A Combined Experimental & Numerical Research Program to Develop a Computer Simulator for Intermittent Gas-lift

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1 37 th Gas-Lift Workshop Houston, Texas, USA February 3 7, 2014 A Combined Experimental & Numerical Research Program to Develop a Computer Simulator for Intermittent Gas-lift Bordalo, S. (1), Barreto, M. (2), Pestana, T. (1), Ochoa Lara, I. (1) (1) UNICAMP, (2) PETROBRAS Feb. 3-7, Gas-Lift Workshop 1

2 Slide 3 Motivation Hundreds of petroleum wells, mainly in the northeast region of Brazil, are equipped with Intermittent Gas-Lift systems (IGL), due to the high number of mature fields with low reservoir static pressure. Desire for a rational tool to evaluate the IGL s performance and to compare artificial lift methods

3 Slide 4 Objective To develop a computer simulator, employing a model based on the fundamental equations of fluid dynamics Liao: laid out most of the general equations Santos: applied the equations to 4 IGL methods (conventional IGL, IGL with plunger, IGL with chamber, Pig-lift) Bordalo et al.: established the foundation for the IGL simulator Carvalho: wrote the first full simulator (with variants for the conventional IGL, IGL with plunger, inverted IGL).

4 Slide 5 Intermittent Gas Lift IGL Cycle

5 Slide 6 Mathematical Modeling Pestana s work: Based on the simulator developed by Carvalho (2004) Introduction of specific formulations for topics such as: the throttling flow regime of the gas-lift valve the behavior of the pressure upstream of the motor valve the behavior of the bottom-hole pressure when the standing valve closes the gas velocity during the decompression stage the two-phase flow in the production line

6 Slide 7 Mathematical Modeling Pressure Upstream of the Motor Valve: Mass Conservation applied to the gas injection line Weymouth s Correlation Pressure Upstream of the Motor Valve is estimated Pressure Upstream of the Motor Valve Thornhil-Craver s equation New gas flow is estimated

7 Slide 8 Mathematical Modeling Gas-Lift Valve Throttling flow Force balance determines the valve stem s position. Stem s position determines the equivalent port size (Hepguler model, 1993). Flow is estimated using the equivalent port size (Thornhill-Craver s equation).

8 Slide 9 Mathematical Modeling Bottom-Hole Pressure (BHP) Depends on the state of the standing valve (open / close) Valve closes immediately when the injection gas raises the pressure downstream of the standing valve to a value higher than what prevails upstream of the valve. While closed, as suggested by Brown (1984), the BHP remains increasing as if the reservoir fluid is accumulating in a virtual hydrostatic column.

9 Slide 10 Mathematical Modeling The well is divided into several subsystems (the control volumes) and, for each of these systems, mass and momentum balance equations are applied, as well as specific correlations for fluid properties (gas compressibility), flow through valves and friction factors. Subsystems: Casing Gas Core Liquid Slug Liquid Film Liquid Load Nonlinear system of 23 equations: 7 OTDE + 16 Algebraic

10 Gas Slug Gas Gas Gas Slug Gas Gas Slug Gas Slug Slide 11 Extension to other Variants Production Line Production Line Motor Valve Motor Valve Motor Valve Production Line Plunger Gas Gas-Lift Valve Gas-Lift Valve Packer Packer Packer Reservoir Reservoir Reservoir Gas-Lift with Plunger Gas-Lift with Chamber Inverted Gas-Lift

11 Slide 12 Numerical Solution Nonlinear System ODE + Algebraic? Solution

12 Slide 13 Numerical Solution Nonlinear System ODE + Algebraic Crank-Nicolson Method System of Nonlinear Algebraic Equations For each time-step Newton-Raphson Method Solution based on a Convergence Criteria LU Decomposition System of Linear Equations

13 Slide 14 Mathematical Modeling Bottom-Hole Pressure (P bh ) and Tubing Pressure (P t ) P t - glv P bh

14 Slide 15 Computational Code / Graphical User Interface Codes were implemented using FORTRAN 90 Each gas-lift method was implemented independently and has it s own executable code. The Graphical User Interface was developed using Python and the PySide library (freeware). Numerical Output Volume of produced liquid Fallback Volume of Injected Gas Graphical Output Bottom-Hole Pressure Wellhead Pressure Tubing & Casing Pressure

15 Graphical User Interface Slide 16

16 Graphical User Interface Slide 17

17 Graphical User Interface Slide 18

18 Bottom Hole Pressure (MPa) Slide 19 Graphical User Interface Graphical Output Bottom-hole Pressure Time (s)

19 Tubing Pressure (MPa) Slide 20 Graphical User Interface Graphical Output 7 Tubing Pressure Time (s)

20 Wellhead Pressure (MPa) Slide 21 Graphical User Interface Graphical Output Wellhead Pressure Time (s)

21 Casing Pressure (MPa) Slide 22 Graphical User Interface Graphical Output Casing Pressure Time (s)

22 Slide 23 Intermittent Gas-Lift & Zadson pneumatic pump The gas injection occurs at regular time intervals synchronized with the feeding of oil from the reservoir to the well. Similar to the IGL, the ZPP lifts of oil through cycles of compression and decompression of gas.

23 Slide 24 Diagram of physical simulator for IGL and ZPP S-5 M-11M-12 M-13 M-10 M-9 M-8 S-6 T-1 2' S-4 1.5' Columns of Production 2' 1.5' 1' T-3 1.5' VE-1 VE-2 VE-3 F-1 F-2 F-3 S-3 F-4 C-1 T-4 Injection of Compressed Gas 2' 2' M-5 SV-4 SV-3 M-4 V-7 SV-2 M-3 M-2 M-6 S-2 1.5' V-6 V-5 SV-1 M- 7 I-17 T-2 Globe valve Ball valve Solenoid valve Check valve Pressure Transducers and Manometers Pressure regulator Y Filter Centrifugal pump V-4 V-3 V-2 V-1 Compressor 2' Compressed air vessel (Horizontal) V-8 M-1 Compressed air vessel (Vertical) 2' S-1 V-IP P-2 Reservoir P-1

24 Slide 25 Elements of the physical simulator for IGL and ZPP Motor valve Gas-Lift valve

25 Slide 26 Cycles Stability for GLI Operation map for the IGL in which stable cycles are found. Tests were performed with different timings ( tc, tinj ) The parameters used were: Pinj = 1.5 bar, Pto = 0.29 bar, and the gas-lift valve was calibrated with Pd = 0.5 bar and R = 0.71

26 Slide 27 Stable cycles Stability is identified by Synchronizing of gas-lift valve with motor valve Stability of fallback over the cycles

27 Slide 28 Short cycle time Instability is presented by the mismatch of the gas-lift valve and motor valve

28 Slide 29 Long cycle time Tubing pressure at the moment of the injection increases with the number of cycles; greater fallback at each cycle; gas cannot adequately lift the liquid load fed into the tubing.

29 Slide 30 Influence of dome pressure on stability Increasing the dome pressure shifts the stable area to the right Higher cycle times are required to acchieve stable cycles

30 Slide 31 Dynamic behavior of ZPP for first mode Behavior of key pressures, featuring a ZPP cycle in Mode 1. During the second pressurization, part of the accumulated gas in the intermediate annular is transferred to the internal annular, passing through the V2 valve. The moment when the liquid reaches the surface is identified by increasing wellhead pressure (Pwh).

31 Slide 32 Dynamic behavior of ZPP for second mode Feeding and first pressurization happens similarly to Mode 1. This mode is used when injection pressure in the first mode doesn t provide an efficient lifting, but it demands higher gas volumes.

32 Slide 33 Dynamic behavior of ZPP for third mode The principle of lifting in the third mode is similar to a Sucker Rod Pump (SRP), in which the tubing is totally filled and the volume fed into the tubing is produced at the surface Figure shows the behavior of the Pam and Pwf vs time, as well as the actuation of V1 and V3 valves following compression and decompression

33 Conclusions a working computer simulator was developed for the dynamics of IGL systems, using a rational mechanistic approach. results are qualitatively consistent. a GUI was created to operate the simulator. the IGLsim may be improved using lab or field data. the IGLsim may be expanded with new features. a laboratory apparatus was built for the study of the Intermittent Gas-lift and Zadson Pneumatic Pump. a map was draw as a function of tc and tinj indicating the region where the cycles are stable. increasing dome pressure requires higher cycle times for stable cycles the dynamics of the stages of a ZPP cycle can be observed, for all the three modes of operation, by monitoring key pressures. produced volumes and fallback can be determined.

34 The authors wish to acknowledge the support of Petrobras and the Gas-lift Lab of the Dept. of Petroleum Engineering at UNICAMP.

35 Copyright Rights to this presentation are owned by the company(ies) and/or author(s) listed on the title page. By submitting this presentation to the Gas-Lift Workshop, they grant to the Workshop, the Artificial Lift Research and Development Council (ALRDC), and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), rights to: Display the presentation at the Workshop. Place it on the web site, with access to the site to be as directed by the Workshop Steering Committee. Place it on a CD for distribution and/or sale as directed by the Workshop Steering Committee. Other uses of this presentation are prohibited without the expressed written permission of the company(ies) and/or author(s) who own it and the Workshop Steering Committee. Feb. 3 7, Gas-Lift Workshop 36

36 Disclaimer The following disclaimer shall be included as the last page of a Technical Presentation or Continuing Education Course. A similar disclaimer is included on the front page of the Gas-Lift Workshop Web Site. The Artificial Lift Research and Development Council and its officers and trustees, and the Gas-Lift Workshop Steering Committee members, and their supporting organizations and companies (here-in-after referred to as the Sponsoring Organizations), and the author(s) of this Technical Presentation or Continuing Education Training Course and their company(ies), provide this presentation and/or training material at the Gas-Lift Workshop "as is" without any warranty of any kind, express or implied, as to the accuracy of the information or the products or services referred to by any presenter (in so far as such warranties may be excluded under any relevant law) and these members and their companies will not be liable for unlawful actions and any losses or damage that may result from use of any presentation as a consequence of any inaccuracies in, or any omission from, the information which therein may be contained. The views, opinions, and conclusions expressed in these presentations and/or training materials are those of the author and not necessarily those of the Sponsoring Organizations. The author is solely responsible for the content of the materials. The Sponsoring Organizations cannot and do not warrant the accuracy of these documents beyond the source documents, although we do make every attempt to work from authoritative sources. The Sponsoring Organizations provide these presentations and/or training materials as a service. The Sponsoring Organizations make no representations or warranties, express or implied, with respect to the presentations and/or training materials, or any part thereof, including any warrantees of title, non-infringement of copyright or patent rights of others, merchantability, or fitness or suitability for any purpose. Feb. 3 7, Gas-Lift Workshop 37

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