# In the liquid phase, molecules can flow freely from position to position by sliding over one another. A liquid takes the shape of its container.

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "In the liquid phase, molecules can flow freely from position to position by sliding over one another. A liquid takes the shape of its container."

## Transcription

1 In the liquid phase, molecules can flow freely from position to position by sliding over one another. A liquid takes the shape of its container.

2 In the liquid phase, molecules can flow freely from position to position by sliding over one another. A liquid takes the shape of its container.

3 19.1 Liquid Pressure The pressure of a liquid at rest depends only on gravity and the density and depth of the liquid.

4 19.1 Liquid Pressure A liquid in a container exerts forces on the walls and bottom of the container. Recall that pressure is defined as the force per unit area on which the force acts.

5 19.1 Liquid Pressure The pressure that a block exerts on a table is simply the weight of the block divided by its area of contact. The pressure a liquid in a cylindrical container exerts against the bottom of the container is the weight of the liquid divided by the area of the container bottom. (We ll ignore for now the additional atmospheric pressure.)

6 19.1 Liquid Pressure The liquid exerts a pressure against the bottom of its container, just as the block exerts a pressure against the table.

7 19.1 Liquid Pressure Density How much a liquid weighs, and thus how much pressure it exerts, depends on its density. For the same depth, a denser liquid exerts more pressure. Mercury is 13.6 times as dense as water. For the same volume of liquid, the weight of mercury is 13.6 times the weight of water. The pressure of mercury on the bottom is 13.6 times the pressure of water.

8 19.1 Liquid Pressure Depth For any given liquid, the pressure on the bottom of the container will be greater if the liquid is deeper.

9 19.1 Liquid Pressure a. The liquid in the first container is twice as deep, so the pressure on the bottom is twice that in the second container.

10 19.1 Liquid Pressure a. The liquid in the first container is twice as deep, so the pressure on the bottom is twice that in the second container. b. Two blocks exert twice as much pressure on the table.

11 19.1 Liquid Pressure The pressure of a liquid at rest does not depend on the shape of the container or the size of its bottom surface. Liquids are practically incompressible, at a given temperature, so the density of a liquid is normally the same at all depths. The pressure created by a liquid is: pressure due to liquid = density g depth

12 19.1 Liquid Pressure At a given depth, a liquid exerts the same pressure against any surface the bottom or sides of its container, or even the surface of an object submerged in the liquid to that depth. The pressure a liquid exerts depends on its density and depth.

13 19.1 Liquid Pressure The total pressure of a liquid is density g depth plus the pressure of the atmosphere. When this distinction is important we use the term total pressure. Otherwise, our discussions of liquid pressure refer to pressure in addition to the normally ever-present atmospheric pressure.

14 19.1 Liquid Pressure Volume The pressure of a liquid does not depend on the amount of liquid. Neither the volume nor even the total weight of liquid matters.

15 19.1 Liquid Pressure The water pressure is greater at the bottom of the deeper lake. The dam holding back water twice as deep must withstand greater average water pressure, regardless of the total volume of water.

16 19.1 Liquid Pressure The pressure of the liquid is the same at any given depth below the surface, regardless of the shape of the container.

17 19.1 Liquid Pressure The Pascal s vases illustrate that water pressure depends on depth and not on volume. The water s surface in each of the connected vases is at the same level. The pressures at equal depths are the same. At the bottom of all four vases, for example, the pressures are equal.

18 19.1 Liquid Pressure At any point within a liquid, the forces that produce pressure are exerted equally in all directions. When you are swimming underwater, no matter which way you tilt your head, your ears feel the same amount of water pressure.

19 19.1 Liquid Pressure When the liquid is pressing against a surface, there is a force from the liquid directed perpendicular to the surface. If there is a hole in the surface, the liquid initially will move perpendicular to the surface. Gravity causes the path of the liquid to curve downward. At greater depths, the net force is greater, and the velocity of the escaping liquid is greater.

20 19.1 Liquid Pressure a. The forces against a surface add up to a net force that is perpendicular to the surface.

21 19.1 Liquid Pressure a. The forces against a surface add up to a net force that is perpendicular to the surface. b. Liquid escaping through a hole initially moves perpendicular to the surface.

22 19.1 Liquid Pressure think! A brick mason wishes to mark the back of a building at the exact height of bricks already laid at the front of the building. How can he measure the same height using only a garden hose and water?

23 19.1 Liquid Pressure think! A brick mason wishes to mark the back of a building at the exact height of bricks already laid at the front of the building. How can he measure the same height using only a garden hose and water? Answer: The brick mason can extend a garden hose that is open at both ends from the front to the back of the house, and fill it with water until the water level reaches the height of bricks in the front. Since water seeks its own level, the level of water in the other end of the hose will be the same!

24 19.1 Liquid Pressure What determines the pressure of a liquid?

25 19.2 Buoyancy When the weight of a submerged object is greater than the buoyant force, the object will sink. When the weight is less than the buoyant force, the object will rise to the surface and float.

26 19.2 Buoyancy Buoyancy is the apparent loss of weight of objects when submerged in a liquid. It is easier to lift a boulder submerged on the bottom of a riverbed than to lift it above the water s surface. When the boulder is submerged, the water exerts an upward force that is opposite in direction to gravity. This upward force is called the buoyant force. The buoyant force is the net upward force exerted by a fluid on a submerged or immersed object.

27 19.2 Buoyancy The upward forces against the bottom of a submerged object are greater than the downward forces against the top. There is a net upward force, the buoyant force.

28 19.2 Buoyancy Arrows represent the forces within the liquid that produce pressure against the submerged boulder. The forces are greater at greater depth. The forces acting horizontally against the sides cancel each other, so the boulder is not pushed sideways. Forces acting upward against the bottom are greater than those acting downward against the top. The difference in upward and downward forces is the buoyant force.

29 19.2 Buoyancy When the weight is equal to the buoyant force, the submerged object will remain at any level, like a fish.

30 19.2 Buoyancy If a stone is placed in a container of water, the water level will rise. Water is said to be displaced, or pushed aside, by the stone. The volume of water displaced is equal to the volume of the stone. A completely submerged object always displaces a volume of liquid equal to its own volume.

31 19.2 Buoyancy When an object is submerged, it displaces a volume of water equal to the volume of the object itself.

32 19.2 Buoyancy To determine the volume of an irregularly shaped object, submerge it in water in a measuring cup. Note the apparent increase in volume of the water. The increase is equal to the volume of the submerged object.

33 19.2 Buoyancy When an object is submerged in a container that is initially full, the volume of water overflowing is equal to the volume of the object.

34 19.2 Buoyancy What determines if an object will sink or float?

35 19.3 Archimedes Principle Archimedes principle states that the buoyant force on an immersed object is equal to the weight of the fluid it displaces.

36 19.3 Archimedes Principle Archimedes principle describes the relationship between buoyancy and displaced liquid. It was discovered in ancient times by the Greek philosopher Archimedes (third century B.C.). Archimedes principle is true for liquids and gases, which are both fluids.

37 19.3 Archimedes Principle A liter of water occupies 1000 cubic centimeters, has a mass of 1 kilogram, and weighs 10 N. Any object with a volume of 1 liter will experience a buoyant force of 10 N when fully submerged in water.

38 19.3 Archimedes Principle Immersed means either completely or partially submerged. If we immerse a sealed 1-liter container halfway into water, it will displace half a liter of water and be buoyed up by the weight of half a liter of water. If we immerse it all the way (submerge it), it will be buoyed up by the weight of a full liter of water (10 newtons).

39 19.3 Archimedes Principle Unless the completely submerged container becomes compressed, the buoyant force will equal the weight of 1 liter of water at any depth. The container will displace the same volume of water, and hence the same weight of water, at any depth. The weight of this displaced water (not the weight of the submerged object!) is the buoyant force.

40 19.3 Archimedes Principle A brick weighs less in water than in air. The buoyant force on the submerged brick is equal to the weight of the water displaced.

41 19.3 Archimedes Principle A 300-gram brick weighs about 3 N in air. If the brick displaces 2 N of water when it is submerged, the buoyant force on the submerged brick will also equal 2 N. The brick will seem to weigh less under water than above water. The apparent weight of a submerged object is its weight in air minus the buoyant force.

42 19.3 Archimedes Principle For any submerged block, the upward force due to water pressure on the bottom of the block, minus the downward force due to water pressure on the top, equals the weight of liquid displaced. As long as the block is submerged, depth makes no difference. There is more pressure at greater depths but the difference in pressures on the bottom and top of the block is the same at any depth.

43 19.3 Archimedes Principle The difference in the upward force and the downward force acting on the submerged block is the same at any depth.

44 19.3 Archimedes Principle think! A 1-liter (L) container filled with mercury has a mass of 13.6 kg and weighs 136 N. When it is submerged in water, what is the buoyant force on it?

45 19.3 Archimedes Principle think! A 1-liter (L) container filled with mercury has a mass of 13.6 kg and weighs 136 N. When it is submerged in water, what is the buoyant force on it? Answer: The buoyant force equals the weight of 1 L of water (about 10 N) because the volume of displaced water is 1 L.

46 19.3 Archimedes Principle think! A block is held suspended beneath the water in the three positions, A, B, and C. In which position is the buoyant force on it greatest?

47 19.3 Archimedes Principle think! A block is held suspended beneath the water in the three positions, A, B, and C. In which position is the buoyant force on it greatest? Answer: The buoyant force is the same at all three positions, because the amount of water displaced is the same in A, B, and C.

48 19.3 Archimedes Principle think! A stone is thrown into a deep lake. As it sinks deeper and deeper into the water, does the buoyant force on it increase, decrease, or remain unchanged?

49 19.3 Archimedes Principle think! A stone is thrown into a deep lake. As it sinks deeper and deeper into the water, does the buoyant force on it increase, decrease, or remain unchanged? Answer: The volume of displaced water is the same at any depth. Water is practically incompressible, so its density is the same at any depth, and equal volumes of water weigh the same. The buoyant force on the stone remains unchanged as it sinks deeper and deeper.

50 19.3 Archimedes Principle What does Archimedes principle state?

51 19.4 Does It Sink, or Does It Float? Sinking and floating can be summed up in three simple rules. 1. An object more dense than the fluid in which it is immersed sinks. 2. An object less dense than the fluid in which it is immersed floats. 3. An object with density equal to the density of the fluid in which it is immersed neither sinks nor floats.

52 19.4 Does It Sink, or Does It Float? The buoyant force on a submerged object depends on its volume. A smaller object displaces less water, so a smaller buoyant force acts on it. A larger object displaces more water, so a larger buoyant force acts on it. The submerged object s volume not its weight determines buoyant force.

53 19.4 Does It Sink, or Does It Float? Whether an object sinks or floats (or does neither) depends on both its buoyant force (up) and its weight (down). When the buoyant force exactly equals the weight of a completely submerged object, then the object s weight must equal the weight of displaced water. Since the volumes of the object and of the displaced water are the same, the density of the object must equal the density of water.

54 19.4 Does It Sink, or Does It Float? The wood floats because it is less dense than water. The rock sinks because it is denser than water. The fish neither rises nor sinks because it has the same density as water.

55 19.4 Does It Sink, or Does It Float? The fish is at one with the water it doesn t sink or float. The density of the fish equals the density of water. If the fish were somehow bloated up, it would be less dense than water, and would float to the top. If the fish swallowed a stone and became more dense than water, it would sink to the bottom.

56 19.4 Does It Sink, or Does It Float? The density of a submarine is controlled by the flow of water into and out of its ballast tanks to achieve the desired average density. A fish regulates its density by expanding or contracting an air sac that changes its volume. It moves upward by increasing its volume and downward by contracting its volume. A crocodile increases its density when it swallows stones to swim lower in the water and expose less of itself to its prey.

57 19.4 Does It Sink, or Does It Float? The crocodile on the left is less dense than the crocodile on the right because its belly is not full of stones.

58 19.4 Does It Sink, or Does It Float? think! If a fish makes itself more dense, it will sink; if it makes itself less dense, it will rise. In terms of buoyant force, why is this so?

59 19.4 Does It Sink, or Does It Float? think! If a fish makes itself more dense, it will sink; if it makes itself less dense, it will rise. In terms of buoyant force, why is this so? Answer: When the fish increases its density by decreasing its volume, it displaces less water, so the buoyant force decreases. When the fish decreases its density by expanding, it displaces more water, and the buoyant force increases.

60 19.4 Does It Sink, or Does It Float? What are the three rules of sinking and floating?

61 19.5 Flotation The principle of flotation states that a floating object displaces a weight of fluid equal to its own weight.

62 19.5 Flotation How does a ship made of iron float? This is an example of the principle of flotation. Iron is nearly eight times as dense as water. When it is submerged, a solid 1-ton block of iron will displace only 1/8 ton of water. The buoyant force will be far from enough to keep it from sinking.

63 19.5 Flotation Reshape the same iron block into a bowl shape. The iron bowl still weighs 1 ton but if you lower the bowl into a body of water, it displaces a greater volume of water. The deeper the bowl is immersed, the more water is displaced and the greater is the buoyant force exerted on the bowl. When the weight of the displaced water equals the weight of the bowl, it will sink no farther. The buoyant force now equals the weight of the bowl.

64 19.5 Flotation A solid iron block sinks, while the same block shaped to occupy at least eight times as much volume floats.

65 19.5 Flotation A floating object displaces a weight of liquid equal to its own weight.

66 19.5 Flotation Every ship must be designed to displace a weight of water equal to its own weight. A 10,000-ton ship must be built wide enough to displace 10,000 tons of water before it sinks too deep below the surface.

67 19.5 Flotation The weight of the floating canoe equals the weight of the water displaced by the submerged part of the canoe. It floats lower in the water when loaded.

68 19.5 Flotation The same ship is shown empty and loaded. The weight of the ship s load equals the weight of extra water displaced.

69 19.5 Flotation If a submarine beneath the surface displaces a weight of water greater than its own weight, it will rise. If it displaces less, it will go down. If it displaces exactly its weight, it will remain at constant depth. Water has slightly different densities at different temperatures, so a submarine must make periodic adjustments.

70 19.5 Flotation What does the principle of flotation state?

71 19.6 Pascal s Principle Pascal s principle states that changes in pressure at any point in an enclosed fluid at rest are transmitted undiminished to all points in the fluid and act in all directions.

72 19.6 Pascal s Principle A change in the pressure in one part of a fluid is transmitted to other parts. If the pressure of city water is increased at the pumping station by 10 units of pressure, the pressure everywhere in the pipes of the connected system will be increased by 10 units of pressure. Pascal s principle describes how changes in a pressure are transmitted in a fluid.

73 19.6 Pascal s Principle Pascal s principle is employed in a hydraulic press. Fill a U-shaped tube with water and place pistons at each end. Pressure exerted against the left piston will be transmitted throughout the liquid and against the bottom of the right piston. The pressure the left piston exerts against the water will be exactly equal to the pressure the water exerts against the right piston if the levels are the same.

74 19.6 Pascal s Principle The force exerted on the left piston increases the pressure in the liquid and is transmitted to the right piston.

75 19.6 Pascal s Principle The force exerted on the left piston increases the pressure in the liquid and is transmitted to the right piston.

76 19.6 Pascal s Principle A 1-N load on the left piston will support 50 N on the right piston.

77 19.6 Pascal s Principle The piston on the left has an area of 1 cm 2, and the piston on the right has an area 50 times as great, 50 cm 2. A 1-newton load on the left piston causes an additional pressure of 1 newton per square centimeter (1 N/cm 2 ). The pressure is transmitted throughout the liquid and up against the larger piston.

78 19.6 Pascal s Principle The additional pressure of 1 N/cm 2 is exerted against every square centimeter of the larger piston. The total extra force exerted on the larger piston is 50 newtons. The larger piston will support a 50-newton load. This is 50 times the load on the smaller piston!

79 19.6 Pascal s Principle We can multiply forces with such a device 1 newton input, 50 newtons output. By further increasing the area of the larger piston, we can multiply forces to any amount.

80 19.6 Pascal s Principle The increase in force is compensated for by a decrease in distance. When the small piston is moved downward 10 cm, the large piston will be raised only one fiftieth of this, or 0.2 cm. The input force multiplied by the distance it moves is equal to the output force multiplied by the distance it moves.

81 19.6 Pascal s Principle The automobile lift in a service station is an application of Pascal s principle. A low pressure exerted over a relatively large area produces a large force.

82 19.6 Pascal s Principle Pascal s principle applies to all fluids (gases and liquids). The automobile lift is in many service stations. Compressed air exerts pressure on the oil in an underground reservoir. The oil transmits the pressure to a cylinder, which lifts the automobile. Whatever air pressure the compressor supplies to the reservoir, is transmitted through the oil to the piston that raises the car.

83 19.6 Pascal s Principle think! As the automobile is being lifted, how does the change in oil level in the reservoir compare with the distance the automobile moves?

84 19.6 Pascal s Principle think! As the automobile is being lifted, how does the change in oil level in the reservoir compare with the distance the automobile moves? Answer: The car moves up a greater distance than the oil level drops, since the area of the piston is smaller than the surface area of the oil in the reservoir. (Note: The surface area of the reservoir doesn t matter it contains no piston.)

85 19.6 Pascal s Principle What does Pascal s principle state?

86 Assessment Questions 1. Water pressure at the bottom of a lake depends on the a. weight of water in the lake. b. surface area of the lake. c. depth of the lake. d. density of the water.

87 Assessment Questions 1. Water pressure at the bottom of a lake depends on the a. weight of water in the lake. b. surface area of the lake. c. depth of the lake. d. density of the water. Answer: C

88 Assessment Questions 2. The buoyant force that acts on an object submerged in water is due to a. equal water pressures on all sides. b. greater water pressure on the bottom than on the top. c. the greater volume of the submerged object compared with the volume of an equal weight of water. d. whether or not the object is denser than water.

89 Assessment Questions 2. The buoyant force that acts on an object submerged in water is due to a. equal water pressures on all sides. b. greater water pressure on the bottom than on the top. c. the greater volume of the submerged object compared with the volume of an equal weight of water. d. whether or not the object is denser than water. Answer: B

90 Assessment Questions 3. If an object submerged in water displaces 20 kg of water, then the buoyant force that acts on the object is a. 20 kg. b. 20 N. c. 200 N. d. 400 N.

91 Assessment Questions 3. If an object submerged in water displaces 20 kg of water, then the buoyant force that acts on the object is a. 20 kg. b. 20 N. c. 200 N. d. 400 N. Answer: C

92 Assessment Questions 4. The buoyant force that normally acts on a 1-kg fish is a. less than 10 N. b. 10 N. c. more than 10 N. d. dependent on whether it is in salt water or fresh water.

93 Assessment Questions 4. The buoyant force that normally acts on a 1-kg fish is a. less than 10 N. b. 10 N. c. more than 10 N. d. dependent on whether it is in salt water or fresh water. Answer: B

94 Assessment Questions 5. The buoyant force that acts on a 20,000-N ship is a. somewhat less than 20,000 N. b. 20,000 N. c. more than 20,000 N. d. dependent on whether it is in fresh water or salt water.

95 Assessment Questions 5. The buoyant force that acts on a 20,000-N ship is a. somewhat less than 20,000 N. b. 20,000 N. c. more than 20,000 N. d. dependent on whether it is in fresh water or salt water. Answer: B

96 Assessment Questions 6. Consider a U-shaped tube filled with water with pistons at each end. When pressure is increased at one end of the tube, pressure at the other side will a. increase by the same amount. b. increase more if the piston at the output end has a greater area. c. decrease if the piston at the output end has a smaller area. d. decrease in accord with the conservation of energy, regardless of piston area.

97 Assessment Questions 6. Consider a U-shaped tube filled with water with pistons at each end. When pressure is increased at one end of the tube, pressure at the other side will a. increase by the same amount. b. increase more if the piston at the output end has a greater area. c. decrease if the piston at the output end has a smaller area. d. decrease in accord with the conservation of energy, regardless of piston area. Answer: A

### In the liquid phase, molecules can flow freely from position. another. A liquid takes the shape of its container. 19.

In the liquid phase, molecules can flow freely from position to position by sliding over one another. A liquid takes the shape of its container. In the liquid phase, molecules can flow freely from position

### Fluid Mechanics. Liquids and gases have the ability to flow They are called fluids There are a variety of LAWS that fluids obey

Fluid Mechanics Fluid Mechanics Liquids and gases have the ability to flow They are called fluids There are a variety of LAWS that fluids obey Density Regardless of form (solid, liquid, gas) we can define

### We live on the only planet in the

LIQUIDS Objectives Describe what determines the pressure of a liquid at any point. (19.1) Explain what causes a buoyant force on an immersed or submerged object. (19.2) Relate the buoyant force on an immersed

### Chapter 9. Forces and Fluids

Chapter 9 Forces and Fluids Key Terms hydraulic systems incompressible mass neutral buoyancy pascal pneumatic systems pressure unbalanced forces weight Archimedes principle average density balanced forces

### 2 Buoyant Force. TAKE A LOOK 2. Identify What produces buoyant force?

CHAPTER 3 2 Buoyant Force SECTION Forces in Fluids BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What is buoyant force? What makes objects sink or float? How

### 1. All fluids are: A. gases B. liquids C. gases or liquids D. non-metallic E. transparent ans: C

Chapter 14: FLUIDS 1 All fluids are: A gases B liquids C gases or liquids D non-metallic E transparent 2 Gases may be distinguished from other forms of matter by their: A lack of color B small atomic weights

### 3. A fluid is forced through a pipe of changing cross section as shown. In which section would the pressure of the fluid be a minimum?

AP Physics Multiple Choice Practice Fluid Mechanics 1. A cork has weight mg and density 5% of water s density. A string is tied around the cork and attached to the bottom of a water-filled container. The

Buoyancy Additional Information Any object, fully or partially immersed in a fluid, is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object. Archimedes of Syracuse Archimedes principle

### Fluids, Pressure and buoyancy

Fluids, Pressure and buoyancy Announcements: CAPA due Friday at 10pm. Comment on the hint in Problem 5. CAPA solutions from previous sets can be found by logging onto CAPA and selecting View Previous Set

### PHYS 101 Previous Exam Problems

PHYS 101 Previous Exam Problems CHAPTER 14 Fluids Fluids at rest pressure vs. depth Pascal s principle Archimedes s principle Buoynat forces Fluids in motion: Continuity & Bernoulli equations 1. How deep

### Unit A: Mix and Flow of Matter

Unit A: Mix and Flow of Matter Science 8 1 Section 3.0 THE PROPERTIES OF GASES AND LIQUIDS CAN BE EXPLAINED BY THE PARTICLE MODEL OF MATTER. 2 1 Viscosity and the Effects of Temperature Topic 3.1 3 Viscosity

### Vacuum P=0. h=76 cm A B C. Barometer

Recap: Pressure Pressure = Force per unit area (P = F /A; units: Pascals) Density of object = mass / volume (ρ = m /V; units: kg / m 3 ) Pascal s Law:Pressure is transmitted equally in all directions throughout

### Slide 5 / What is the difference between the pressure on the bottom of a pool and the pressure on the water surface? A ρgh B ρg/h C ρ/gh D gh/ρ

Slide 1 / 47 1 Two substances mercury with a density 13600 kg/m3 and alcohol with a density 800 kg/m3 are selected for an experiment. If the experiment requires equal masses of each liquid, what is the

### Density and Buoyancy Notes

Density and Buoyancy Notes Measuring Mass and Volume 3.1 Density A balance can be used to measure the mass of an object. If the object is a liquid, pour it into a graduated cylinder to measure the volume.

### Chapter 14 Fluids Mass Density Pressure Pressure in a Static Fluid Pascal's Principle Archimedes' Principle

Chapter 14 Fluids Mass Density Pressure Pressure in a Static Fluid Pascal's Principle Archimedes' Principle Fluids in Motion The Equation of Continuity DEFINITION OF MASS DENSITY The mass density ρ is

### Chapter 13 Fluids. Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 13 Fluids Phases of Matter Density and Specific Gravity Pressure in Fluids Atmospheric Pressure and Gauge Pressure Pascal s Principle Units of Chapter 13 Measurement of Pressure; Gauges and the

### Unit 7. Pressure in fluids

-- Unit 7. Pressure in fluids Index 1.- Pressure...2 2.- Fluids...2 3.- Pressure in fluids...3 4.- Pascal's principle...5 5.- Archimedes principle...6 6.- Atmospheric pressure...7 6.1.- Torricelli and

### Lecture Outline Chapter 15. Physics, 4 th Edition James S. Walker. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Lecture Outline Chapter 15 Physics, 4 th Edition James S. Walker Chapter 15 Fluids Density Units of Chapter 15 Pressure Static Equilibrium in Fluids: Pressure and Depth Archimedes Principle and Buoyancy

### Matter is made up of particles which are in continual random motion Misconception: Only when a substance is in its liquid or gas state do its

Kinetic Theory of Matter Matter is made up of particles which are in continual random motion Misconception: Only when a substance is in its liquid or gas state do its particles move because in these two

### 1. The principle of fluid pressure that is used in hydraulic brakes or lifts is that:

University Physics (Prof. David Flory) Chapt_15 Thursday, November 15, 2007 Page 1 Name: Date: 1. The principle of fluid pressure that is used in hydraulic brakes or lifts is that: A) pressure is the same

### More About Solids, Liquids and Gases ASSIGNMENT

More About Solids, Liquids and Gases ASSIGNMENT 1. Fill in the blank spaces by choosing the correct words from the list given below: List : water, density, altitudes, lateral, intermolecular, force, cohesion,

### Fluids Pascal s Principle Measuring Pressure Buoyancy

Fluids Pascal s Principle Measuring Pressure Buoyancy Lana Sheridan De Anza College April 11, 2018 Last time shear modulus introduction to static fluids pressure bulk modulus pressure and depth Overview

### ConcepTest PowerPoints

ConcepTest PowerPoints Chapter 10 Physics: Principles with Applications, 6 th edition Giancoli 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall This work is protected by United States copyright laws and is provided solely for

### Key Terms Chapter 7. boiling boiling point change of state concentration condensation deposition evaporation flow rate fluid freezing point

Foldable Activity Using the instructions on page 267 in your textbook on how to make foldables, write a key term on each front tab, and the definition on the inside (see example that I made up). You will

### Chapter 15 Fluid. Density

Density Chapter 15 Fluid Pressure Static Equilibrium in Fluids: Pressure and Depth Archimedes Principle and Buoyancy Applications of Archimedes Principle By Dr. Weining man 1 Units of Chapter 15 Fluid

### PRESSURE. 7. Fluids 2

DENSITY Fluids can flow, change shape, split into smaller portions and combine into a larger system One of the best ways to quantify a fluid is in terms of its density The density, ρ, of a material (or

### Conceptual Physics Matter Liquids Gases

Conceptual Physics Matter Liquids Gases Lana Sheridan De Anza College July 25, 2017 Last time atomic structure forms of matter solids density elasticity liquids & pressure Overview liquids pressure surface

### Page 1

Contents: 1. Thrust and Pressure 2. Pressure in Fluids 3. Buoyancy 4. Why objects sink or Float when placed on surface of water? 5. Archimedes Principle 6. Relative Density Learning Objectives: The students

### Chapter 15 Fluids. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 15 Fluids Density Units of Chapter 15 Pressure Static Equilibrium in Fluids: Pressure and Depth Archimedes Principle and Buoyancy Applications of Archimedes Principle Fluid Flow and Continuity

### Simulating Microgravity with Buoyancy A Space School Lesson Plan

ASTRONAUT TRAINING...UNDERWATER Simulating Microgravity with Buoyancy A Space School Lesson Plan by Bill Andrake, Swampscott Middle School Swampscott, Massachusetts Science Lesson: Buoyancy - Based on

### then the work done is, if the force and the displacement are in opposite directions, then the work done is.

1. What is the formula for work? W= x 2. What are the 8 forms of energy? 3. Write the formula for the following: Kinetic Energy Potential Energy 4. If the force and the displacement are in the same direction,

### Pressure is defined as force per unit area. Any fluid can exert a force

Physics Notes Chapter 9 Fluid Mechanics Fluids Fluids are materials that flow, which include both liquids and gases. Liquids have a definite volume but gases do not. In our analysis of fluids it is necessary

### 10.4 Buoyancy is a force

Chapter 10.4 Learning Goals Define buoyancy. Explain the relationship between density and buoyancy. Discuss applications of Archimedes principle. 10.4 Buoyancy is a force Buoyancy is a measure of the upward

### Shark Biology Buoyancy by Bill Andrake

Shark Biology Buoyancy by Bill Andrake Science Lesson: Buoyancy - Based on Webisode 45 - Shark Biology Grade Level: 6-8 Time: Four (45-50 minute) class periods Introduction Jonathan narrates an educational

### Old-Exam.Questions-Ch-14 T072 T071

Old-Exam.Questions-Ch-14 T072 Q23. Water is pumped out of a swimming pool at a speed of 5.0 m/s through a uniform hose of radius 1.0 cm. Find the mass of water pumped out of the pool in one minute. (Density

### . In an elevator accelerating upward (A) both the elevator accelerating upward (B) the first is equations are valid

IIT JEE Achiever 2014 Ist Year Physics-2: Worksheet-1 Date: 2014-06-26 Hydrostatics 1. A liquid can easily change its shape but a solid cannot because (A) the density of a liquid is smaller than that of

### Chapter 13 Fluids. Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 13 Fluids Phases of Matter Density and Specific Gravity Pressure in Fluids Atmospheric Pressure and Gauge Pressure Pascal s Principle Units of Chapter 13 Measurement of Pressure; Gauges and the

### Chapter 10 Fluids. Which has a greater density? Ch 10: Problem 5. Ch 10: Problem Phases of Matter Density and Specific Gravity

Chapter 10 Fluids 10-1 Phases of Matter The three common phases of matter are solid, liquid, and gas. A solid has a definite shape and size. A liquid has a fixed volume but can be any shape. A gas can

### Fluids Chapter 13 & 14 Liquids & Gases

Fluids Chapter 13 & 14 Liquids & Gases Liquids like solids are difficult to compress. Both liquids and gases can flow, so both are called fluids. The pressure you feel is due to the weight of water (or

### DENSITY AND BUOYANCY

DENSITY AND BUOYANCY DENSITY - RECAP What is DENSITY? The amount of MASS contained in a given VOLUME Density describes how closely packed together the particles are in a substance Density Experiment SINK

### Dec 6 3:08 PM. Density. Over the last two periods we discussed/observed the concept of density. What have we learned?

Over the last two periods we discussed/observed the concept of density. What have we learned? is a ratio of mass to volume describes how much matter is packed into a space is a property of both solids

### 20 Gases. Gas molecules are far apart and can move freely between collisions.

Gas molecules are far apart and can move freely between collisions. Gases are similar to liquids in that they flow; hence both are called fluids. In a gas, the molecules are far apart, allowing them to

### Boy, Oh Buoyancy. Does it Float? Does it Sink?

Boy, Oh Buoyancy Does it Float? Does it Sink? What is density? A measure of how much material is packed into a unit volume of the material The fewer particles packed into a given volume, the less dense

### Gas molecules are far apart. collisions The Atmosphere

Gas molecules are far apart and can move freely between collisions. Gases are similar to liquids in that they flow; hence both are called fluids. In a gas, the molecules are far apart, allowing them to

### AP B Fluids Practice Problems. Multiple Choice. Slide 2 / 43. Slide 1 / 43. Slide 4 / 43. Slide 3 / 43. Slide 6 / 43. Slide 5 / 43

Slide 1 / 43 Slide 2 / 43 P Fluids Practice Problems Multiple hoice Slide 3 / 43 1 Two substances mercury with a density 13600 kg/m 3 and alcohol with a density 0.8 kg/m 3 are selected for an experiment.

### Slide 1 / What is the density of an aluminum block with a mass of 4050 kg and volume of 1.5 m 3?

Slide 1 / 68 1 What is the density of an aluminum block with a mass of 4050 kg and volume of 1.5 m 3? Slide 2 / 68 2 What is the mass of a rectangular shaped ice block with dimensions of 0.04m x 0.05m

### CARTESIAN DIVER (1 Hour)

(1 Hour) Addresses NGSS Level of Difficulty: 2 Grade Range: K-2 OVERVIEW In this activity, students will build a Cartesian diver and discover how compression and changes in density cause the diver to mysteriously

### Fluid Mechanics - Hydrostatics. AP Physics B

luid Mechanics - Hydrostatics AP Physics B States of Matter Before we begin to understand the nature of a luid we must understand the nature of all the states of matter: The 3 primary states of matter

### Chapter 9 Fluids CHAPTER CONTENTS

Flowing fluids, such as the water flowing in the photograph at Coors Falls in Colorado, can make interesting patterns In this chapter, we will investigate the basic physics behind such flow Photo credit:

### Physics 221, March 1. Key Concepts: Density and pressure Buoyancy Pumps and siphons Surface tension

Physics 221, March 1 Key Concepts: Density and pressure Buoyancy Pumps and siphons Surface tension Fluids: Liquids Incompressible Gases Compressible Definitions Particle density: Density: Pressure: ρ particle

### Chapter Five: Density and Buoyancy

Chapter Five: Density and Buoyancy 5.1 Density 5.2 Buoyancy 5.3 Heat Affects Density and Buoyancy 5.1 Mass and Weight Mass is the amount of matter in an object. Weight is a measure of the pulling force

### Density, Pressure Learning Outcomes

1 Density, Pressure Learning Outcomes Define density and pressure, and give their units. Solve problems about density and pressure. Discuss pressure in liquids and gases. State Boyle s Law. Demonstrate

### AP Lab 11.3 Archimedes Principle

ame School Date AP Lab 11.3 Archimedes Principle Explore the Apparatus We ll use the Buoyancy Apparatus in this lab activity. Before starting this activity check to see if there is an introductory video

### Phys101 Lectures Fluids I. Key points: Pressure and Pascal s Principle Buoyancy and Archimedes Principle. Ref: 10-1,2,3,4,5,6,7.

Phys101 Lectures 24-25 luids I Key points: Pressure and Pascal s Principle Buoyancy and Archimedes Principle Ref: 10-1,2,3,4,5,6,7. Page 1 10-1 Phases of Matter The three common phases of matter are solid,

### To connect the words of Archimedes Principle to the actual behavior of submerged objects.

Archimedes Principle PURPOSE To connect the words of Archimedes Principle to the actual behavior of submerged objects. To examine the cause of buoyancy; that is, the variation of pressure with depth in

### PHY131H1S - Class 23. Today: Fluids Pressure Pascal s Law Gauge Pressure Buoyancy, Archimedes Principle. A little pre-class reading quiz

PHY131H1S - Class 23 Today: Fluids Pressure Pascal s Law Gauge Pressure Buoyancy, Archimedes Principle Archimedes (287-212 BC) was asked to check the amount of silver alloy in the king s crown. The answer

### FC-CIV HIDRCANA: Channel Hydraulics Flow Mechanics Review Fluid Statics

FC-CIV HIDRCANA: Channel Hydraulics Flow Mechanics Review Fluid Statics Civil Engineering Program, San Ignacio de Loyola University Objective Calculate the forces exerted by a fluid at rest on plane or

### FLUID STATICS II: BUOYANCY 1

FLUID STATICS II: BUOYANCY 1 Learning Goals After completing this studio, you should be able to Determine the forces acting on an object immersed in a fluid and their origin, based on the physical properties

### Today: Finish Chapter 13 (Liquids) Start Chapter 14 (Gases and Plasmas)

Today: Finish Chapter 13 (Liquids) Start Chapter 14 (Gases and Plasmas) Gases and plasmas: Preliminaries Will now apply concepts of fluid pressure, buoyancy, flotation of Ch.13, to the atmosphere. Main

### Water demos

Bell Ringer 1. Where is most of the land ice on Earth located? 2. Where is most of the land ice melting right now? 3. Why is it important to study rising oceans? Water demos Salt Water Lab DENSITY & BUOYANCY

### Multiple Choice. AP B Fluids Practice Problems. Mar 22 4:15 PM. Mar 22 4:15 PM. Mar 22 4:02 PM

P Fluids Practice Problems Mar 22 4:15 PM Multiple hoice Mar 22 4:15 PM 1 Two substances mercury with a density 13600 kg/m 3 and alcohol with a density 0.8 g/cm 3 are selected for an experiment. If the

### Chapter 3 PRESSURE AND FLUID STATICS

Fluid Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications, 2nd Edition Yunus A. Cengel, John M. Cimbala McGraw-Hill, 2010 Chapter 3 PRESSURE AND FLUID STATICS Lecture slides by Hasan Hacışevki Copyright The McGraw-Hill

### mass of container full of air = g mass of container with extra air = g volume of air released = cm 3

1992 Q32 The air pressure inside the passenger cabin of an airliner is 9 x 10 4 Pa when the airliner is at its cruising height. The pressure of the outside atmosphere at this height is 4 x 10 4 Pa. Calculate

### Physics, Chapter 8: Hydrostatics (Fluids at Rest)

University of Nebraska - Lincoln DigitalCommons@University of Nebraska - Lincoln Robert Katz Publications Research Papers in Physics and Astronomy 1958 Physics, Chapter 8: Hydrostatics (Fluids at Rest)

### LECTURE 16: Buoyancy. Select LEARNING OBJECTIVES:

Lectures Page 1 Select LEARNING OBJECTIVES: LECTURE 16: Buoyancy Understand that the buoyant force is a result of a pressure gradient within a fluid. Demonstrate the ability to analyze a scenario involving

### Fluids: Floating & Flying. Student Leaning Objectives 2/16/2016. Distinguish between force and pressure. Recall factors that allow floating

Fluids: Floating & Flying (Chapter 3) Student Leaning Objectives Distinguish between force and pressure Recall factors that allow floating Differentiate between cohesion and adhesion Analyze Pascal s principle

### Commercial Diving 9 month program at Holland College

Chapter 9: p.332 2 careers possibilities come up in this chapter Commercial Diving 9 month program at Holland College Reading the intro on p 332 will tell you other one Density and Volume story...yes,

### Mix and Flow of Matter Unit Test. For each of the following hazardous products match the correct WHMIS symbol

/40 Student Name Class Section 1.1 WHMIS For each of the following hazardous products match the correct WHMIS symbol 1 Flammable A. 2 Corrosive B. 3 Dangerously Reactive C. Section 1.2 The Many Uses of

### 3. Moments and Pressure

Leaving Cert Physics Long Questions 2017-2002 3. Moments and Pressure Remember to photocopy 4 pages onto 1 sheet by going A3 A4 and using back to back on the photocopier Contents Moments: ordinary level

### Irrigation &Hydraulics Department lb / ft to kg/lit.

CAIRO UNIVERSITY FLUID MECHANICS Faculty of Engineering nd Year CIVIL ENG. Irrigation &Hydraulics Department 010-011 1. FLUID PROPERTIES 1. Identify the dimensions and units for the following engineering

### BUOYANCY, FLOATATION AND STABILITY

BUOYANCY, FLOATATION AND STABILITY Archimedes Principle When a stationary body is completely submerged in a fluid, or floating so that it is only partially submerged, the resultant fluid force acting on

### Exercises The Atmosphere (page 383) 20.2 Atmospheric Pressure (pages )

Exercises 20.1 The Atmosphere (page 383) 1. The energizes the molecules in Earth s atmosphere. 2. Why is gravity important to Earth s atmosphere? 3. What would happen to Earth s atmosphere without the

### Forces in Fluids. Pressure A force distributed over a given area. Equation for Pressure: Pressure = Force / Area. Units for Pressure: Pascal (Pa)

Pressure A force distributed over a given area Equation for Pressure: Pressure = Force / Area Force = Newton s Area = m 2 Units for Pressure: Pascal (Pa) Forces in Fluids Forces in Fluids A woman s high

### Buoyancy and the Density of Liquids (approx. 2 h) (11/24/15)

Buoyancy and the Density of Liquids (approx. 2 h) (11/24/15) Introduction Which weighs more, a pound of lead or a pound of feathers? If your answer to this question is "a pound of lead", then you are confusing

### Lesson 12: Fluid statics, Continuity equation (Sections ) Chapter 9 Fluids

Lesson : luid statics, Continuity equation (Sections 9.-9.7) Chapter 9 luids States of Matter - Solid, liquid, gas. luids (liquids and gases) do not hold their shapes. In many cases we can think of liquids

### ACTIVITY 1: Buoyancy Problems. OBJECTIVE: Practice and Reinforce concepts related to Fluid Pressure, primarily Buoyancy

LESSON PLAN: SNAP, CRACKLE, POP: Submarine Buoyancy, Compression, and Rotational Equilibrium DEVELOPED BY: Bill Sanford, Nansemond Suffolk Academy 2012 NAVAL HISTORICAL FOUNDATION TEACHER FELLOWSHIP ACTIVITY

### Specific gravity: Everything you ever wanted to know about volume, pressure and more

Specific gravity: Everything you ever wanted to know about volume, pressure and more Specific Gravity Part I: What is specific gravity? Grandpa, I kind of understand what gravity is, but what is specific

### Lab 11 Density and Buoyancy

b Lab 11 Density and uoyancy Physics 211 Lab What You Need To Know: Density Today s lab will introduce you to the concept of density. Density is a measurement of an object s mass per unit volume of space

### Chapter 14. Fluids. A fluid a substance that can flow (in contrast to a solid)

Chapter 4 luids A luid a substance that can low (in contrast to a solid) Air Water luids comort to the boundaries o any container in which we put them, and do not maintain a ixed shape density and pressure

### Card 1 Chapter 17. Card 2. Chapter 17

Card 1 Card 2 Liquid A - 1.4 g/ml; Liquid B -.82 g/ml; Liquid C - 1.0 g/ml; one liquid you know. What is it? Also how will they stack? Where will a 1.6 g/ml object end up? Find the density of a 5 milliliter,

### PHYS 1020 LAB 8: Buoyancy and Archimedes Principle. Pre-Lab

PHYS 1020 LAB 8: Buoyancy and Archimedes Principle Note: Print and complete the separate pre-lab assignment BEFORE the lab. Hand it in at the start of the lab. Pre-Lab While at home, put one ice cube (made

### 12 fa. eel), Ara, Fl eat Mobi eu) r V14,:srholki CV -65 P- 1 1). e2r 46. ve, lactogin. 1 V eil - ( - t Teo. c 1 4 d 4. .'=- tit/ (4 nit) 6 --)

1). e2r 46 h eel), /pea lactogin Yd / In 1 V eil - ( - Cw ve, P- 1 Ara, Fl eat Mobi eu) r V14,:srholki 5e 0 (44,4 ci4) CV -65 So 0 t Teo.'=- tit/ (4 nit) 6 --) ci Seco (df_ 1 c 1 4 d 4 5-40 C 12 fa 4)

### Gases and Pressure SECTION 11.1

SECTION 11.1 Gases and In the chapter States of Matter, you read about the kineticmolecular theory of matter. You were also introduced to how this theory explains some of the properties of ideal gases.

### Liquids and Gases. O, 1 L = 2.2 lbs H 2. O = 1 kg H 2

Liquids and Gases The unit of volume is the meter cubed, m 3, which is a very large volume. Very often we use cm 3 = cc, or Litres = 10 3 cc Other everyday units are gallons, quarts, pints 1 qt = 2 lbs

### Chapter 2 Hydrostatics and Control

Chapter 2 Hydrostatics and Control Abstract A submarine must conform to Archimedes Principle, which states that a body immersed in a fluid has an upward force on it (buoyancy) equal to the weight of the

### A microscopic view. Solid rigid body. Liquid. Fluid. Incompressible. Gas. Fluid. compressible

Hello! I m Chris Blake, your lecturer for the rest of semester We ll cover: fluid motion, thermal physics, electricity, revision MASH centre in AMDC 503-09.30-16.30 daily My consultation hours: Tues 10.30-12.30

1- (a) A water tank has a rectangular base of dimensions 1.5m by 1.2m and contains 1440 kg of water. Calculate (i) the weight of the water, weight =...... [1] (ii) the pressure exerted by the water on

### Process Nature of Process

AP Physics Free Response Practice Thermodynamics 1983B4. The pv-diagram above represents the states of an ideal gas during one cycle of operation of a reversible heat engine. The cycle consists of the

### Atmospheric Pressure. Conceptual Physics 11 th Edition. Atmospheric Pressure. Atmospheric Pressure. The Atmosphere

Atmospheric Pressure Conceptual Physics 11 th Edition Chapter 14: GASES Atmospheric pressure Caused by weight of air Varies from one locality to another Not uniform Measurements are used to predict weather

### Density and Buoyancy

Density and Buoyancy A fluid exerts an upward force on an object that is placed in the fluid. LESSON 1 Density The density of a material is a measure of how much matter is packed into a unit volume of

### Pressure and buoyancy in fluids

Pressure and buoyancy in fluids FCQ s for lecture and tutorials will be next week. Buoyancy force today Fluid dynamics on Monday (alon with the loudest demonstration of the semester). Review on Wednesday

### 1Pressure 2 21Volume 2 2. or Temperature 2. where the subscript 1 signifies the initial conditions and the subscript 2 signifies the final conditions.

10-4 Gases The ideal gas law expresses the relationship between the pressure, volume, and temperature of a gas. In the exercises in this chapter, the mass of the gas remains constant. You will be examining

### Hydrostatics Physics Lab XI

Hydrostatics Physics Lab XI Objective Students will discover the basic principles of buoyancy in a fluid. Students will also quantitatively demonstrate the variance of pressure with immersion depth in

### CHAPTER 15 Fluids and Elasticity

CHAPTER 15 Fluids and Elasticity IN-CLASS PROBLEMS Slide 1 Problem #1: Broken Glass RDK STT. 15.1 15.XX A piece of glass is broken into two pieces of different size. Rank pieces a, b, and c in order of

### SINK vs. FLOAT THE CASE OF THE CARTESIAN DIVER

SINK vs. FLOAT THE CASE OF THE CARTESIAN DIVER INTRODUCTION: This lesson provides practice making observations and formulating hypotheses. It also provides opportunities to explore the concepts of buoyancy,

### Mix and Flow of Matter Grade 8 Unit 1 Test

Mix and Flow of Matter Grade 8 Unit 1 Test Student Class 1. All fluids flow and can be observed by many of the characteristics below. Which of these characteristics would you use to observe a gas flowing?

### Archimedes' Principle

Connexions module: m42196 1 Archimedes' Principle OpenStax College This work is produced by The Connexions Project and licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License Abstract Dene buoyant force.