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1 1- (a) A water tank has a rectangular base of dimensions 1.5m by 1.2m and contains 1440 kg of water. Calculate (i) the weight of the water, weight = [1] (ii) the pressure exerted by the water on the base of the tank. pressure = [2] (b) Fig. 5.1 shows two water tanks P and Q of different shape. Both tanks are circular when viewed from above. The tanks each contain the same volume of water. The depth of water in both tanks is 1.4 m. 1.4 m P Q F i g (i) The density of water is 1000 kg / m 3. The pressures exerted by the water on the base of the two tanks are equal. Calculate this pressure. pressure =... [2] (ii) Equal small volumes of water are removed from each tank.

2 ure on its base. Explain your answer For Examiner s Use [2] [Total: 7 ] 2- Fig. 4.1 represents part of the hydraulic braking system of a car. piston X piston Y F 1 F 2 Fig. 4.1 The force F 1 of the driver s foot on the brake pedal moves piston X. The space between pistons X and Y is filled with oil which cannot be compressed. The force F 2 exerted by the oil moves piston Y. This force is applied to the brake mechanism in the wheels of the car.

3 The area of cross-section of piston X is 4.8 cm 2. (a) The force F 1 is 90N. Calculate the pressure exerted on the oil by piston X. pressure =... [2] (b) The pressure on piston Y is the same as the pressure applied by piston X. Explain why the force F 2 is greater than the force F [1] (c) Piston Y moves a smaller distance than piston X. Explain why [2] (d) Suggest why the braking system does not work properly if the oil contains bubbles of air [2] [Total: 7]

4 3- (a) Complete Fig. 4.1 to show a simple mercury barometer. Insert the correct labels in the boxes. Label with the letter h the measurement required to calculate the pressure of the atmosphere. Fig. 4.1 [3] (b) The value of h taken using this barometer is 0.73m. The density of mercury is kg / m 3. Calculate the value of the atmospheric pressure suggested by this measurement. Use g = 10m/ s 2. atmospheric pressure =...[2] (c) Standard atmospheric pressure is 0.76 m of mercury. Suggest a reason why the value of h in (b) is lower than this [1] [Total: 6]

5 4- A vertical cylinder has a smooth well-fitting piston in it. Weights can be added to or removed from a tray on the top of the piston. (a) Weights are added to the tray, as shown in Fig For Examiner s Use weights piston air cylinder Fig. 6.1 (i) State what happens to the pressure of the air in the cylinder as a result of adding these weights.... [1] (ii) The initial pressure of the trapped air is Pa. When the weights are added, the volume of the air decreases from 860 cm 3 to 645 cm 3. The temperature of the air does not change. Calculate the final pressure of the trapped air. (iii) The area of the piston is m 2. Calculate the weight that is added to the piston. pressure =... [3] weight added =... [4]

6

7 (b) The weights are kept as shown in Fig The temperature of the air in the cylinder is increased. (i) State what happens to the volume of the air in the cylinder as a result of this temperature rise.... [1] (ii) State how, if at all, the pressure of the air changes as the temperature changes.... [1] (iii) State what must be done to prevent the volume change in (b)(i).... [1] (iv) The volume change in (b)(i) is prevented. State what happens to the pressure of the air in the cylinder.... [1] [Total: 12]

8 5- Fig. 3.1 shows a pond that is kept at a constant depth by a pressure-operated valve in the base. For Examiner s Use water outlet spring pressure-operated valve Fig. 3.1 (a) The pond is kept at a depth of 2.0 m. The density of water is 1000 kg/m 3. Calculate the water pressure on the valve. pressure =.. [2] (b) The force required to open the valve is 50 N. The valve will open when the water depth reaches 2.0 m. Calculate the area of the valve. area =.. [2] (c) The water supply is turned off and the valve is held open so that water drains out through the valve. State the energy changes of the water that occur as the depth of the water drops from 2.0 m to zero [2]

9 6- A large stone block is to be part of a harbour wall. The block is supported beneath the surface of the sea by a cable from a crane. Fig. 2.1 shows the block with its top face a distance h beneath the surface of the sea. cable surface of sea h block Fig. 2.1 The force acting downwards on the top face of the block, due to the atmosphere and the depth h of water, is N. (a) The top face of the block has an area of 0.25 m 2. (i) Calculate the pressure on the top face of the block. pressure =... [2] (ii) The atmospheric pressure is Pa. Calculate the pressure on the top face of the block due to the depth h of water. (iii) The density of sea water is 1020kg / m 3. Calculate the depth h. pressure =... [1] h =... [2]

10 (b) Suggest two reasons why the tension force in the cable is not N [2] (c) The block is lowered so that it rests on the sea-bed. State what happens to the tension force in the cable.... [1] [Total: 8]

11 6 (a) Complete the following statements by writing appropriate words in the spaces. The pressure of a gas in a sealed container is caused by the collisions of... with the container wall. For Examiner s Use An increase in the temperature of the gas increases the pressure because the... of the... increases. The force on the wall due to the gas is the pressure multiplied by the... of the wall. [2] (b) A mountaineer takes a plastic bottle containing some water to the top of a mountain. He removes the cap from the bottle, drinks all the water and then replaces the cap, as shown in Fig On returning to the base of the mountain, he finds that the bottle has collapsed to a much smaller volume, as shown in Fig Fig. 6.1 Fig. 6.2 (i) Explain why the bottle collapsed [2]

12

13 (ii) At the top of the mountain the atmospheric pressure was Pa and the volume of the bottle was 250 cm 3. Calculate the volume of the bottle at the base of the mountain where the pressure of the air inside the bottle is Pa. Assume no change of temperature. volume =... [3] [Total: 7]

14 7- (a) Fig. 3.1 shows an oil can containing only air at atmospheric pressure. can Atmospheric pressure is Pa. Fig. 3.1 The pressure of the air in the can is reduced by means of a pump. The can collapses when the pressure of the air in the can falls to 6000Pa. (i) Explain why the can collapses [1] (ii) The surface area of face X of the can is 0.12 m 2. Calculate the resultant force on face X when the can collapses. force =...[3]

15 (b) Mercury is poured into a U-shaped glass tube. Water is then poured into one of the limbs of the tube. Oil is poured into the other limb until the surfaces of the mercury are at the same level in both limbs. Fig. 3.2 shows the result m oil water 0.25 m mercury Fig. 3.2 (i) State a condition that must be true in order for the mercury surfaces to be at the same level in both limbs of the tube [1] (ii) The height of the water column is 0.25m. The height of the oil column is 0.32m. The density of water is 1000kg / m 3. Calculate 1. the pressure exerted by the water on the surface of the mercury, 2. the density of the oil. pressure =...[2] density =...[2] [Total: 9]

16 8- A thermometer uses the value of a physical property to indicate the temperature. (a) A particular thermometer is sensitive, linear and has a wide range. For Examiner s Use Draw a straight line from each characteristic of this thermometer to the appropriate feature. characteristic of thermometer feature of thermometer reacts quickly to change of temperature sensitive large difference between highest and lowest measurable temperatures linear same change of physical property for same change of temperature wide range fixed points at 0 C and 100 C large change of physical property for small change of temperature [3] (b) (i) In the space below, draw a diagram to show the structure of a thermocouple thermometer. [2]

17

18 (ii) Explain why a thermocouple thermometer is particularly well suited to measure 1. high temperatures, very rapidly changing temperatures [2] [Total: 7]

19 9- (a) One of the laws about the behaviour of gases states that For a fixed amount of gas at constant temperature, the pressure is inversely proportional to the volume. In the space below, write an equation that represents this law. For Exam iner s Use [1] (b) Table 4.1 gives a series of pressures and their corresponding volumes, obtained in an experiment with a fixed amount of gas. The gas obeys the law referred to in (a). pressure/ kpa volume / cm Table 4.1 How do these figures indicate that the temperature was constant throughout the experiment? [2] (c) Air is trapped by a piston in a cylinder. The pressure of the air is Pa. The distance from the closed end of the cylinder to the piston is 75 mm. The piston is pushed in until the pressure of the air has risen to Pa. Calculate how far the piston has moved. distance moved =.... [4] [Total: 7]

20 10 - (a) MS.RAJA ELGADY/PRESSURE PAPER 3 A submarine descends to a depth of 70m below the surface of water. The density of the water is 1050kg/m 3. Atmospheric pressure is Pa. Calculate (i) the increase in pressure as it descends from the surface to a depth of 70 m, For Exami ner s Use increase in pressure =... [2] (ii) the total pressure on the submarine at a depth of 70m. total pressure =... [1] (b) On another dive, the submarine experiences a total pressure of Pa. A hatch cover on the submarine has an area of 2.5m 2. Calculate the force on the outside of the cover. force =... [2]

21 (c) The submarine undergoes tests in fresh water of density 1000kg/m 3. Explain why the pressure on the submarine is less at the same depth [1] [Total: 6]

22 11- During a period of hot weather, the atmospheric pressure on the pond in Fig. 3.1 remains constant. Water evaporates from the pond, so that the depth h decreases. force due to air pressure h Fig. 3.1 (a) Study the diagram and state, giving your reason, what happens during this hot period to (i) the force of the air on the surface of the pond, [1] (ii) the pressure at the bottom of the pond [1] (b) On a certain day, the pond is 12m deep. (i) Water has a density of 1000kg / m 3. Calculate the pressure at the bottom of the pond due to the water. pressure due to the water =...[2]

23 (ii) Atmospheric pressure on that day is Pa. Calculate the total pressure at the bottom of the pond. total pressure =...[1] (iii) A bubble of gas is released from the mud at the bottom of the pond. Its initial volume is 0.5 cm 3. Ignoring any temperature differences in the water, calculate the volume of the bubble as it reaches the surface. volume =...[2] (iv) In fact, the temperature of the water is greater at the top than at the bottom of the pond. Comment on the bubble volume you have calculated in (b)(iii) [1] [Total: 8]

24 12- Fig. 4.1 shows a sealed steel cylinder filled with high pressure steam. Examiner s Use steam Fig. 4.1 Fig. 4.2 shows the same cylinder much later when all the steam has condensed. water Fig. 4.2 (a) (i) Describe the movement of the molecules in the high pressure steam [2] (ii) Explain how the molecules in the steam exert a high pressure on the inside walls of the cylinder [2] (b) Describe, in terms of particles, the process by which heat is transferred through the cylinder wall [2] (c) When all the steam has condensed, 75g of water is in the cylinder. Under these high pressure conditions, the specific latent heat of vaporisation of steam is 3200 J/g. Calculate the heat lost by the steam as it condenses. heat =... [2] [Total: 8]

25 13- (a) (i) Define pressure [1] For Examiner s Use (ii) A closed box contains a gas. Explain, in terms of molecules, how the gas exerts a pressure on the walls of the box [3] (b) Fig. 6.1 shows a flask connected to a pump and also to a manometer containing mercury. to pump manometer 250 mm flask Fig. 6.1 The right-hand tube of the manometer is open to the atmosphere. The pump has been operated so that the mercury levels differ, as shown, by 250 mm. The density of mercury is kg / m 3. (i) Calculate the pressure, in Pa, due to the 250mm column of mercury. pressure =... [2]

26

27 (ii) The pressure of the atmosphere is Pa. Calculate the pressure of the air in the flask. pressure =... [1] [Total: 7]

28

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