# 2 Buoyant Force. TAKE A LOOK 2. Identify What produces buoyant force?

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "2 Buoyant Force. TAKE A LOOK 2. Identify What produces buoyant force?"

## Transcription

1 CHAPTER 3 2 Buoyant Force SECTION Forces in Fluids BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What is buoyant force? What makes objects sink or float? How can we change an object s density? National Science Education Standards PS 1a, 2c What Is Buoyant Force and Fluid Pressure? Why does an ice cube that has been pushed under the water pop back up? A force called buoyant force pushes the ice cube up to the water s surface. Buoyant force is the upward force that a fluid exerts on all objects in the fluid. If an object is buoyant, that means it will float on water like a raft. Or rise in the air like a helium-filled balloon. Look at the figure below. Water exerts a pressure on all sides of the object in the water. The water produces the same amount of horizontal force on both sides of the object. These equal forces balance one another. However, the vertical forces are not equal. Remember that fluid pressure increases with depth. There is more pressure on the bottom of the object than on the top. The longer arrows in the figure below show the larger pressures. You can see that the arrows are longest underneath the object. This shows that the water applies a net upward force on the object. This upward force is buoyant force. It is what makes the object float. STUDY TIP Learn New Words As you read, underline words you don t understand. When you figure out what they mean, write the words and their definitions in your notebook. 1. Identify Why is the force on the bottom of an object in a fluid larger than the force on the top? 2. Identify What produces buoyant force? There is more pressure at the bottom of an object because pressure increases with depth. The differences in pressure produce an upward buoyant force on the object. Buoyant force is what makes you feel lighter when you float in a pool of water. The buoyant force of the water pushes up on your body and reduces your weight. Interactive Textbook 47 Forces in Fluids

2 SECTION 2 Buoyant Force continued Math Focus 3. Calculate A can of soda displaces about 360 ml of water when it is put in a tank of water. The weight of 360 ml of water is about 3.6 N. What is the buoyant force on the can of soda? 4. Identify Will an object sink or float if its weight is less than the buoyant force? 5. Explain Why does the fish float in the middle of the water? Critical Thinking 6. Apply Concepts If the duck in the figure weighed 10 N, would more or less of the duck be underwater? DETERMINING BUOYANT FORCE Archimedes, a Greek mathematician who lived in the third century BCE, discovered how to find buoyant force. Archimedes found that objects in water displace, or take the place of, water. The weight of the displaced water equals the buoyant force of the water. This is now known as Archimedes principle. You can find buoyant force by measuring the weight of the water that an object displaces. Suppose a block of ice displaces 250 ml of water. The weight of 250 ml of water is about 2.5 N. The weight of the displaced water equals the buoyant force. Therefore, the buoyant force on the block is 2.5 N. Notice that only the weight of the displaced fluid determines the buoyant force on an object. The weight of the object does not affect buoyant force. What Makes Objects Float or Sink? An object in a fluid will sink if its weight is greater than the buoyant force. An object floats only when the buoyant force is equal to or less than the object s weight. Weight 12 N Buoyant force 12 N Fish floats and is suspended in the water. Weight 9 N Buoyant force 9 N Duck floats on the surface. Weight 75 N Buoyant force 50 N Rock sinks. SINKING The rock in the figure above weighs 75 N. It displaces 5 L, or about 50 N, of water. According to Archimedes principle, the buoyant force is about 50 N. Since the weight of the rock is greater than the buoyant force, the rock sinks. FLOATING The fish in the figure weighs 12 N. It displaces a volume of water that weighs 12 N. The buoyant force and the fish s weight are equal, so the fish floats in the water. It does not sink to the bottom or rise to the surface it is suspended in the water. Interactive Textbook 48 Forces in Fluids

3 SECTION 2 Buoyant Force continued BUOYING UP If the duck dove underwater, it would displace more than 9 N of water. As a result, the buoyant force on the duck would be greater than the duck s weight. When the buoyant force on an object is greater than the object s weight, the object is buoyed up, or pushed up in the water. An object is buoyed up until the part underwater displaces an amount of water that equals the object s weight. Therefore, the part of the duck that is underwater displaces 9 N of water. How Does Density Affect Floating? Remember that density is the mass of an object divided by its volume. How does the density of the rock compare to the density of water? The volume of the rock is 5 L, and it displaces 5 L of water. The weight of the rock is 75 N, and the weight of 5 L of water is 50 N. The weight of an object is a measure of its mass. In the same volume, the rock has more mass than water. Therefore, the rock is more dense than water. The rock sinks because it is denser than water. The duck floats because it is less dense than water. The fish floats suspended in the water because it has the same density as the water. MORE DENSE OR LESS DENSE THAN AIR Why does an ice cube float on water but not in air? An ice cube floats in water because it is less dense than water. However, most substances are more dense than air. The ice cube is more dense than air, so it does not float in air. One substance that is less dense than air is helium, a gas. When a balloon is filled with helium, the filled balloon becomes less dense than air. Therefore, the balloon floats in air, like the one in the picture below. This balloon floats because the helium in it is less dense than air. STANDARDS CHECK PS 2c If more than one force acts on an object along a straight line, then the forces will reinforce or cancel one another, depending on their direction and magnitude. Unbalanced forces will cause changes in the speed or direction of an object s motion. 7. Explain If a log floating on the water is pushed underwater, why will it pop back up? 8. Define What is density? 9. Explain How does an object s density determine whether it floats or sinks? 10. Infer The balloon in the picture is filled with about 420,000 L of helium. Does 420,000 L of air have a greater or smaller mass than the 420,000 L of helium in the balloon? Explain your answer. Interactive Textbook 49 Forces in Fluids

4 SECTION 2 Buoyant Force continued What Affects an Object s Density? The total density of an object can change if its mass or volume changes. If volume increases and mass stays the same, density decreases. If mass increases and volume stays the same, density increases. 11. Compare What is the volume of the ship compared to the volume of the steel used to make the ship? A block of steel is denser than water, so it sinks. If that block is shaped into a hollow form, the overall density of the form is less than water. Therefore, the ship floats. 12. Explain How can changing the shape of an object lower its overall density? CHANGING SHAPE Steel is almost eight times denser than water. Yet huge steel ships cruise the oceans with ease. If steel is more dense than water, how can these ships float? The reason a steel ship floats has to do with its shape. If the ship were just a big block of steel, it would sink very quickly. However, ships are built with a hollow shape. The hollow shape increases the volume that the steel takes up without increasing the mass of the steel. Increasing the volume of the steel produces a decrease in its density. When the volume of the ship becomes large enough, the overall density of the ship becomes less than water. Therefore, the ship floats. Most ships are built to displace more water than is necessary for the ship to float. These ships are made this way so that they won t sink when people and cargo are loaded onto the ship. CHANGING MASS A submarine is a ship that can travel both on the surface of the water and underwater. Submarines have ballast tanks that can open to let seawater flow in. When seawater flows in, the mass of the submarine increases. Therefore, its overall density increases. When seawater is pushed out, the overall density of the submarine decreases and it rises to the surface. Interactive Textbook 50 Forces in Fluids

5 SECTION 2 Buoyant Force continued Air Water flows into the ballast tanks. The submarine becomes more dense and sinks. Compressed air forces water out of the ballast tanks. The submarine becomes less dense and floats to the surface. 13. Describe How does a submarine increase its density? CHANGING VOLUME Some fish can change their overall density by changing their volume. Most bony fish have an organ called a swim bladder. This swim bladder can fill with gases or release gases. The gases are less dense than the rest of the fish. When gases go into the swim bladder, the overall volume of the fish increases, but the mass of the fish does not change as much. This lowers the overall density of the fish and keeps it from sinking in the water. The fish s nervous system controls the amount of gas in the bladder. Some fish, such as sharks, do not have a swim bladder. These fish must swim constantly to keep from sinking. 14. Explain How do most bony fish change their overall density? Swim bladder Most bony fish have a swim bladder, an organ that allows them to adjust their overall density. Interactive Textbook 51 Forces in Fluids

6 Section 2 NSES PS 1a, 2c SECTION VOCABULARY Archimedes Principle the principle that states that the buoyant force on an object in a fluid is an upward force equal to the weight of the volume of fluid that the object displaces buoyant force the upward force that keeps an object immersed in or floating on a liquid 1. Predict In Figure 1, a block of wood is floating on the surface of some water. In Figure 2, the same block of wood is pushed beneath the surface of the water. In the space below, predict what will happen to the wood when the downward force in Figure 2 is removed. Use the term buoyant force in your answer. Figure 1 Figure 2 2. Calculate A container that is filled with mercury has a mass of 4810 g. If the volume of the container is 355 ml, what is its overall density? Show your work. Round your answer to the nearest tenth. 3. Identify Give two ways that an object s overall density can change. 4. Explain How can knowing an object s density help you to predict whether the object will float or sink in a fluid? Interactive Textbook 52 Forces in Fluids

8 M Forces, Motion, and Energy Answer Key continued 1. When the force is removed, the wood will pop back up to the surface because the buoyant force is greater than the weight of the wood block. 2. density mass volume density 4,810 g 355 ml density 13.5 g/ml 3. Its volume or mass can change. 4. If the object s density is greater than the density of the fluid, the object will sink in the fluid. If the object s density is the same as or less than the density of the fluid, the object will float. SECTION 3 FLUIDS AND MOTION 1. As the speed of a moving fluid increases, the fluid s pressure decreases. 2. You need moving fluid (air) to create pressure differences to lift the kite. 3. It is the upward force on an object that is moving in a fluid. 4. wing size and thrust 5. thrust and lift 6. counterclockwise 7. the force that opposes or restricts motion in a fluid 8. Their wing flaps can change the shape and area of the wings. 9. No, because the fluid would not be confined in the system. 10. F 2 A 2 F 1 A 1 F cm 2 20 N 5 cm 800 N because hydraulic devices in them multiply forces 1. The faster the fluid speed, the lower the pressure. The lower the speed, the higher the pressure. 2. Label above the wing should be fastest air speed ; below the wing, highest pressure. 3. drag 4. Pressure is the same everywhere in the balloon Pascal s principle. 5. Thrust helps a plane fly faster, which decreases the pressure on top of the wings. Because the pressure is lower on top, the pressure underneath creates lift. That makes the plane fly. Chapter 4 Work and Machines SECTION 1 WORK AND POWER 1. Work is done when a force causes an object to move in the direction of the force. 2. The bowler does work on the ball. 3. The object moves when the force is applied. The object moves in the direction of the force. 4. 1) yes, 2) no, 3) yes, 4) no 5. W F d 300 N 20 m 6,000 J 6. W F d 80 N 2 m 160 J 7. The person who supplies less force must move the object a farther distance. 8. Both do the same amount of work. The elevator has the greater power output. 9. P W t 1,200 J 100 W 12 s 10. It can do the same amount of work in less time. 1. No, in order for work to be done on an object, the object has to move in the direction of the force. 2. No, once the ball leaves the pitcher s hand, he is no longer doing work on the ball, because he is no longer applying a force on the ball. 3. W F d 10 N 10 m 100 Nm, or 100 J 4. Work is the transfer of energy to an object by using a force that causes the object to move in the direction of the force. Power is the rate of doing work. 5. You can increase the amount of work that you do in a specific amount of time. You can decrease the time it takes to do the same amount of work. 6. P W t 120 J 3 s 40 W Interactive Textbook Answer Key 85 Forces, Motion, and Energy

### In the liquid phase, molecules can flow freely from position to position by sliding over one another. A liquid takes the shape of its container.

In the liquid phase, molecules can flow freely from position to position by sliding over one another. A liquid takes the shape of its container. In the liquid phase, molecules can flow freely from position

### In the liquid phase, molecules can flow freely from position. another. A liquid takes the shape of its container. 19.

In the liquid phase, molecules can flow freely from position to position by sliding over one another. A liquid takes the shape of its container. In the liquid phase, molecules can flow freely from position

### Density and Buoyancy Notes

Density and Buoyancy Notes Measuring Mass and Volume 3.1 Density A balance can be used to measure the mass of an object. If the object is a liquid, pour it into a graduated cylinder to measure the volume.

### Fluid Mechanics. Liquids and gases have the ability to flow They are called fluids There are a variety of LAWS that fluids obey

Fluid Mechanics Fluid Mechanics Liquids and gases have the ability to flow They are called fluids There are a variety of LAWS that fluids obey Density Regardless of form (solid, liquid, gas) we can define

### Chapter 9. Forces and Fluids

Chapter 9 Forces and Fluids Key Terms hydraulic systems incompressible mass neutral buoyancy pascal pneumatic systems pressure unbalanced forces weight Archimedes principle average density balanced forces

### CARTESIAN DIVER (1 Hour)

(1 Hour) Addresses NGSS Level of Difficulty: 2 Grade Range: K-2 OVERVIEW In this activity, students will build a Cartesian diver and discover how compression and changes in density cause the diver to mysteriously

### 10.4 Buoyancy is a force

Chapter 10.4 Learning Goals Define buoyancy. Explain the relationship between density and buoyancy. Discuss applications of Archimedes principle. 10.4 Buoyancy is a force Buoyancy is a measure of the upward

### PHYS 101 Previous Exam Problems

PHYS 101 Previous Exam Problems CHAPTER 14 Fluids Fluids at rest pressure vs. depth Pascal s principle Archimedes s principle Buoynat forces Fluids in motion: Continuity & Bernoulli equations 1. How deep

### Chapter 13 Fluids. Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 13 Fluids Phases of Matter Density and Specific Gravity Pressure in Fluids Atmospheric Pressure and Gauge Pressure Pascal s Principle Units of Chapter 13 Measurement of Pressure; Gauges and the

### Key Terms Chapter 7. boiling boiling point change of state concentration condensation deposition evaporation flow rate fluid freezing point

Foldable Activity Using the instructions on page 267 in your textbook on how to make foldables, write a key term on each front tab, and the definition on the inside (see example that I made up). You will

### Chapter Five: Density and Buoyancy

Chapter Five: Density and Buoyancy 5.1 Density 5.2 Buoyancy 5.3 Heat Affects Density and Buoyancy 5.1 Mass and Weight Mass is the amount of matter in an object. Weight is a measure of the pulling force

### Matter is made up of particles which are in continual random motion Misconception: Only when a substance is in its liquid or gas state do its

Kinetic Theory of Matter Matter is made up of particles which are in continual random motion Misconception: Only when a substance is in its liquid or gas state do its particles move because in these two

### Pressure is defined as force per unit area. Any fluid can exert a force

Physics Notes Chapter 9 Fluid Mechanics Fluids Fluids are materials that flow, which include both liquids and gases. Liquids have a definite volume but gases do not. In our analysis of fluids it is necessary

### Unit A: Mix and Flow of Matter

Unit A: Mix and Flow of Matter Science 8 1 Section 3.0 THE PROPERTIES OF GASES AND LIQUIDS CAN BE EXPLAINED BY THE PARTICLE MODEL OF MATTER. 2 1 Viscosity and the Effects of Temperature Topic 3.1 3 Viscosity

### 1. All fluids are: A. gases B. liquids C. gases or liquids D. non-metallic E. transparent ans: C

Chapter 14: FLUIDS 1 All fluids are: A gases B liquids C gases or liquids D non-metallic E transparent 2 Gases may be distinguished from other forms of matter by their: A lack of color B small atomic weights

### More About Solids, Liquids and Gases ASSIGNMENT

More About Solids, Liquids and Gases ASSIGNMENT 1. Fill in the blank spaces by choosing the correct words from the list given below: List : water, density, altitudes, lateral, intermolecular, force, cohesion,

### LECTURE 16: Buoyancy. Select LEARNING OBJECTIVES:

Lectures Page 1 Select LEARNING OBJECTIVES: LECTURE 16: Buoyancy Understand that the buoyant force is a result of a pressure gradient within a fluid. Demonstrate the ability to analyze a scenario involving

### Fluids, Pressure and buoyancy

Fluids, Pressure and buoyancy Announcements: CAPA due Friday at 10pm. Comment on the hint in Problem 5. CAPA solutions from previous sets can be found by logging onto CAPA and selecting View Previous Set

### Slide 1 / What is the density of an aluminum block with a mass of 4050 kg and volume of 1.5 m 3?

Slide 1 / 68 1 What is the density of an aluminum block with a mass of 4050 kg and volume of 1.5 m 3? Slide 2 / 68 2 What is the mass of a rectangular shaped ice block with dimensions of 0.04m x 0.05m

### Fluids: Floating & Flying. Student Leaning Objectives 2/16/2016. Distinguish between force and pressure. Recall factors that allow floating

Fluids: Floating & Flying (Chapter 3) Student Leaning Objectives Distinguish between force and pressure Recall factors that allow floating Differentiate between cohesion and adhesion Analyze Pascal s principle

### Lecture Outline Chapter 15. Physics, 4 th Edition James S. Walker. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Lecture Outline Chapter 15 Physics, 4 th Edition James S. Walker Chapter 15 Fluids Density Units of Chapter 15 Pressure Static Equilibrium in Fluids: Pressure and Depth Archimedes Principle and Buoyancy

### Card 1 Chapter 17. Card 2. Chapter 17

Card 1 Card 2 Liquid A - 1.4 g/ml; Liquid B -.82 g/ml; Liquid C - 1.0 g/ml; one liquid you know. What is it? Also how will they stack? Where will a 1.6 g/ml object end up? Find the density of a 5 milliliter,

### Page 1

Contents: 1. Thrust and Pressure 2. Pressure in Fluids 3. Buoyancy 4. Why objects sink or Float when placed on surface of water? 5. Archimedes Principle 6. Relative Density Learning Objectives: The students

### Shark Biology Buoyancy by Bill Andrake

Shark Biology Buoyancy by Bill Andrake Science Lesson: Buoyancy - Based on Webisode 45 - Shark Biology Grade Level: 6-8 Time: Four (45-50 minute) class periods Introduction Jonathan narrates an educational

### . In an elevator accelerating upward (A) both the elevator accelerating upward (B) the first is equations are valid

IIT JEE Achiever 2014 Ist Year Physics-2: Worksheet-1 Date: 2014-06-26 Hydrostatics 1. A liquid can easily change its shape but a solid cannot because (A) the density of a liquid is smaller than that of

### PRESSURE. 7. Fluids 2

DENSITY Fluids can flow, change shape, split into smaller portions and combine into a larger system One of the best ways to quantify a fluid is in terms of its density The density, ρ, of a material (or

### Slide 5 / What is the difference between the pressure on the bottom of a pool and the pressure on the water surface? A ρgh B ρg/h C ρ/gh D gh/ρ

Slide 1 / 47 1 Two substances mercury with a density 13600 kg/m3 and alcohol with a density 800 kg/m3 are selected for an experiment. If the experiment requires equal masses of each liquid, what is the

### ConcepTest PowerPoints

ConcepTest PowerPoints Chapter 10 Physics: Principles with Applications, 6 th edition Giancoli 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall This work is protected by United States copyright laws and is provided solely for

### Physics 221, March 1. Key Concepts: Density and pressure Buoyancy Pumps and siphons Surface tension

Physics 221, March 1 Key Concepts: Density and pressure Buoyancy Pumps and siphons Surface tension Fluids: Liquids Incompressible Gases Compressible Definitions Particle density: Density: Pressure: ρ particle

### ACTIVITY 1: Buoyancy Problems. OBJECTIVE: Practice and Reinforce concepts related to Fluid Pressure, primarily Buoyancy

LESSON PLAN: SNAP, CRACKLE, POP: Submarine Buoyancy, Compression, and Rotational Equilibrium DEVELOPED BY: Bill Sanford, Nansemond Suffolk Academy 2012 NAVAL HISTORICAL FOUNDATION TEACHER FELLOWSHIP ACTIVITY

### Forces in Fluids. Pressure A force distributed over a given area. Equation for Pressure: Pressure = Force / Area. Units for Pressure: Pascal (Pa)

Pressure A force distributed over a given area Equation for Pressure: Pressure = Force / Area Force = Newton s Area = m 2 Units for Pressure: Pascal (Pa) Forces in Fluids Forces in Fluids A woman s high

### Chapter 13 Fluids. Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 13 Fluids Phases of Matter Density and Specific Gravity Pressure in Fluids Atmospheric Pressure and Gauge Pressure Pascal s Principle Units of Chapter 13 Measurement of Pressure; Gauges and the

### Density and Buoyancy

Density and Buoyancy A fluid exerts an upward force on an object that is placed in the fluid. LESSON 1 Density The density of a material is a measure of how much matter is packed into a unit volume of

### Phys101 Lectures Fluids I. Key points: Pressure and Pascal s Principle Buoyancy and Archimedes Principle. Ref: 10-1,2,3,4,5,6,7.

Phys101 Lectures 24-25 luids I Key points: Pressure and Pascal s Principle Buoyancy and Archimedes Principle Ref: 10-1,2,3,4,5,6,7. Page 1 10-1 Phases of Matter The three common phases of matter are solid,

### Chapter 9 Fluids CHAPTER CONTENTS

Flowing fluids, such as the water flowing in the photograph at Coors Falls in Colorado, can make interesting patterns In this chapter, we will investigate the basic physics behind such flow Photo credit:

### FLUID STATICS II: BUOYANCY 1

FLUID STATICS II: BUOYANCY 1 Learning Goals After completing this studio, you should be able to Determine the forces acting on an object immersed in a fluid and their origin, based on the physical properties

### Today: Finish Chapter 13 (Liquids) Start Chapter 14 (Gases and Plasmas)

Today: Finish Chapter 13 (Liquids) Start Chapter 14 (Gases and Plasmas) Gases and plasmas: Preliminaries Will now apply concepts of fluid pressure, buoyancy, flotation of Ch.13, to the atmosphere. Main

### 20 Gases. Gas molecules are far apart and can move freely between collisions.

Gas molecules are far apart and can move freely between collisions. Gases are similar to liquids in that they flow; hence both are called fluids. In a gas, the molecules are far apart, allowing them to

### Gas molecules are far apart. collisions The Atmosphere

Gas molecules are far apart and can move freely between collisions. Gases are similar to liquids in that they flow; hence both are called fluids. In a gas, the molecules are far apart, allowing them to

### Fluids Chapter 13 & 14 Liquids & Gases

Fluids Chapter 13 & 14 Liquids & Gases Liquids like solids are difficult to compress. Both liquids and gases can flow, so both are called fluids. The pressure you feel is due to the weight of water (or

### Old-Exam.Questions-Ch-14 T072 T071

Old-Exam.Questions-Ch-14 T072 Q23. Water is pumped out of a swimming pool at a speed of 5.0 m/s through a uniform hose of radius 1.0 cm. Find the mass of water pumped out of the pool in one minute. (Density

### Student Exploration: Boyle s Law and Charles Law

Name: Date: Student Exploration: Boyle s Law and Charles Law Vocabulary: absolute zero, Boyle s law, Charles law, Kelvin scale, pressure Prior Knowledge Question (Do this BEFORE using the Gizmo.) A small

### mass of container full of air = g mass of container with extra air = g volume of air released = cm 3

1992 Q32 The air pressure inside the passenger cabin of an airliner is 9 x 10 4 Pa when the airliner is at its cruising height. The pressure of the outside atmosphere at this height is 4 x 10 4 Pa. Calculate

### Lesson 12: Fluid statics, Continuity equation (Sections ) Chapter 9 Fluids

Lesson : luid statics, Continuity equation (Sections 9.-9.7) Chapter 9 luids States of Matter - Solid, liquid, gas. luids (liquids and gases) do not hold their shapes. In many cases we can think of liquids

### Gases and Pressure SECTION 11.1

SECTION 11.1 Gases and In the chapter States of Matter, you read about the kineticmolecular theory of matter. You were also introduced to how this theory explains some of the properties of ideal gases.

### Student Exploration: Boyle s Law and Charles Law

Name: Date: Student Exploration: Boyle s Law and Charles Law Vocabulary: absolute zero, Boyle s law, Charles law, Gay-Lussac s law, Kelvin scale, pressure Prior Knowledge Question (Do this BEFORE using

### Fluid Mechanics - Hydrostatics. AP Physics B

luid Mechanics - Hydrostatics AP Physics B States of Matter Before we begin to understand the nature of a luid we must understand the nature of all the states of matter: The 3 primary states of matter

### Density and Buoyancy in Action

8.6 Density and Buoyancy in Action Key Question: How do density and buoyancy affect our lives? Density and buoyancy affect the fluids all around us. Here are a few situations in which density and buoyancy

### FC-CIV HIDRCANA: Channel Hydraulics Flow Mechanics Review Fluid Statics

FC-CIV HIDRCANA: Channel Hydraulics Flow Mechanics Review Fluid Statics Civil Engineering Program, San Ignacio de Loyola University Objective Calculate the forces exerted by a fluid at rest on plane or

### 1. The principle of fluid pressure that is used in hydraulic brakes or lifts is that:

University Physics (Prof. David Flory) Chapt_15 Thursday, November 15, 2007 Page 1 Name: Date: 1. The principle of fluid pressure that is used in hydraulic brakes or lifts is that: A) pressure is the same

### 1Pressure 2 21Volume 2 2. or Temperature 2. where the subscript 1 signifies the initial conditions and the subscript 2 signifies the final conditions.

10-4 Gases The ideal gas law expresses the relationship between the pressure, volume, and temperature of a gas. In the exercises in this chapter, the mass of the gas remains constant. You will be examining

### Chapter 14. Fluids. A fluid a substance that can flow (in contrast to a solid)

Chapter 4 luids A luid a substance that can low (in contrast to a solid) Air Water luids comort to the boundaries o any container in which we put them, and do not maintain a ixed shape density and pressure

### Archimedes' Principle

OpenStax-CNX module: m55215 1 Archimedes' Principle OpenStax This work is produced by OpenStax-CNX and licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 1 Learning Objectives By the end of this

### To connect the words of Archimedes Principle to the actual behavior of submerged objects.

Archimedes Principle PURPOSE To connect the words of Archimedes Principle to the actual behavior of submerged objects. To examine the cause of buoyancy; that is, the variation of pressure with depth in

### Chapter 3 PRESSURE AND FLUID STATICS

Fluid Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications, 2nd Edition Yunus A. Cengel, John M. Cimbala McGraw-Hill, 2010 Chapter 3 PRESSURE AND FLUID STATICS Lecture slides by Hasan Hacışevki Copyright The McGraw-Hill

### We live on the only planet in the

LIQUIDS Objectives Describe what determines the pressure of a liquid at any point. (19.1) Explain what causes a buoyant force on an immersed or submerged object. (19.2) Relate the buoyant force on an immersed

### Chapter 11: Gases: Homework: Read Chapter 11. Keep up with MasteringChemistry and workshops

C h e m i s t r y 1 2 C h a p t e r 11 G a s e s P a g e 1 Chapter 11: Gases: Homework: Read Chapter 11. Keep up with MasteringChemistry and workshops Gas Properties: Gases have high kinetic energy low

### AP B Fluids Practice Problems. Multiple Choice. Slide 2 / 43. Slide 1 / 43. Slide 4 / 43. Slide 3 / 43. Slide 6 / 43. Slide 5 / 43

Slide 1 / 43 Slide 2 / 43 P Fluids Practice Problems Multiple hoice Slide 3 / 43 1 Two substances mercury with a density 13600 kg/m 3 and alcohol with a density 0.8 kg/m 3 are selected for an experiment.

### PHYS 1020 LAB 8: Buoyancy and Archimedes Principle. Pre-Lab

PHYS 1020 LAB 8: Buoyancy and Archimedes Principle Note: Print and complete the separate pre-lab assignment BEFORE the lab. Hand it in at the start of the lab. Pre-Lab While at home, put one ice cube (made

### Density, Pressure Learning Outcomes

1 Density, Pressure Learning Outcomes Define density and pressure, and give their units. Solve problems about density and pressure. Discuss pressure in liquids and gases. State Boyle s Law. Demonstrate

### Applications of Bernoulli s principle. Principle states that areas with faster moving fluids will experience less pressure

Applications of Bernoulli s principle Principle states that areas with faster moving fluids will experience less pressure Artery o When blood flows through narrower regions of arteries, the speed increases

### Detailed study 3.4 Topic Test Investigations: Flight

Name: Billanook College Detailed study 3.4 Topic Test Investigations: Flight Ivanhoe Girls Grammar School Questions 1 and 2 relate to the information shown in the diagram in Figure 1. z Question 1 y Figure

### AP Lab 11.3 Archimedes Principle

ame School Date AP Lab 11.3 Archimedes Principle Explore the Apparatus We ll use the Buoyancy Apparatus in this lab activity. Before starting this activity check to see if there is an introductory video

### Specific gravity: Everything you ever wanted to know about volume, pressure and more

Specific gravity: Everything you ever wanted to know about volume, pressure and more Specific Gravity Part I: What is specific gravity? Grandpa, I kind of understand what gravity is, but what is specific

### Liquids and Gases. O, 1 L = 2.2 lbs H 2. O = 1 kg H 2

Liquids and Gases The unit of volume is the meter cubed, m 3, which is a very large volume. Very often we use cm 3 = cc, or Litres = 10 3 cc Other everyday units are gallons, quarts, pints 1 qt = 2 lbs

### Kinetic Molecular Theory

Kinetic Molecular Theory Name Period Unit 7 HW 1 Worksheet (Goals 1 & 2) 1. Describe how gases, liquids, and solids compare using the following table. Volume (definite or indefinite) Molecular Motion (high,

### SCIENCE and TECHNOLOGY CYCLE 3 MCCAIG ELEMENTARY

NAME SCIENCE and TECHNOLOGY CYCLE 3 MCCAIG ELEMENTARY Air: - colourless, odourless and tasteless, Air and Flight--- Properties of Air - a gas made mainly of nitrogen (78%), oxygen (21%) and small amounts

### Think About This How is the submarine able to float at the surface of the ocean and to dive far beneath it? physicspp.com

What You ll Learn You will explain the expansion and contraction of matter caused by changes in temperature. You will apply Pascal s, Archimedes, and Bernoulli s principles in everyday situations. Why

### INSTRUCTIONAL GOAL: Explain and perform calculations regarding the buoyant force on a

Snap, Crackle, Pop! Submarine Buoyancy, Compression, and Rotational Equilibrium Bill Sanford, Physics Teacher, Nansemond Suffolk Academy, Suffolk 2012 Naval Historical Foundation STEM-H Teacher Fellowship

### 3 Global Winds and Local Winds

CHAPTER 15 3 Global Winds and Local Winds SECTION The Atmosphere BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What causes wind? What is the Coriolis effect?

### Exercises The Atmosphere (page 383) 20.2 Atmospheric Pressure (pages )

Exercises 20.1 The Atmosphere (page 383) 1. The energizes the molecules in Earth s atmosphere. 2. Why is gravity important to Earth s atmosphere? 3. What would happen to Earth s atmosphere without the

### Students measure the change in pressure by varying the volume of trapped air in a syringe while:

How Does a Trapped Gas Behave? Teacher Information Objective Students investigate the effect of changes in the volume of a confined gas on pressure at constant temperature. Using the pressure sensor, students

### PSI Chemistry: Gases Multiple Choice Review

PSI Chemistry: Gases Multiple Choice Review Name Kinetic Molecular Theory 1. According to the kinetic-molecular theory, particles of matterare in constant motion (A) have different shapes (B) have different

### 12 fa. eel), Ara, Fl eat Mobi eu) r V14,:srholki CV -65 P- 1 1). e2r 46. ve, lactogin. 1 V eil - ( - t Teo. c 1 4 d 4. .'=- tit/ (4 nit) 6 --)

1). e2r 46 h eel), /pea lactogin Yd / In 1 V eil - ( - Cw ve, P- 1 Ara, Fl eat Mobi eu) r V14,:srholki 5e 0 (44,4 ci4) CV -65 So 0 t Teo.'=- tit/ (4 nit) 6 --) ci Seco (df_ 1 c 1 4 d 4 5-40 C 12 fa 4)

### Mix and Flow of Matter Unit Test. For each of the following hazardous products match the correct WHMIS symbol

/40 Student Name Class Section 1.1 WHMIS For each of the following hazardous products match the correct WHMIS symbol 1 Flammable A. 2 Corrosive B. 3 Dangerously Reactive C. Section 1.2 The Many Uses of

### Chapter 5: Gases 5.1 Pressure Why study gases? An understanding of real world phenomena. An understanding of how science works.

Chapter 5: Gases 5.1 Pressure Why study gases? An understanding of real world phenomena. An understanding of how science works. A Gas Uniformly fills any container. Easily compressed. Mixes completely

### ACTION FIGURE DIVER. DESIGN CHALLENGE Construct a neutrally buoyant scuba diver who neither sinks to the bottom nor floats on the surface.

Grades 3 5, 6 8 15 minutes ACTION FIGURE DIVER DESIGN CHALLENGE Construct a neutrally buoyant scuba diver who neither sinks to the bottom nor floats on the surface. SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT Plastic action

### 8. Now plot on the following grid the values of T (K) and V from the table above, and connect the points.

Charles s Law According to Charles s law, the volume of a fixed mass of gas varies directly with its Kelvin temperature if its pressure is constant. The following table contains Celsius temperature and

### Write important assumptions used in derivation of Bernoulli s equation. Apart from an airplane wing, give an example based on Bernoulli s principle

HW#3 Sum07 #1. Answer in 4 to 5 lines in the space provided for each question: (a) A tank partially filled with water has a balloon well below the free surface and anchored to the bottom by a string. The

### Overview of Density Worksheet

Name Key formulas/concepts: Overview of Density Worksheet Density Density = Mass divided by Volume (D = M/V). The mass of an object is 25 grams. The volume of an object is 5 cm 3. D = 25g/5cm 3 = 5 g/cm

### BUOYANCY, FLOATATION AND STABILITY

BUOYANCY, FLOATATION AND STABILITY Archimedes Principle When a stationary body is completely submerged in a fluid, or floating so that it is only partially submerged, the resultant fluid force acting on

### Physics, Chapter 8: Hydrostatics (Fluids at Rest)

University of Nebraska - Lincoln DigitalCommons@University of Nebraska - Lincoln Robert Katz Publications Research Papers in Physics and Astronomy 1958 Physics, Chapter 8: Hydrostatics (Fluids at Rest)

### States of Matter Ahhh! A long, hot soak on a

2 States of Matter Ahhh! A long, hot soak on a cold, snowy day. This Asian monkey called a macaque is experiencing one of the properties of matter the transfer of thermal energy from a warmer object to

### Global Winds and Local Winds

Global Winds and Local Winds National Science Education Standards ES 1j What is the Coriolis effect? What are the major global wind systems on Earth? What Causes Wind? Wind is moving air caused by differences

1- (a) A water tank has a rectangular base of dimensions 1.5m by 1.2m and contains 1440 kg of water. Calculate (i) the weight of the water, weight =...... [1] (ii) the pressure exerted by the water on

### Bernoulli's Principle

Bernoulli's Principle Bernoulli's Principle states that as the speed of a moving fluid increases, the pressure within the fluid decreases. Introduction The Bernoulli's Principle explains the behavior of

### Name Class Date. What is a wave? How do waves form? How are transverse and longitudinal waves different?

CHAPTER 15 1 Types of Waves SECTION Waves KEY IDEAS As you read this section, keep these questions in mind: What is a wave? How do waves form? How are transverse and longitudinal waves different? What

### Multiple Choice. AP B Fluids Practice Problems. Mar 22 4:15 PM. Mar 22 4:15 PM. Mar 22 4:02 PM

P Fluids Practice Problems Mar 22 4:15 PM Multiple hoice Mar 22 4:15 PM 1 Two substances mercury with a density 13600 kg/m 3 and alcohol with a density 0.8 g/cm 3 are selected for an experiment. If the

### 3 Global Winds and Local Winds

CHAPTER 1 3 Global Winds and Local Winds SECTION The Atmosphere BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What causes wind? What is the Coriolis effect?

### Lab 11 Density and Buoyancy

b Lab 11 Density and uoyancy Physics 211 Lab What You Need To Know: Density Today s lab will introduce you to the concept of density. Density is a measurement of an object s mass per unit volume of space

### 2 Characteristics of Waves

CHAPTER 15 2 Characteristics of Waves SECTION Waves KEY IDEAS As you read this section, keep these questions in mind: What are some ways to measure and compare waves? How can you calculate the speed of

### 3. Moments and Pressure

Leaving Cert Physics Long Questions 2017-2002 3. Moments and Pressure Remember to photocopy 4 pages onto 1 sheet by going A3 A4 and using back to back on the photocopier Contents Moments: ordinary level

### CP Chapter 13/14 Notes The Property of Gases Kinetic Molecular Theory

CP Chapter 13/14 Notes The Property of Gases Kinetic Molecular Theory Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases The word kinetic refers to. Kinetic energy is the an object has because of its motion. Kinetic Molecular

### Science In Action 8 - Unit 1 Mix and Flow of Matter

1.0 Fluids are used in Technological devices and common everyday materials Key Concepts Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS) and safety fluid properties What does the acronym W.H.M.I.S.

### Homework of chapter (3)

The Islamic University of Gaza, Civil Engineering Department, Fluid mechanics-discussion, Instructor: Dr. Khalil M. Al Astal T.A: Eng. Hasan Almassri T.A: Eng. Mahmoud AlQazzaz First semester, 2013. Homework

### Buoyancy and the Density of Liquids (approx. 2 h) (11/24/15)

Buoyancy and the Density of Liquids (approx. 2 h) (11/24/15) Introduction Which weighs more, a pound of lead or a pound of feathers? If your answer to this question is "a pound of lead", then you are confusing

### Chapter 13: The Behavior of Gases

Chapter 13: The Behavior of Gases I. First Concepts a. The 3 states of matter most important to us: solids, liquids, and gases. b. Real Gases and Ideal Gases i. Real gases exist, ideal gases do not ii.