATER DISCHARGE CAPABILITY OF SLUICE CAISSON OF TIDAL POWER

More information

Global Structure of Brunt Vaisala Frequency as revealed by COSMIC GPS Radio Occultation

Global Structure of Brunt Vaisala Frequency as revealed by COSMIC GPS Radio Occultation ICGPSRO, May 14-16, 2013, Taiwan Session 3A; U3-2B-208-05 14:10-14:25, May 14 Global Structure of Brunt Vaisala Frequency as revealed by COSMIC GPS Radio Occultation Noersomadi National Institute of Aeronautics

More information

Note! In this lab when you measure, round all measurements to the nearest meter!

Note! In this lab when you measure, round all measurements to the nearest meter! Distance and Displacement Lab Note! In this lab when you measure, round all measurements to the nearest meter! 1. Place a piece of tape where you will begin your walk outside. This tape marks the origin.

More information

Integrated control system for ship motion in inland navigation

Integrated control system for ship motion in inland navigation Integrated control system for ship motion in inland navigation J. Kulczyk, T. Bielihski Institute ofmachines Desing and Operation, Technical University of Wroclaw, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw,

More information

CHAPTER 7 Ocean Circulation

CHAPTER 7 Ocean Circulation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 CHAPTER 7 Ocean Circulation Words Ocean currents Moving seawater Surface ocean currents Transfer heat from warmer to cooler areas Similar to pattern of major wind belts

More information

The inner shelf is a friction-dominated realm where surface and bottom boundary layers overlap.

The inner shelf is a friction-dominated realm where surface and bottom boundary layers overlap. Wave Hydrodynamics. Beach Terminology The inner shelf is a friction-dominated realm where surface and bottom boundary layers overlap. (From Nitrouer, C.A. and Wright, L.D., Rev. Geophys., 32, 85, 1994.

More information

Practice Test: Vectors and Projectile Motion

Practice Test: Vectors and Projectile Motion ame: Practice Test: Vectors and Projectile Motion Part A: Multiple Choice [15 points] 1. A projectile is launched at an angle of 30 0 above the horizontal. eglecting air resistance, what are the projectile

More information

Force, Motion and Energy Review

Force, Motion and Energy Review NAME Force, Motion and Energy Review 1 In the picture to the right, two teams of students are playing tug-of-war. Each team is pulling in the opposite direction, but both teams are moving in the same direction.

More information

ZMP Trajectory Generation for Reduced Trunk Motions of Biped Robots

ZMP Trajectory Generation for Reduced Trunk Motions of Biped Robots ZMP Trajectory Generation for Reduced Trunk Motions of Biped Robots Jong H. Park School of Mechanical Engineering Hanyang University Seoul, 33-79, Korea email:jong.park@ieee.org Yong K. Rhee School of

More information

18.1 Understanding Air Pressure 18.1 Understanding Air Pressure Air Pressure Defined Measuring Air Pressure Air pressure barometer

18.1 Understanding Air Pressure 18.1 Understanding Air Pressure Air Pressure Defined Measuring Air Pressure Air pressure barometer 18.1 Understanding Air Pressure 18.1 Understanding Air Pressure Air Pressure Defined Air pressure is the pressure exerted by the weight of air. Air pressure is exerted in all directions down, up, and sideways.

More information

Acceleration: Galileo s Inclined Plane

Acceleration: Galileo s Inclined Plane Teacher s Notes Main Topic Subtopic Learning Level Technology Level Activity Type Motion Acceleration High Low Student Description: Use a water clock to measure a ball s acceleration as it rolls down an

More information

Influences on Weather and Climate Weather and Climate. Coriolis Effect

Influences on Weather and Climate Weather and Climate. Coriolis Effect Influences on Weather and limate Weather and limate oriolis Effect 1 limate is defined as the common weather conditions in one area over a long period of time. Temperature, humidity, rainfall, and wind

More information

Ch. 2 & 3 Velocity & Acceleration

Ch. 2 & 3 Velocity & Acceleration Ch. 2 & 3 Velocity & Acceleration Objective: Student will be able to Compare Velocity to Speed Identify what is acceleration Calculate velocity and acceleration from an equation and from slope of a graph.

More information

The Coriolis Effect - Deflect the Arrows!

The Coriolis Effect - Deflect the Arrows! NAME: DATE: The Coriolis Effect - Deflect the Arrows Directions: The Circle below represents the Earth. The equator is present, dividing the image into the Northern and Southern hemispheres. The arrows

More information

Lab 9 Ballistic Pendulum

Lab 9 Ballistic Pendulum b Lab 9 Ballistic Pendulum What You Need To Know: The Physics Today s lab is not going to cover any new physics. However, based on what you ve learned in lecture and in lab, we will be combining together

More information

Formula One Race Strategy

Formula One Race Strategy Formula One Race Strategy McLaren Racing Limited Sports Technology McLaren is a registered trademark of McLaren Racing Limited INTRODUCTION Figure 1: A Vodafone McLaren Mercedes driven by Lewis Hamilton

More information

Applying Hooke s Law to Multiple Bungee Cords. Introduction

Applying Hooke s Law to Multiple Bungee Cords. Introduction Applying Hooke s Law to Multiple Bungee Cords Introduction Hooke s Law declares that the force exerted on a spring is proportional to the amount of stretch or compression on the spring, is always directed

More information

Chapter 7 Weather and Climate

Chapter 7 Weather and Climate Chapter 7 Weather and Climate *Describe what weather is, what affects it, and where it occurs. *Explain the connection between air pressure and wind. * *Many factors affect a region s weather. * *atmosphere

More information

5. A bead slides on a curved wire, starting from rest at point A in the figure below. If the wire is frictionless, find each of the following.

5. A bead slides on a curved wire, starting from rest at point A in the figure below. If the wire is frictionless, find each of the following. Name: Work and Energy Problems Date: 1. A 2150 kg car moves down a level highway under the actions of two forces: a 1010 N forward force exerted on the drive wheels by the road and a 960 N resistive force.

More information

Ocean Currents Unit (4 pts)

Ocean Currents Unit (4 pts) Name: Section: Ocean Currents Unit (Topic 9A-1) page 1 Ocean Currents Unit (4 pts) Ocean Currents An ocean current is like a river in the ocean: water is flowing traveling from place to place. Historically,

More information

Propagation of planetary-scale zonal mean wind anomalies and polar oscillations

Propagation of planetary-scale zonal mean wind anomalies and polar oscillations Article Atmospheric Science July 2012 Vol.57 No.20: 2606 261 doi: 10.1007/s113-012-5168-1 SPECIAL TOPICS: Propagation of planetary-scale zonal mean wind anomalies and polar oscillations QIAN WeiHong *

More information

Chapter 13 Fluids. Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 13 Fluids. Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 13 Fluids Phases of Matter Density and Specific Gravity Pressure in Fluids Atmospheric Pressure and Gauge Pressure Pascal s Principle Units of Chapter 13 Measurement of Pressure; Gauges and the

More information

Available online at ScienceDirect. Procedia Engineering 126 (2015 )

Available online at  ScienceDirect. Procedia Engineering 126 (2015 ) Available online at www.sciencedirect.com ScienceDirect Procedia Engineering 126 (2015 ) 431 435 7th International Conference on Fluid Mechanics, ICFM7 Self-propulsion of a flexible plunging foil near

More information

UNDERSTANDING A DIVE COMPUTER. by S. Angelini, Ph.D. Mares S.p.A.

UNDERSTANDING A DIVE COMPUTER. by S. Angelini, Ph.D. Mares S.p.A. UNDERSTANDING A DIVE COMPUTER by S. Angelini, Ph.D. Mares S.p.A. Dive Computer UNDERSTANDING A DIVE COMPUTER The decompression algorithm in a dive computer is an attempt to replicate the effects of a dive

More information

Next Generation Modeling for Deep Water Wave Breaking and Langmuir Circulation

Next Generation Modeling for Deep Water Wave Breaking and Langmuir Circulation Next Generation Modeling for Deep Water Wave Breaking and Langmuir Circulation Eric D. Skyllingstad College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University Corvallis, OR 97331, Phone: (541)

More information

Global Winds and Local Winds

Global Winds and Local Winds Global Winds and Local Winds National Science Education Standards ES 1j What is the Coriolis effect? What are the major global wind systems on Earth? What Causes Wind? Wind is moving air caused by differences

More information

Lecture Outline Chapter 15. Physics, 4 th Edition James S. Walker. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Lecture Outline Chapter 15. Physics, 4 th Edition James S. Walker. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Lecture Outline Chapter 15 Physics, 4 th Edition James S. Walker Chapter 15 Fluids Density Units of Chapter 15 Pressure Static Equilibrium in Fluids: Pressure and Depth Archimedes Principle and Buoyancy

More information

3 Global Winds and Local Winds

3 Global Winds and Local Winds CHAPTER 15 3 Global Winds and Local Winds SECTION The Atmosphere BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What causes wind? What is the Coriolis effect?

More information

West Florida Continental Shelf Response to Upwelling Favorable Wind Forcing 2. Dynamics

West Florida Continental Shelf Response to Upwelling Favorable Wind Forcing 2. Dynamics University of South Florida Scholar Commons Marine Science Faculty Publications College of Marine Science 10-15-1999 West Florida Continental Shelf Response to Upwelling Favorable Wind Forcing 2. Dynamics

More information

Moist convection in hydrogen atmospheres and the frequency of Saturn s giant storms Cheng Li and Andrew P. Ingersoll

Moist convection in hydrogen atmospheres and the frequency of Saturn s giant storms Cheng Li and Andrew P. Ingersoll SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION DOI: 10.1038/NGEO2405 Moist convection in hydrogen atmospheres and the frequency of Saturn s giant storms Cheng Li and Andrew P. Ingersoll 2 S1. Isobaric mixing across temperature

More information

3 Global Winds and Local Winds

3 Global Winds and Local Winds CHAPTER 6 3 Global Winds and Local Winds SECTION The Atmosphere BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What causes wind? What is the Coriolis effect?

More information

Atmospheric & Ocean Circulation- I

Atmospheric & Ocean Circulation- I Atmospheric & Ocean Circulation- I First: need to understand basic Earth s Energy Balance 1) Incoming radiation 2) Albedo (reflectivity) 3) Blackbody Radiation Atm/ Ocean movement ultimately derives from

More information

The Role of Wind Stress Curl in Jet Separation at a Cape

The Role of Wind Stress Curl in Jet Separation at a Cape 2652 J O U R N A L O F P H Y S I C A L O C E A N O G R A P H Y VOLUME 37 The Role of Wind Stress Curl in Jet Separation at a Cape RENATO M. CASTELAO* AND JOHN A. BARTH College of Oceanic and Atmospheric

More information

Chapter 13: The Behavior of Gases

Chapter 13: The Behavior of Gases Chapter 13: The Behavior of Gases I. First Concepts a. The 3 states of matter most important to us: solids, liquids, and gases. b. Real Gases and Ideal Gases i. Real gases exist, ideal gases do not ii.

More information

The validity of a rigid body model of a cricket ball-bat impact

The validity of a rigid body model of a cricket ball-bat impact Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Procedia Engineering 34 (2012 ) 682 687 9 th Conference of the International Sports Engineering Association (ISEA) The validity of a rigid body model of a cricket

More information

Role of the oceans in the climate system

Role of the oceans in the climate system Role of the oceans in the climate system heat exchange and transport hydrological cycle and air-sea exchange of moisture wind, currents, and upwelling gas exchange and carbon cycle Heat transport Two Primary

More information

Walking Control Algorithm of Biped Humanoid Robot on Uneven and Inclined Floor

Walking Control Algorithm of Biped Humanoid Robot on Uneven and Inclined Floor J Intell Robot Syst (27) 48:457 484 DOI 1.17/s1846-6-917-8 Walking Control Algorithm of Biped Humanoid Robot on Uneven and Inclined Floor Jung-Yup Kim & Ill-Woo Park & Jun-Ho Oh Received: 31 July 26 /

More information

DEVIL PHYSICS THE BADDEST CLASS ON CAMPUS AP PHYSICS

DEVIL PHYSICS THE BADDEST CLASS ON CAMPUS AP PHYSICS DEVIL PHYSICS THE BADDEST CLASS ON CAMPUS AP PHYSICS LSN 11-7: WAVE MOTION LSN 11-8: TYPES OF WAVES; LONGITUDINAL AND TRANSVERSE LSN 11-9: ENERGY TRANSPORTED BY WAVES Physics of Waves Questions From Reading

More information

Uncontrolled copy not subject to amendment. Principles of Flight

Uncontrolled copy not subject to amendment. Principles of Flight Uncontrolled copy not subject to amendment Principles of Flight Principles of Flight Learning Outcome 1: Know the principles of lift, weight, thrust and drag and how a balance of forces affects an aeroplane

More information

JAR-23 Normal, Utility, Aerobatic, and Commuter Category Aeroplanes \ Issued 11 March 1994 \ Section 1- Requirements \ Subpart C - Structure \ General

JAR-23 Normal, Utility, Aerobatic, and Commuter Category Aeroplanes \ Issued 11 March 1994 \ Section 1- Requirements \ Subpart C - Structure \ General JAR 23.301 Loads \ JAR 23.301 Loads (a) Strength requirements are specified in terms of limit loads (the maximum loads to be expected in service) and ultimate loads (limit loads multiplied by prescribed

More information

The General Circulation and El Niño. Dr. Christopher M. Godfrey University of North Carolina at Asheville

The General Circulation and El Niño. Dr. Christopher M. Godfrey University of North Carolina at Asheville The General Circulation and El Niño Dr. Christopher M. Godfrey University of North Carolina at Asheville Global Circulation Model Air flow broken up into 3 cells Easterlies in the tropics (trade winds)

More information