# PRESSURE. 7. Fluids 2

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 DENSITY Fluids can flow, change shape, split into smaller portions and combine into a larger system One of the best ways to quantify a fluid is in terms of its density The density, ρ, of a material (or fluid) is defined as the mass, M, per volume, V:ρ= M/V kg/m 3 The denser a material, the more mass it has in any given volume The density of a substance is the same regardless of the amount in a system 7. Fluids 1

2 PRESSURE Pressure, P, is a measure of the amount of force, F, per area, A: P = F/A N/m 2 Pressure is increased if the force applied to a given area is increased, or if a given force is applied to a smaller area For example pressing your finger against a balloon just causes a small indentation, whereas pushing a needle with the same force causes the balloon to burst The smaller surface area of the needle tip causes a large enough pressure to rupture the balloon Example: Find the pressure exerted on the skin of a balloon if you press with a force of 2.1N using first your finger, then a needle. Assume the area of your fingertip is m 2, and the area of the needle tip is m 2. Also find the minimum force necessary to pop the balloon with the needle, given that the balloon pops with a pressure of N/m Fluids 2

3 ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE Atmospheric pressure, P at, is a direct result of the weight of the air above us P at = N/m 2 A shorthand unit for N/m 2 is the pascal (Pa) 1 Pa = 1 N/m 2 (P at = 101 kpa) In British units, pressure is measured in pounds per square inch: P at = 14.7 lb/in 2 A common unit for measuring atmospheric pressure in weather forecasting is the bar: 1 bar = 10 5 Pa 1 P at Example: Find the force exerted on the palm of your hand by atmospheric pressure. Assume that your palm measures 0.08m by 0.1m. If your hand is vertical, P at pushes to the right and left equally, so your hand feels zero net force The forces cancel in which ever orientation your hand is in The pressure in a fluid acts equally in all directions, and acts at rights angles to any surface 7. Fluids 3

4 GAUGE PRESSURE In many cases we are interested in the difference between a given pressure and atmospheric pressure For example, a flat tire does not have zero pressure in it the pressure in the tire is atmospheric pressure To inflate the tire to, say, 241 kpa, the pressure inside the tire must be greater than atmospheric pressure by this amount: P = 241 kpa + P at = 342 kpa Thus gauge pressure, P g is P g = P P at Thus it is gauge pressure that is determined by the tire gauge Example: Derive the formula to calculate the gauge pressure in a basketball by pushing down on it and noting the area of contact it makes with the surface on which it rests. 7. Fluids 4

5 STATIC EQUILIBRIUM IN FLUIDS: PRESSURE AND DEPTH (1) As a submarine dives deep into the depths of the sea, its hull undergoes increasing pressure The increased pressure is due to the added weight of water pressing on the hull as it goes deeper Consider a cylindrical container filled to a height h with a fluid of density ρ The top surface of the fluid is exposed to the atmosphere with a pressure P at, and the cross sectional area of the container is A The downward force exerted on the top surface exerted by the atmosphere is F top = P at A At the bottom of the container, the downward force is F top plus the weight of the fluid For a cylinder of height h and area A, the weight is given by W = Mg = ρvg = ρ(ha)g Hence F bottom = F top + W = P at A + ρ(ha)g The pressure at the bottom of the container is found by dividing F bottom by the area A P bottom = F bottom /A = [P at A + ρ(ha)g]/a = P at + ρgh This relation holds for any depth h below the surface P = P at + ρgh 7. Fluids 5

6 STATIC EQUILIBRIUM IN FLUIDS: PRESSURE AND DEPTH (2) The relation P = P at + ρgh can be applied to any two points in a fluid If the pressure at one point is P 1 and the pressure P 2 is at a depth h below the first point then it follows that the pressure at P 2 is P 2 = P 1 + ρgh 7. Fluids 6

7 PRESSURE AND DEPTH: EXAMPLE A cubical box 20.0cm on one side is completely immersed in a fluid. At the top of the box, the pressure is 105kPa; at the bottom the pressure is 106.8kPa. What is the density of the fluid? What type of fluid is being used? 7. Fluids 7

8 THE BAROMETER (1) A barometer makes use of the variation of pressure with depth to measure atmospheric pressure It works on the principle of filling a long glass tube (open at one end, and closed at the other) with a fluid of density ρ Next, the tube is inverted and its open end is placed below the surface of the same fluid in a bowl This leaves an empty space (vacuum) at the top Enough of the fluid remains in the tube to create a difference in level, h, between that in the bowl and in the tube This height difference is related to the atmospheric pressure pushing down on the fluid in the bowl The pressure in the vacuum at the top of the tube is zero Thus the pressure at a depth h below the vacuum is 0 + ρgh = ρgh Thus at the level of the fluid in the bowl, the pressure is known to be 1 atmosphere, and P at = ρgh A change in P at would cause a pressure difference between the fluid in the tube and that in the bowl, resulting in a net force and a flow of fluid Thus a measurement of h will give the atmospheric pressure 7. Fluids 8

9 THE BAROMETER (2) A fluid that is often used in barometers is mercury (Hg), with a density ρ = Pa The corresponding height for a column of mercury at 1 atmosphere is h = P at /ρg = 760mm Atmospheric pressure is defined in terms of millimetres of mercury (mmhg) 1 atmosphere = P at = 760 mmhg 7. Fluids 9

10 FLUIDS SEEK THEIR OWN LEVEL In order for fluids to seek their own level, it is necessary that the pressure at the surface of the fluid is the same everywhere over the surface This was not the case for the barometer, where the pressure was P at on one portion, and zero elsewhere Consider a U-shaped tube containing a quantity of fluid, density ρ the fluid rises to the same level in each arm, where it is open to the atmosphere The pressure at each base of the arm is the same, and is P at + ρgh The fluid in the horizontal section is pushed with equal force from each side: the fluid remains at rest If the two arms of the U are filled to different levels, the pressure at the base of the two arms are different: the greater pressure at the base of the right arm (b) The fluid in the horizontal section experiences a net force to the left, causing it to move in that direction, equalising the fluid level in both arms 7. Fluids 10

11 FLUID LEVELS AND ENERGY MINIMISATION Consider a U-tube that is initially filled to the same level in both arms, and consider moving a small element of fluid from one arm to the other to create different levels To extract this fluid element, it is necessary to lift it upward, thus causing its potential energy to increase This leads to the conclusion that when the fluid levels are different, the system s original minimum energy when the levels were the same undergoes and increase If two different liquids with different densities are combined in the same U-tube, the levels in the arms are not the same However the pressures at the base of each are must be equal 7. Fluids 11

12 OIL AND WATER DO NOT MIX: EXAMPLE A U-shaped tube is filled mostly with water, but a small amount of vegetable oil has been added to one side. The density of the water is kg/m 3. The density of the oil is kg/m 3. If the depth of the oil is 5.0cm, what is the difference in level h between the top of the oil on one side of the U and the top of the water on the other side? 7. Fluids 12

13 PASCAL S PRINCIPLE Recall that P = P at + ρgh, which is the pressure at a depth h below the surface when a liquid is exposed to atmospheric pressure If P at is increased to P at + P, the pressure at the depth h is: P = P at + P + ρgh = (P at + ρgh) + P By increasing the pressure at the top of the fluid by P, we have increased it by the same amount everywhere in the fluid Pascal s principle An external pressure applied to an enclosed fluid is transmitted unchanged to every point within the fluid 7. Fluids 13

14 PASCAL S PRINCIPLE: EXAMPLE THE HYDRAULIC LIFT In a hydraulic lift, there are two cylinders of cross sectional areas A 1 and A 2, where A 2 > A 1 Each cylinder is fitted with a piston, and are connected by a tube filled with a fluid Initially the pistons are at the same level and exposed to the atmosphere Suppose a force F 1 pushes down on piston 1, causing an increase in pressure in that cylinder: P = F 1 /A 1 By Pascal s principle, the pressure in cylinder 2 increases by the same amount; the increased upward force on piston 2 is due to the fluid: F 2 = ( P)A 2 Substituting for P = F 1 /A 1, we find that: F 2 = (F 1 /A 1 )A 2 = F 1 (A 2 /A 1 ) > F 1 7. Fluids 14

### Lecture Outline Chapter 15. Physics, 4 th Edition James S. Walker. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Lecture Outline Chapter 15 Physics, 4 th Edition James S. Walker Chapter 15 Fluids Density Units of Chapter 15 Pressure Static Equilibrium in Fluids: Pressure and Depth Archimedes Principle and Buoyancy

### In the liquid phase, molecules can flow freely from position. another. A liquid takes the shape of its container. 19.

In the liquid phase, molecules can flow freely from position to position by sliding over one another. A liquid takes the shape of its container. In the liquid phase, molecules can flow freely from position

### In the liquid phase, molecules can flow freely from position to position by sliding over one another. A liquid takes the shape of its container.

In the liquid phase, molecules can flow freely from position to position by sliding over one another. A liquid takes the shape of its container. In the liquid phase, molecules can flow freely from position

### Phys101 Lectures Fluids I. Key points: Pressure and Pascal s Principle Buoyancy and Archimedes Principle. Ref: 10-1,2,3,4,5,6,7.

Phys101 Lectures 24-25 luids I Key points: Pressure and Pascal s Principle Buoyancy and Archimedes Principle Ref: 10-1,2,3,4,5,6,7. Page 1 10-1 Phases of Matter The three common phases of matter are solid,

### . In an elevator accelerating upward (A) both the elevator accelerating upward (B) the first is equations are valid

IIT JEE Achiever 2014 Ist Year Physics-2: Worksheet-1 Date: 2014-06-26 Hydrostatics 1. A liquid can easily change its shape but a solid cannot because (A) the density of a liquid is smaller than that of

### Slide 5 / What is the difference between the pressure on the bottom of a pool and the pressure on the water surface? A ρgh B ρg/h C ρ/gh D gh/ρ

Slide 1 / 47 1 Two substances mercury with a density 13600 kg/m3 and alcohol with a density 800 kg/m3 are selected for an experiment. If the experiment requires equal masses of each liquid, what is the

### 1. The principle of fluid pressure that is used in hydraulic brakes or lifts is that:

University Physics (Prof. David Flory) Chapt_15 Thursday, November 15, 2007 Page 1 Name: Date: 1. The principle of fluid pressure that is used in hydraulic brakes or lifts is that: A) pressure is the same

Pressure Variation with Depth Pressure in a static fluid does not change in the horizontal direction as the horizontal forces balance each other out. However, pressure in a static fluid does change with

### Pressure is defined as force per unit area. Any fluid can exert a force

Physics Notes Chapter 9 Fluid Mechanics Fluids Fluids are materials that flow, which include both liquids and gases. Liquids have a definite volume but gases do not. In our analysis of fluids it is necessary

### Fluid Mechanics. Liquids and gases have the ability to flow They are called fluids There are a variety of LAWS that fluids obey

Fluid Mechanics Fluid Mechanics Liquids and gases have the ability to flow They are called fluids There are a variety of LAWS that fluids obey Density Regardless of form (solid, liquid, gas) we can define

### 1. All fluids are: A. gases B. liquids C. gases or liquids D. non-metallic E. transparent ans: C

Chapter 14: FLUIDS 1 All fluids are: A gases B liquids C gases or liquids D non-metallic E transparent 2 Gases may be distinguished from other forms of matter by their: A lack of color B small atomic weights

### Fluid Mechanics - Hydrostatics. AP Physics B

luid Mechanics - Hydrostatics AP Physics B States of Matter Before we begin to understand the nature of a luid we must understand the nature of all the states of matter: The 3 primary states of matter

### Chapter 14. Fluids. A fluid a substance that can flow (in contrast to a solid)

Chapter 4 luids A luid a substance that can low (in contrast to a solid) Air Water luids comort to the boundaries o any container in which we put them, and do not maintain a ixed shape density and pressure

### AP B Fluids Practice Problems. Multiple Choice. Slide 2 / 43. Slide 1 / 43. Slide 4 / 43. Slide 3 / 43. Slide 6 / 43. Slide 5 / 43

Slide 1 / 43 Slide 2 / 43 P Fluids Practice Problems Multiple hoice Slide 3 / 43 1 Two substances mercury with a density 13600 kg/m 3 and alcohol with a density 0.8 kg/m 3 are selected for an experiment.

### PHYS 101 Previous Exam Problems

PHYS 101 Previous Exam Problems CHAPTER 14 Fluids Fluids at rest pressure vs. depth Pascal s principle Archimedes s principle Buoynat forces Fluids in motion: Continuity & Bernoulli equations 1. How deep

### Gauge Pressure, Absolute Pressure, and Pressure Measurement

Gauge Pressure, Absolute Pressure, and Pressure Measurement By: OpenStax College Online: This module is copyrig hted by Rice University. It is licensed under the Creative

### Chapter 9. Forces and Fluids

Chapter 9 Forces and Fluids Key Terms hydraulic systems incompressible mass neutral buoyancy pascal pneumatic systems pressure unbalanced forces weight Archimedes principle average density balanced forces

### Page 1

Contents: 1. Thrust and Pressure 2. Pressure in Fluids 3. Buoyancy 4. Why objects sink or Float when placed on surface of water? 5. Archimedes Principle 6. Relative Density Learning Objectives: The students

### 2 Buoyant Force. TAKE A LOOK 2. Identify What produces buoyant force?

CHAPTER 3 2 Buoyant Force SECTION Forces in Fluids BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What is buoyant force? What makes objects sink or float? How

### Unit A-2: List of Subjects

ES312 Energy Transfer Fundamentals Unit A: Fundamental Concepts ROAD MAP... A-1: Introduction to Thermodynamics A-2: Engineering Properties Unit A-2: List of Subjects Basic Properties and Temperature Pressure

### Multiple Choice. AP B Fluids Practice Problems. Mar 22 4:15 PM. Mar 22 4:15 PM. Mar 22 4:02 PM

P Fluids Practice Problems Mar 22 4:15 PM Multiple hoice Mar 22 4:15 PM 1 Two substances mercury with a density 13600 kg/m 3 and alcohol with a density 0.8 g/cm 3 are selected for an experiment. If the

### THERMODYNAMICS, HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER TUTORIAL NO: 1 (SPECIFIC VOLUME, PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE)

THERMODYNAMICS, HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER TUTORIAL NO: 1 (SPECIFIC VOLUME, PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE) 1. A vacuum gauge mounted on a condenser reads 66 cm Hg. What is the absolute pressure in the condenser

### Liquids and Gases. O, 1 L = 2.2 lbs H 2. O = 1 kg H 2

Liquids and Gases The unit of volume is the meter cubed, m 3, which is a very large volume. Very often we use cm 3 = cc, or Litres = 10 3 cc Other everyday units are gallons, quarts, pints 1 qt = 2 lbs

### Unit A: Mix and Flow of Matter

Unit A: Mix and Flow of Matter Science 8 1 Section 3.0 THE PROPERTIES OF GASES AND LIQUIDS CAN BE EXPLAINED BY THE PARTICLE MODEL OF MATTER. 2 1 Viscosity and the Effects of Temperature Topic 3.1 3 Viscosity

### Fluids, Pressure and buoyancy

Fluids, Pressure and buoyancy Announcements: CAPA due Friday at 10pm. Comment on the hint in Problem 5. CAPA solutions from previous sets can be found by logging onto CAPA and selecting View Previous Set

### then the work done is, if the force and the displacement are in opposite directions, then the work done is.

1. What is the formula for work? W= x 2. What are the 8 forms of energy? 3. Write the formula for the following: Kinetic Energy Potential Energy 4. If the force and the displacement are in the same direction,

### Chapter 13 Fluids. Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 13 Fluids Phases of Matter Density and Specific Gravity Pressure in Fluids Atmospheric Pressure and Gauge Pressure Pascal s Principle Units of Chapter 13 Measurement of Pressure; Gauges and the

### Gases and Pressure SECTION 11.1

SECTION 11.1 Gases and In the chapter States of Matter, you read about the kineticmolecular theory of matter. You were also introduced to how this theory explains some of the properties of ideal gases.

### SPH 4C Unit 4 Hydraulics and Pneumatic Systems

SPH 4C Unit 4 Hydraulics and Pneumatic Systems Properties of Fluids and Pressure Learning Goal: I can explain the properties of fluids and identify associated units. Definitions: Fluid: A substance that

### ACTIVITY 1: Buoyancy Problems. OBJECTIVE: Practice and Reinforce concepts related to Fluid Pressure, primarily Buoyancy

LESSON PLAN: SNAP, CRACKLE, POP: Submarine Buoyancy, Compression, and Rotational Equilibrium DEVELOPED BY: Bill Sanford, Nansemond Suffolk Academy 2012 NAVAL HISTORICAL FOUNDATION TEACHER FELLOWSHIP ACTIVITY

### More About Solids, Liquids and Gases ASSIGNMENT

More About Solids, Liquids and Gases ASSIGNMENT 1. Fill in the blank spaces by choosing the correct words from the list given below: List : water, density, altitudes, lateral, intermolecular, force, cohesion,

### Slide 1 / What is the density of an aluminum block with a mass of 4050 kg and volume of 1.5 m 3?

Slide 1 / 68 1 What is the density of an aluminum block with a mass of 4050 kg and volume of 1.5 m 3? Slide 2 / 68 2 What is the mass of a rectangular shaped ice block with dimensions of 0.04m x 0.05m

1- (a) A water tank has a rectangular base of dimensions 1.5m by 1.2m and contains 1440 kg of water. Calculate (i) the weight of the water, weight =...... [1] (ii) the pressure exerted by the water on

### Fluids: Floating & Flying. Student Leaning Objectives 2/16/2016. Distinguish between force and pressure. Recall factors that allow floating

Fluids: Floating & Flying (Chapter 3) Student Leaning Objectives Distinguish between force and pressure Recall factors that allow floating Differentiate between cohesion and adhesion Analyze Pascal s principle

1 (a) UNIQUE SIENE EMY Test (Unit 7) Name :... Paper: Physics ate : 04.07.2011 ode: 5054 lass: I Time llowed: 35Minutes Maximum Marks: 25 1 Theory Section: What do you understand by the term pressure.

### Chapter 3 PRESSURE AND FLUID STATICS

Fluid Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications, 2nd Edition Yunus A. Cengel, John M. Cimbala McGraw-Hill, 2010 Chapter 3 PRESSURE AND FLUID STATICS Lecture slides by Hasan Hacışevki Copyright The McGraw-Hill

### Matter is made up of particles which are in continual random motion Misconception: Only when a substance is in its liquid or gas state do its

Kinetic Theory of Matter Matter is made up of particles which are in continual random motion Misconception: Only when a substance is in its liquid or gas state do its particles move because in these two

### Density and Buoyancy Notes

Density and Buoyancy Notes Measuring Mass and Volume 3.1 Density A balance can be used to measure the mass of an object. If the object is a liquid, pour it into a graduated cylinder to measure the volume.

### Exercises The Atmosphere (page 383) 20.2 Atmospheric Pressure (pages )

Exercises 20.1 The Atmosphere (page 383) 1. The energizes the molecules in Earth s atmosphere. 2. Why is gravity important to Earth s atmosphere? 3. What would happen to Earth s atmosphere without the

### Fluid Statics. Henryk Kudela. 1 Distribution of Pressure in the Fluid 1. 2 Hydrostatic pressure 3. 3 The Measurement of the Pressure 4

Fluid Statics Henryk Kudela Contents 1 Distribution of Pressure in the Fluid 1 2 Hydrostatic pressure 3 3 The Measurement of the Pressure 4 Fluid statics is that branch of mechanics of fluids that deals

### Today: Finish Chapter 13 (Liquids) Start Chapter 14 (Gases and Plasmas)

Today: Finish Chapter 13 (Liquids) Start Chapter 14 (Gases and Plasmas) Gases and plasmas: Preliminaries Will now apply concepts of fluid pressure, buoyancy, flotation of Ch.13, to the atmosphere. Main

### ConcepTest PowerPoints

ConcepTest PowerPoints Chapter 10 Physics: Principles with Applications, 6 th edition Giancoli 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall This work is protected by United States copyright laws and is provided solely for

### Forces in Fluids. Pressure A force distributed over a given area. Equation for Pressure: Pressure = Force / Area. Units for Pressure: Pascal (Pa)

Pressure A force distributed over a given area Equation for Pressure: Pressure = Force / Area Force = Newton s Area = m 2 Units for Pressure: Pascal (Pa) Forces in Fluids Forces in Fluids A woman s high

### Applications of Bernoulli s principle. Principle states that areas with faster moving fluids will experience less pressure

Applications of Bernoulli s principle Principle states that areas with faster moving fluids will experience less pressure Artery o When blood flows through narrower regions of arteries, the speed increases

### Outcomes: Example the historical development of the measurement of pressure. Include: Galileo, Toricelli, von Gureick, Pascal, Huygens, Avogadro,

History of Pressure Outcomes: Example the historical development of the measurement of pressure. Include: Galileo, Toricelli, von Gureick, Pascal, Huygens, Avogadro, Dalton. Describe the various units

### Lesson 12: Fluid statics, Continuity equation (Sections ) Chapter 9 Fluids

Lesson : luid statics, Continuity equation (Sections 9.-9.7) Chapter 9 luids States of Matter - Solid, liquid, gas. luids (liquids and gases) do not hold their shapes. In many cases we can think of liquids

### 20 Gases. Gas molecules are far apart and can move freely between collisions.

Gas molecules are far apart and can move freely between collisions. Gases are similar to liquids in that they flow; hence both are called fluids. In a gas, the molecules are far apart, allowing them to

### Gas molecules are far apart. collisions The Atmosphere

Gas molecules are far apart and can move freely between collisions. Gases are similar to liquids in that they flow; hence both are called fluids. In a gas, the molecules are far apart, allowing them to

### End of Chapter Exercises

End of Chapter Exercises Exercises 1 12 are conceptual questions that are designed to see if you have understood the main concepts of the chapter. 1. While on an airplane, you take a drink from your water

### Name: Class: Date: SHORT ANSWER Answer the following questions in the space provided.

CHAPTER 11 REVIEW Gases SECTION 1 SHORT ANSWER Answer the following questions in the space provided. 1. Pressure =. For a constant force, when the surface area is tripled the pressure is (a) doubled. (b)

### To connect the words of Archimedes Principle to the actual behavior of submerged objects.

Archimedes Principle PURPOSE To connect the words of Archimedes Principle to the actual behavior of submerged objects. To examine the cause of buoyancy; that is, the variation of pressure with depth in

### AP Lab 11.3 Archimedes Principle

ame School Date AP Lab 11.3 Archimedes Principle Explore the Apparatus We ll use the Buoyancy Apparatus in this lab activity. Before starting this activity check to see if there is an introductory video

### Pressure Measurement

Pressure Measurement Manometers Sensors, Transducers Ashish J. Modi Lecturer, Dept. of Mech.Engg., Shri S.V.M. inst. Of Technology, Bharuch Pressure Pressure is a force per unit area exerted by a fluid

### Comments on Homework. Class 4 - Pressure. Atmospheric Pressure. Gauge vs. Absolute Pressure. 2. Gauge vs. Absolute Pressure. 1.

Class 4 - Pressure 1. Definitions 2. Gauge Pressure 3. Pressure and Height of Liquid Column (Head) 4. Pressure Measurement and Manometers Please don t forget the special problem for the next HW assignment

### Physics, Chapter 8: Hydrostatics (Fluids at Rest)

University of Nebraska - Lincoln DigitalCommons@University of Nebraska - Lincoln Robert Katz Publications Research Papers in Physics and Astronomy 1958 Physics, Chapter 8: Hydrostatics (Fluids at Rest)

### Unit 9 Packet: Gas Laws Introduction to Gas Laws Notes:

Name: Unit 9 Packet: Gas Laws Introduction to Gas Laws Notes: Block: In chemistry, the relationships between gas physical properties are described as gas laws. Some of these properties are pressure, volume,

### 12 fa. eel), Ara, Fl eat Mobi eu) r V14,:srholki CV -65 P- 1 1). e2r 46. ve, lactogin. 1 V eil - ( - t Teo. c 1 4 d 4. .'=- tit/ (4 nit) 6 --)

1). e2r 46 h eel), /pea lactogin Yd / In 1 V eil - ( - Cw ve, P- 1 Ara, Fl eat Mobi eu) r V14,:srholki 5e 0 (44,4 ci4) CV -65 So 0 t Teo.'=- tit/ (4 nit) 6 --) ci Seco (df_ 1 c 1 4 d 4 5-40 C 12 fa 4)

### Chapter 9 Fluids CHAPTER CONTENTS

Flowing fluids, such as the water flowing in the photograph at Coors Falls in Colorado, can make interesting patterns In this chapter, we will investigate the basic physics behind such flow Photo credit:

### Unit code: H/ QCF level: 5 Credit value: 15 OUTCOME 3 - STATIC AND DYNAMIC FLUID SYSTEMS TUTORIAL 2 - STATIC FLUID SYSTEMS

Unit 43: Plant and Process Principles Unit code: H/601 44 QCF level: 5 Credit value: 15 OUTCOME 3 - STATIC AN YNAMIC FLUI SYSTEMS TUTORIAL - STATIC FLUI SYSTEMS 3 Understand static and dnamic fluid sstems

### Process Nature of Process

AP Physics Free Response Practice Thermodynamics 1983B4. The pv-diagram above represents the states of an ideal gas during one cycle of operation of a reversible heat engine. The cycle consists of the

### ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE

ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE 3.1 Air weight 3.2 Torricelli s experience 3.3 Pressure measuring unit 3.1 AIR WEIGHT Solid bodies have their own weight, and gaseous bodies such as air also have their own weight.

### of Gases Airbags fill with N 2 gas in an accident. Gas is generated by the decomposition of General Properties

BEHAVIOR OF GASES Chapter 12 1 Importance of Gases 2 Hot Air Balloons How Do They Work? 3 Airbags fill with N 2 gas in an accident. Gas is generated by the decomposition of sodium azide,, NaN 3. 2 NaN

### To convert to millimeters of mercury, we derive a unit factor related to the equivalent relationship 29.9 in. Hg = 760 mm Hg.

Example Exercise 11.1 Gas Pressure Conversion Meteorologists state that a falling barometer indicates an approaching storm. Given a barometric pressure of 27.5 in. Hg, express the pressure in each of the

### This chapter deals with forces applied by fluids at rest or in rigid-body

cen72367_ch03.qxd 10/29/04 2:21 PM Page 65 PRESSURE AND FLUID STATICS CHAPTER 3 This chapter deals with forces applied by fluids at rest or in rigid-body motion. The fluid property responsible for those

### Gas Laws. Directions: Describe what contribution each of the Scientist below made to the Gas Laws and include there gas law equation.

Gas Laws Name Date Block Introduction One of the most amazing things about gases is that, despite wide differences in chemical properties, all the gases more or less obey the gas laws. The gas laws deal

### Card 1 Chapter 17. Card 2. Chapter 17

Card 1 Card 2 Liquid A - 1.4 g/ml; Liquid B -.82 g/ml; Liquid C - 1.0 g/ml; one liquid you know. What is it? Also how will they stack? Where will a 1.6 g/ml object end up? Find the density of a 5 milliliter,

### VACUUM TESTING PRECAST CONCRETE MANHOLES

1 OF 5 testing is a quick, safe and practical way to validate manhole system integrity. Manhole sections can be tested at the precast concrete plant prior to delivery or on site prior to backfilling. Here

### Chapter 11: Gases: Homework: Read Chapter 11. Keep up with MasteringChemistry and workshops

C h e m i s t r y 1 2 C h a p t e r 11 G a s e s P a g e 1 Chapter 11: Gases: Homework: Read Chapter 11. Keep up with MasteringChemistry and workshops Gas Properties: Gases have high kinetic energy low

### 1Pressure 2 21Volume 2 2. or Temperature 2. where the subscript 1 signifies the initial conditions and the subscript 2 signifies the final conditions.

10-4 Gases The ideal gas law expresses the relationship between the pressure, volume, and temperature of a gas. In the exercises in this chapter, the mass of the gas remains constant. You will be examining

### States of Matter Review

States of Matter Review May 13 8:16 PM Physical States of Matter (Phases) Solid Liquid Melting Gas Condensation Freezing Evaporation Deposition Sublimation Sep 13 6:04 PM 1 May 13 8:11 PM Gases Chapter

### Chapter 13 Gases, Vapors, Liquids, and Solids

Chapter 13 Gases, Vapors, Liquids, and Solids Property is meaning any measurable characteristic of a substance, such as pressure, volume, or temperature, or a characteristic that can be calculated or deduced,

### Lab. Manual. Fluid Mechanics. The Department of Civil and Architectural Engineering

Lab. Manual of Fluid Mechanics The Department of Civil and Architectural Engineering General Safety rules to be followed in Fluid Mechanics Lab: 1. Always wear shoes before entering lab. 2. Do not touch

### Pressure and buoyancy in fluids

Pressure and buoyancy in fluids FCQ s for lecture and tutorials will be next week. Buoyancy force today Fluid dynamics on Monday (alon with the loudest demonstration of the semester). Review on Wednesday

### Chapter 13 Gases. H. Cannon, C. Clapper and T. Guillot Klein High School. Pressure/Temperature Conversions

Chapter 13 Gases Pressure/Temperature Conversions Convert the following: 1. 3.50 atm = kpa 2. 123 atm = mmhg 3. 970.0 mmhg = torr 4. 870.0 torr = kpa 5. 250.0 kpa = atm 6. 205.0 mmhg = kpa 7. 12.4 atm

### We live on the only planet in the

LIQUIDS Objectives Describe what determines the pressure of a liquid at any point. (19.1) Explain what causes a buoyant force on an immersed or submerged object. (19.2) Relate the buoyant force on an immersed

### Lecture Presentation. Chapter 10. Gases. John D. Bookstaver St. Charles Community College Cottleville, MO Pearson Education, Inc.

Lecture Presentation Chapter 10 John D. Bookstaver St. Charles Community College Cottleville, MO Characteristics of Unlike liquids and solids, gases Expand to fill their containers. Are highly compressible.

### THE GAS STATE. Unit 4. CHAPTER KEY TERMS HOME WORK 9.1 Kinetic Molecular Theory States of Matter Solid, Liquid, gas.

Unit 4 THE GAS STATE CHAPTER KEY TERMS HOME WORK 9. Kinetic Molecular Theory States of Matter Solid, Liquid, gas Page 4 # to 4 9. Boyles Law P α /V PV = Constant P V = P V Pressure Atmospheric Pressure

### Density and Buoyancy

Density and Buoyancy A fluid exerts an upward force on an object that is placed in the fluid. LESSON 1 Density The density of a material is a measure of how much matter is packed into a unit volume of

### Buoyancy and the Density of Liquids (approx. 2 h) (11/24/15)

Buoyancy and the Density of Liquids (approx. 2 h) (11/24/15) Introduction Which weighs more, a pound of lead or a pound of feathers? If your answer to this question is "a pound of lead", then you are confusing

### Another convenient term is gauge pressure, which is a pressure measured above barometric pressure.

VACUUM Theory and Applications Vacuum may be defined as the complete emptiness of a given volume. It is impossible to obtain a perfect vacuum, but it is possible to obtain a level of vacuum, defined as

### CARTESIAN DIVER (1 Hour)

(1 Hour) Addresses NGSS Level of Difficulty: 2 Grade Range: K-2 OVERVIEW In this activity, students will build a Cartesian diver and discover how compression and changes in density cause the diver to mysteriously

### Gas Laws. Introduction

Gas Laws Introduction In 1662 Robert Boyle found that, at constant temperature, the pressure of a gas and its volume are inversely proportional such that P x V = constant. This relationship is known as

### Shark Biology Buoyancy by Bill Andrake

Shark Biology Buoyancy by Bill Andrake Science Lesson: Buoyancy - Based on Webisode 45 - Shark Biology Grade Level: 6-8 Time: Four (45-50 minute) class periods Introduction Jonathan narrates an educational

### INSTRUCTIONAL GOAL: Explain and perform calculations regarding the buoyant force on a

Snap, Crackle, Pop! Submarine Buoyancy, Compression, and Rotational Equilibrium Bill Sanford, Physics Teacher, Nansemond Suffolk Academy, Suffolk 2012 Naval Historical Foundation STEM-H Teacher Fellowship

### Digiquartz Water-Balanced Pressure Sensors for AUV, ROV, and other Moving Underwater Applications

Digiquartz Water-Balanced Pressure Sensors for AUV, ROV, and other Moving Underwater Applications Dr. Theo Schaad Principal Scientist Paroscientific, Inc. 2002 Paroscientific, Inc. Page 1 of 6 Digiquartz

### Chemistry HP Unit 6 Gases. Learning Targets (Your exam at the end of Unit 6 will assess the following:) 6. Gases

Chemistry HP Unit 6 Gases Learning Targets (Your exam at the end of Unit 6 will assess the following:) 6. Gases 6-1. Define pressure using a mathematical equation. 6-2. Perform calculations involving pressure,

### 1. [Chang7 5.P.013.] Convert 295 mmhg to kpa. kpa Convert 2.0 kpa to mmhg. mmhg

Score 1. [Chang7 5.P.013.] Convert 295 mmhg to kpa. kpa Convert 2.0 kpa to mmhg. mmhg 2. [Chang7 5.P.019.] The volume of a gas is 5.80 L, measured at 1.00 atm. What is the pressure of the gas in mmhg if

### Homework of chapter (3)

The Islamic University of Gaza, Civil Engineering Department, Fluid mechanics-discussion, Instructor: Dr. Khalil M. Al Astal T.A: Eng. Hasan Almassri T.A: Eng. Mahmoud AlQazzaz First semester, 2013. Homework

### Hydraulic/Pneumatic System

Includes Teacher's Notes and Typical Experiment Results Instruction Manual and Experiment Guide for the PASCO scientific Model SE-8764 012-07733A Hydraulic/Pneumatic System 2000 PASCO scientific Copyright,

### Bernoulli's Principle

Bernoulli's Principle Bernoulli's Principle states that as the speed of a moving fluid increases, the pressure within the fluid decreases. Introduction The Bernoulli's Principle explains the behavior of

### Chapter 13: The Behavior of Gases

Chapter 13: The Behavior of Gases I. First Concepts a. The 3 states of matter most important to us: solids, liquids, and gases. b. Real Gases and Ideal Gases i. Real gases exist, ideal gases do not ii.

### Write important assumptions used in derivation of Bernoulli s equation. Apart from an airplane wing, give an example based on Bernoulli s principle

HW#3 Sum07 #1. Answer in 4 to 5 lines in the space provided for each question: (a) A tank partially filled with water has a balloon well below the free surface and anchored to the bottom by a string. The

### An underwater explosion is an explosion where the point of detonation is below the surface of the water.

Underwater Explosion 1 Introduction An underwater explosion is an explosion where the point of detonation is below the surface of the water. Underwater explosion are categorized in accordance with their

### Kinetic-Molecular Theory of Matter

Gases Properties of Gases Gas Pressure Gases What gases are important for each of the following: O 2, CO 2 and/or He? A. B. C. D. 1 2 Gases What gases are important for each of the following: O 2, CO 2

### TEST FOR STABILOMETER VALUE OF BITUMINOUS MIXTURES

Test Procedure for TEST FOR STABILOMETER VALUE OF BITUMINOUS MIXTURES TxDOT Designation: Tex-208-F Effective Date: February 2005 1. SCOPE 1.1 Use this test method to determine the Hveem stability value

### Energy: Part 4. Water distribution. water tower. Bernoulli and Water distribution systems Physics 1010: Dr. Eleanor Hodby

Energy: Part 4 ernoulli and Water distribution systems Physics 11: Dr. Eleanor odby Water distribution water tower reservoir pipe pump buildings Lecture 1: - Water distribution Reminders: W5 due Friday