Unit A2: List of Subjects


 Holly Freeman
 11 months ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 ES312 Energy Transfer Fundamentals Unit A: Fundamental Concepts ROAD MAP... A1: Introduction to Thermodynamics A2: Engineering Properties Unit A2: List of Subjects Basic Properties and Temperature Pressure Hydrostatic Pressure Variation Manometer Barometer
2 PAGE 1 of 11 Basic Properties and Temperature A constantvolume gas thermometer reads C at absolute zero pressure BASIC PROPERTIES OF THERMODYNAMICS Density: mass per unit volume, [ (rho)], in (kg/m 3 ) or (slug/ft 3 ) Specific Volume: volume per unit mass, [v], in (m 3 /kg) or (ft 3 /slug) Specific Weight: weight per unit volume, [ (gamma)], in (N/m 3 ) or (lb/ft 3 ) Note that: g (g is the gravitational acceleration) SPECIFIC GRAVITY (SG) OF FLUIDS Specific Gravity (SG): ratio of density (or specific weight) of a given fluid to the density (or specific weight) of water Note that: SG fluid water fluid water TEMPERATURE Comparison of temperature scales If the 3rd body of zeroth law of thermodynamics is replaced with a thermometer... then, 2 bodies are in thermal equilibrium, if both have the same temperature even if they are not in contact Celsius (C): ice point = 0 C and steam point = 100 C Fahrenheit (F): ice point = 32 F and steam point = 212 F Absolute Scales: Kelvin (K) = C / Rankine (R) = F T o R 1.8 T K T o F 1.8 T o C 32 Temperature Scale Conversion: /
3 PAGE 2 of 11 EXERCISE A21 (DoItYourself) During a heating process, the temperature of a system rises 10 C. Express this rise in temperature in K, F, and R. Solution The temperature rise of a system is to be expressed in different units. Analysis Temperature change in Kelvin and Celsius scales are identical: o TK T C 10 K Temperature change in Rankine and Kelvin are related by 1.8: o o o T R 1.8 T K 18 R Temperature change in Fahrenheit and Rankine are identical: T o o F TR 18 F
4 PAGE 3 of 11 Pressure Basic pressure gages Absolute, gage, and vacuum pressures PRESSURE Pressure can be defined as external force acting on a surface per unit area Units of pressure (SI): N/m 2 (Pascal, or Pa ) and 1,000 Pa = 1 kpa Units of pressure (US Customary): lb/in 2 (or psi ) and lb/ft 2 (or psf ) Note that: 1 psi = 144 psf (because: 1 ft = 12 inch) Also note that: psi and psf in absolute/gage pressures can be expressed by psia/psig, psfa/psfg Atmospheric pressure: [patm] the pressure of atmosphere, which is not constant value (depends on the altitude) Note: standard sealevel value is 14.7 psi (lb/in 2 ) DEFINITIONS OF PRESSURES Absolute pressure: [pabs] the pressure measured relative to absolute zero pressure ( absolute vacuum, which is theoretical perfect vacuum) Gauge pressure: [pgage] how much higher pressure, relative to the local atmospheric pressure p p p (patm): gage abs atm Vacuum pressure: [pvac] how much lower pressure, relative to the local atmospheric pressure (patm): pvac patm pabs Note: negative gage pressure means vacuum pressure
5 PAGE 4 of 11 Hydrostatic Pressure Variation z (height) h (depth) The pressure of a fluid at rest increases with depth In a room filled with a gas, the variation of pressure with height is negligible Pressure in a liquid at rest increases linearly with distance from the free surface HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE The Pascal s law: states that the pressure applied to a confined liquid increases the pressure throughout by the same amount Also the pressure within a liquid at rest increases with depth (hydrostatic pressure variation) HYDROSTATIC EQUATION The hydrostatic pressure variation can be defined as: 1 2 p p p g dz g dz HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE VARIATION WITHIN A LIQUID If the gravity (g) is assumed to be constant and also the density of liquid is assumed to be constant ( incompressible ), this can be simplified as: 2 2 p p2 p1 g dz g dz g z1 z2 g z 1 1 Note that z is the height of liquid (direction is against the gravity). In terms of the depth (h) of liquid (opposite direction to the height, measured from the free surface of liquid), the same equation can be given as: 2 2 p p2 p1 g dh g dh g h2 h1 g h 1 1
6 PAGE 5 of 11 Manometer The basic manometer Measuring the pressure drop across a flow section of a flow device by using differential manometer MANOMETERS Manometers: pressure measurement device, especially useful for pressures of small magnitude or small pressure differences Manometers are commonly used for airspeed measurements, combined with Pitotstatic probes UTUBE MANOMETERS A basic Utube manometer includes a tube filled with a manometer (or gage ) fluid with one end of the tube being open to the local atmosphere Note that: p1 p2 and p2 patm gh (h is called manometer reading ) A differential Utube manometer includes a tube filled with a manometer (or gage ) fluid that interconnects two sections of flowing fluid, measuring the pressure drop ( p ); this pressure drop can be related to the volume flow rate (flow rate measurement device: flow meters)
7 PAGE 6 of 11 EXERCISE A22 (DoItYourself) A manometer is used to measure the pressure in a tank. The fluid used has a specific gravity of 0.85, and the manometer column height is 55 cm, as shown in the figure. If the local atmospheric pressure is 96 kpa, determine the absolute pressure (in kpa ) within the tank. Solution The reading of a manometer attached to a tank and the atmospheric pressure are given. The absolute pressure in the tank is to be determined. Assumptions The fluid in the tank is gas (the density is much lower than the density of manometer fluid). Properties The specific gravity (SG) of the manometer fluid is The standard density of water is 1,000 kg/m 3. Analysis 3 3 The density of the manometer fluid is: SG water 0.851, 000 kg/m 850 kg/m Then, the absolute pressure (at the bottom of the tank) is: pabs patm gh Pa 850 kg/m 9.81 m/s 0.55 m Pa (100.6 kpa)
8 PAGE 7 of 11 EXERCISE A23 (DoItYourself) The water in a tank is pressurized by air, and the pressure is measured by a multifluid manometer, as shown in the figure. The tank is located on a mountain at an altitude of 1,400 m, where the atmospheric pressure is 85.6 kpa. Determine the air pressure in the tank (in kpa absolute), if h 1 = 0.1 m, h 2 = 0.2 m, and h 3 = 0.35 m. Take the densities of water, oil, and mercury to be 1,000 kg/m 3, 850 kg/m 3, and 13,600 kg/m 3, respectively. Solution The pressure in a pressurized water tank is measured by a multifluid manometer. The air pressure in the tank is to be determined. Assumption The air pressure in the tank is uniform (its variation with respect to height is negligible), and thus the pressure at the airwater interface can be determined. Properties The densities of water, oil, and mercury are: 1,000 kg/m 3, 850 kg/m 3, and 13,600 kg/m 3, respectively. Analysis Starting with the pressure at point 1 (airwater interface), moving along the tube by adding or subtracting the hydrostatic pressure variation ( gh ) until reaching the point 2 (pressure is p atm ) yields: p gh gh gh p 1 water 1 oil 2 mercury 3 atm Solving for the pressure at point 1: p1 patm watergh1 oilgh2 mercury gh3 patm g mercuryh3 waterh1 oilh Pa 9.81 m/s 2 13, 600 kg/m m 1, 000 kg/m m kg/m 0.2 m Pa (130 kpa, absolute)
9 PAGE 8 of 11 A manometer is used to measure the air pressure in a tank. The manometer fluid has a specific gravity of 1.25, and the differential height between the two arms of the manometer is 28 in. If the local atmospheric pressure is 12.7 psia, determine the absolute pressure in the tank (in psia ) for the cases of the fluid level of the right arm of manometer (a) higher and (b) lower fluid level than the fluid level of the left arm (left arm is the one attached to the tank). Assumption The manometer fluid (liquid) is incompressible. Properties The specific gravity (SG) of the fluid is The density of water (32 F) is 62.4 lbm/ft 3. Analysis The density of the fluid can be given by: 3 3 SG water lbm/ft 78 lbm/ft The pressure difference ( p ) corresponding to a manometer reading of 28 inch is: slug 2 28 lb 1 ft p gh 78 lbm/ft 32.2 ft/s ft psi lbm 12 ft 12 in (a) The fluid level is higher: pabs patm pgage 12.7 psi 1.26 psi psia (b) The fluid level is lower (means: vacuum ): pabs patm pvac 12.7 psi 1.26 psi psia
10 PAGE 9 of 11 Barometer At high altitudes, a car engine generates less power. Also a person gets less oxygen The basic barometer BAROMETER The basic barometer: is a simple device (vertical glass tube, filled with a liquid) designed to measure atmospheric pressure At standard (sealevel) condition, the pressure is defined to be 1 bar Applying the hydrostatic pressure variation for barometer: patm gh (h is the barometer reading ) Note that: the barometer reading depends on the type of fluid, therefore the type of fluid must always be specified for barometer reading STANDARD ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE (1 ATM) Barometer measures the standard 1 atm as: 760 mmhg at 0 C (or mh2o at 4 C) under the gravity of g = m/s 2 SI Unit: 1 atm = 101 kpa 1 bar = 100,000 Pa (100 kpa) = approximately 1 atm US Customary Unit: 1 atm = 14.7 psi = 2,116.8 psf
11 PAGE 10 of 11 EXERCISE A24 (DoItYourself) Schematic of a vertical pistoncylinder device and the freebody diagram of the piston The piston of a vertical pistoncylinder device is containing a gas (60 kg), and has a crosssectional area of 0.04 m 2, as shown in the figure. The local atmospheric pressure is 0.97 bar, and the gravitational acceleration is 9.81 m/s 2. (a) Determine the pressure (in bar ) inside the cylinder. (b) If some heat is transferred to the gas and its volume is increased, do you expect the pressure inside the cylinder change? Explain why. Solution A gas is contained in a vertical cylinder with a heavy piston. The pressure inside the cylinder and the effect of volume change on pressure are to be determined. Assumptions Friction between the piston and the cylinder is negligible. Analysis (a) The gas pressure in the pistoncylinder device depends on the atmospheric pressure and the weight of the piston. Drawing the freebody diagram of the piston (figure) and balancing the vertical forces yield: pa patm AW patm A mg Solving for the pressure inside the cylinder: 2 60 kg9.81 m/s mg 1 bar p patm 0.97 bar 2 2 A 0.04 m 10,000 N/m 1.12 bar (b) The volume change will have no effect on the freebody diagram in part (a), and therefore the pressure inside the cylinder will remain the same. Note: if the gas behaves as an idea gas, the absolute temperature doubles when the volume is doubled at constant pressure.
12 PAGE 11 of 11 The barometer of a mountain hiker reads 930 mbars at the beginning of a hiking trip and 780 mbars at the end. Neglecting the effect of altitude on local gravitational acceleration, determine the vertical distance climbed (in m ). Assume an average air density of 1.2 kg/m 3. Assumptions The variation of air density and the gravity with respect to altitude is negligible. Properties 3 The density of air is given: 1.2 kg/m Analysis Pressure difference between bottom and top of the mountain can be determined by the hydrostatic pressure variation, assuming that the sir density is constant: p pbottom ptop ghair 2 100,000 N/m bar 0.78 bar 1.2 kg/m 9.81 m/s h 1 bar This yields, h 1,274 m
THERMODYNAMICS, HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER TUTORIAL NO: 1 (SPECIFIC VOLUME, PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE)
THERMODYNAMICS, HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER TUTORIAL NO: 1 (SPECIFIC VOLUME, PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE) 1. A vacuum gauge mounted on a condenser reads 66 cm Hg. What is the absolute pressure in the condenser
More informationComments on Homework. Class 4  Pressure. Atmospheric Pressure. Gauge vs. Absolute Pressure. 2. Gauge vs. Absolute Pressure. 1.
Class 4  Pressure 1. Definitions 2. Gauge Pressure 3. Pressure and Height of Liquid Column (Head) 4. Pressure Measurement and Manometers Please don t forget the special problem for the next HW assignment
More information. In an elevator accelerating upward (A) both the elevator accelerating upward (B) the first is equations are valid
IIT JEE Achiever 2014 Ist Year Physics2: Worksheet1 Date: 20140626 Hydrostatics 1. A liquid can easily change its shape but a solid cannot because (A) the density of a liquid is smaller than that of
More informationChapter 3 PRESSURE AND FLUID STATICS
Fluid Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications, 2nd Edition Yunus A. Cengel, John M. Cimbala McGrawHill, 2010 Chapter 3 PRESSURE AND FLUID STATICS Lecture slides by Hasan Hacışevki Copyright The McGrawHill
More informationand its weight (in newtons) when located on a planet with an acceleration of gravity equal to 4.0 ft/s 2.
1.26. A certain object weighs 300 N at the earth's surface. Determine the mass of the object (in kilograms) and its weight (in newtons) when located on a planet with an acceleration of gravity equal to
More informationThis chapter deals with forces applied by fluids at rest or in rigidbody
cen72367_ch03.qxd 10/29/04 2:21 PM Page 65 PRESSURE AND FLUID STATICS CHAPTER 3 This chapter deals with forces applied by fluids at rest or in rigidbody motion. The fluid property responsible for those
More information1. The principle of fluid pressure that is used in hydraulic brakes or lifts is that:
University Physics (Prof. David Flory) Chapt_15 Thursday, November 15, 2007 Page 1 Name: Date: 1. The principle of fluid pressure that is used in hydraulic brakes or lifts is that: A) pressure is the same
More informationPhys101 Lectures Fluids I. Key points: Pressure and Pascal s Principle Buoyancy and Archimedes Principle. Ref: 101,2,3,4,5,6,7.
Phys101 Lectures 2425 luids I Key points: Pressure and Pascal s Principle Buoyancy and Archimedes Principle Ref: 101,2,3,4,5,6,7. Page 1 101 Phases of Matter The three common phases of matter are solid,
More informationSlide 5 / What is the difference between the pressure on the bottom of a pool and the pressure on the water surface? A ρgh B ρg/h C ρ/gh D gh/ρ
Slide 1 / 47 1 Two substances mercury with a density 13600 kg/m3 and alcohol with a density 800 kg/m3 are selected for an experiment. If the experiment requires equal masses of each liquid, what is the
More informationAssistant Lecturer Anees Kadhum AL Saadi
Pressure Variation with Depth Pressure in a static fluid does not change in the horizontal direction as the horizontal forces balance each other out. However, pressure in a static fluid does change with
More informationChapter 14. Fluids. A fluid a substance that can flow (in contrast to a solid)
Chapter 4 luids A luid a substance that can low (in contrast to a solid) Air Water luids comort to the boundaries o any container in which we put them, and do not maintain a ixed shape density and pressure
More informationAP B Fluids Practice Problems. Multiple Choice. Slide 2 / 43. Slide 1 / 43. Slide 4 / 43. Slide 3 / 43. Slide 6 / 43. Slide 5 / 43
Slide 1 / 43 Slide 2 / 43 P Fluids Practice Problems Multiple hoice Slide 3 / 43 1 Two substances mercury with a density 13600 kg/m 3 and alcohol with a density 0.8 kg/m 3 are selected for an experiment.
More informationChapter 13 Fluids. Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Chapter 13 Fluids Phases of Matter Density and Specific Gravity Pressure in Fluids Atmospheric Pressure and Gauge Pressure Pascal s Principle Units of Chapter 13 Measurement of Pressure; Gauges and the
More informationChapter 13 Gases, Vapors, Liquids, and Solids
Chapter 13 Gases, Vapors, Liquids, and Solids Property is meaning any measurable characteristic of a substance, such as pressure, volume, or temperature, or a characteristic that can be calculated or deduced,
More informationMS.RAJA ELGADY/PRESSURE PAPER 3
1 (a) A water tank has a rectangular base of dimensions 1.5m by 1.2m and contains 1440 kg of water. Calculate (i) the weight of the water, weight =...... [1] (ii) the pressure exerted by the water on
More informationGases and Pressure SECTION 11.1
SECTION 11.1 Gases and In the chapter States of Matter, you read about the kineticmolecular theory of matter. You were also introduced to how this theory explains some of the properties of ideal gases.
More informationPURE SUBSTANCE. Nitrogen and gaseous air are pure substances.
CLASS Third Units PURE SUBSTANCE Pure substance: A substance that has a fixed chemical composition throughout. Air is a mixture of several gases, but it is considered to be a pure substance. Nitrogen and
More informationChapter 1: Basic Concepts of Pneumatics
Right of authorship: the content of the training (wording, drawings, pictures) are owned by the author. Any utilization except for individual use is allowed only after permission of the author. What is
More informationGauge Pressure, Absolute Pressure, and Pressure Measurement
Gauge Pressure, Absolute Pressure, and Pressure Measurement By: OpenStax College Online: This module is copyrig hted by Rice University. It is licensed under the Creative
More informationCalculation of Gas Density and Viscosity
Calculation of Gas Density and Viscosity Course No: H02008 Credit: 2 PDH Harlan H. Bengtson, PhD, P.E. Continuing Education and Development, Inc. 9 Greyridge Farm Court Stony Point, NY 10980 P: (877)
More informationPressure of the atmosphere varies with elevation and weather conditions. Barometer device used to measure atmospheric pressure.
Chapter 12 Section 1 Pressure A gas exerts pressure on its surroundings. Blow up a balloon. The gas we are most familiar with is the atmosphere, a mixture of mostly elemental nitrogen and oxygen. Pressure
More informationChapter 9 Fluids CHAPTER CONTENTS
Flowing fluids, such as the water flowing in the photograph at Coors Falls in Colorado, can make interesting patterns In this chapter, we will investigate the basic physics behind such flow Photo credit:
More informationFluids, Pressure and buoyancy
Fluids, Pressure and buoyancy Announcements: CAPA due Friday at 10pm. Comment on the hint in Problem 5. CAPA solutions from previous sets can be found by logging onto CAPA and selecting View Previous Set
More informationLecture Outline Chapter 15. Physics, 4 th Edition James S. Walker. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Lecture Outline Chapter 15 Physics, 4 th Edition James S. Walker Chapter 15 Fluids Density Units of Chapter 15 Pressure Static Equilibrium in Fluids: Pressure and Depth Archimedes Principle and Buoyancy
More informationLesson 12: Fluid statics, Continuity equation (Sections ) Chapter 9 Fluids
Lesson : luid statics, Continuity equation (Sections 9.9.7) Chapter 9 luids States of Matter  Solid, liquid, gas. luids (liquids and gases) do not hold their shapes. In many cases we can think of liquids
More informationACTIVITY 1: Buoyancy Problems. OBJECTIVE: Practice and Reinforce concepts related to Fluid Pressure, primarily Buoyancy
LESSON PLAN: SNAP, CRACKLE, POP: Submarine Buoyancy, Compression, and Rotational Equilibrium DEVELOPED BY: Bill Sanford, Nansemond Suffolk Academy 2012 NAVAL HISTORICAL FOUNDATION TEACHER FELLOWSHIP ACTIVITY
More informationUnit 9 Packet: Gas Laws Introduction to Gas Laws Notes:
Name: Unit 9 Packet: Gas Laws Introduction to Gas Laws Notes: Block: In chemistry, the relationships between gas physical properties are described as gas laws. Some of these properties are pressure, volume,
More informationLiquid Level Measurement
Technical Article Liquid Level Measurement A pressure transmitter can be used to determine the liquid level in a tank, well, river or other body of liquid. The pressure at the bottom of a liquid filled
More informationChapter 11: Gases: Homework: Read Chapter 11. Keep up with MasteringChemistry and workshops
C h e m i s t r y 1 2 C h a p t e r 11 G a s e s P a g e 1 Chapter 11: Gases: Homework: Read Chapter 11. Keep up with MasteringChemistry and workshops Gas Properties: Gases have high kinetic energy low
More informationUnit code: H/ QCF level: 5 Credit value: 15 OUTCOME 3  STATIC AND DYNAMIC FLUID SYSTEMS TUTORIAL 2  STATIC FLUID SYSTEMS
Unit 43: Plant and Process Principles Unit code: H/601 44 QCF level: 5 Credit value: 15 OUTCOME 3  STATIC AN YNAMIC FLUI SYSTEMS TUTORIAL  STATIC FLUI SYSTEMS 3 Understand static and dnamic fluid sstems
More informationProcess Nature of Process
AP Physics Free Response Practice Thermodynamics 1983B4. The pvdiagram above represents the states of an ideal gas during one cycle of operation of a reversible heat engine. The cycle consists of the
More informationthen the work done is, if the force and the displacement are in opposite directions, then the work done is.
1. What is the formula for work? W= x 2. What are the 8 forms of energy? 3. Write the formula for the following: Kinetic Energy Potential Energy 4. If the force and the displacement are in the same direction,
More informationOutcomes: Example the historical development of the measurement of pressure. Include: Galileo, Toricelli, von Gureick, Pascal, Huygens, Avogadro,
History of Pressure Outcomes: Example the historical development of the measurement of pressure. Include: Galileo, Toricelli, von Gureick, Pascal, Huygens, Avogadro, Dalton. Describe the various units
More informationCP Chapter 13/14 Notes The Property of Gases Kinetic Molecular Theory
CP Chapter 13/14 Notes The Property of Gases Kinetic Molecular Theory Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases The word kinetic refers to. Kinetic energy is the an object has because of its motion. Kinetic Molecular
More informationChapter 13. Gases. Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 1
Chapter 13 Gases Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 1 Section 13.1 Pressure Why study gases? An understanding of real world phenomena. An understanding of how science works. Copyright Cengage
More informationGas Laws. Introduction
Gas Laws Introduction In 1662 Robert Boyle found that, at constant temperature, the pressure of a gas and its volume are inversely proportional such that P x V = constant. This relationship is known as
More informationFluid Mechanics  Hydrostatics. AP Physics B
luid Mechanics  Hydrostatics AP Physics B States of Matter Before we begin to understand the nature of a luid we must understand the nature of all the states of matter: The 3 primary states of matter
More informationUNIQUE SCIENCE ACADEMY
1 (a) UNIQUE SIENE EMY Test (Unit 7) Name :... Paper: Physics ate : 04.07.2011 ode: 5054 lass: I Time llowed: 35Minutes Maximum Marks: 25 1 Theory Section: What do you understand by the term pressure.
More informationThe Application of Temperature and/or Pressure Correction Factors in Gas Measurement
The Application of Temperature and/or Pressure Correction Factors in Gas Measurement COMBINED BOYLE S CHARLES GAS LAWS To convert measured volume at metered pressure and temperature to selling volume at
More informationLiquids and Gases. O, 1 L = 2.2 lbs H 2. O = 1 kg H 2
Liquids and Gases The unit of volume is the meter cubed, m 3, which is a very large volume. Very often we use cm 3 = cc, or Litres = 10 3 cc Other everyday units are gallons, quarts, pints 1 qt = 2 lbs
More informationTo convert to millimeters of mercury, we derive a unit factor related to the equivalent relationship 29.9 in. Hg = 760 mm Hg.
Example Exercise 11.1 Gas Pressure Conversion Meteorologists state that a falling barometer indicates an approaching storm. Given a barometric pressure of 27.5 in. Hg, express the pressure in each of the
More informationLecture Presentation. Chapter 10. Gases. John D. Bookstaver St. Charles Community College Cottleville, MO Pearson Education, Inc.
Lecture Presentation Chapter 10 John D. Bookstaver St. Charles Community College Cottleville, MO Characteristics of Unlike liquids and solids, gases Expand to fill their containers. Are highly compressible.
More informationFigure 1 Schematic of opposing air bearing concept
Theoretical Analysis of Opposing Air Bearing Concept This concept utilizes air bearings to constrain five degrees of freedom of the optic as shown in the figure below. Three pairs of inherently compensated
More informationStates of Matter Review
States of Matter Review May 13 8:16 PM Physical States of Matter (Phases) Solid Liquid Melting Gas Condensation Freezing Evaporation Deposition Sublimation Sep 13 6:04 PM 1 May 13 8:11 PM Gases Chapter
More informationEnd of Chapter Exercises
End of Chapter Exercises Exercises 1 12 are conceptual questions that are designed to see if you have understood the main concepts of the chapter. 1. While on an airplane, you take a drink from your water
More informationChapter 13 Gases and Pressure. Pressure and Force. Pressure is the force per unit area on a surface. Force Area. Pressure =
Chapter 13 Gas Laws Chapter 13 Gases and Pressure Pressure and Force Pressure is the force per unit area on a surface. Pressure = Force Area Chapter 13 Gases and Pressure Gases in the Atmosphere The atmosphere
More informationLab. Manual. Fluid Mechanics. The Department of Civil and Architectural Engineering
Lab. Manual of Fluid Mechanics The Department of Civil and Architectural Engineering General Safety rules to be followed in Fluid Mechanics Lab: 1. Always wear shoes before entering lab. 2. Do not touch
More informationKinetic Theory and Gases
Kinetic Theory and Gases Kinetic Theory Explains how temperature and pressure affect the motion of molecules http://exploration.grc.nasa.gov/education/rocket/images/state.gif 1 Hydraulics http://library.thinkquest.org/
More informationChapter 13: The Behavior of Gases
Chapter 13: The Behavior of Gases I. First Concepts a. The 3 states of matter most important to us: solids, liquids, and gases. b. Real Gases and Ideal Gases i. Real gases exist, ideal gases do not ii.
More informationPrecision level sensing with lowpressure module MS
The task on hand Level sensing as it is understood in modern process automation is much more than simply "tank half full" or "tank a quarter full". Using suitable sensors, levels, inlets and outlets can
More informationSlide 1 / What is the density of an aluminum block with a mass of 4050 kg and volume of 1.5 m 3?
Slide 1 / 68 1 What is the density of an aluminum block with a mass of 4050 kg and volume of 1.5 m 3? Slide 2 / 68 2 What is the mass of a rectangular shaped ice block with dimensions of 0.04m x 0.05m
More informationASSIGNMENT 2 CHE 3473
DUE: May 23 ASSIGNMENT 2 CHE 3473 #Problem 1: 3.3 #Problem 2: 3.4 #Problem 3: 3.5 #Problem 4: 3.6 #Problem 5: 3.7 #Problem 6: 3.8 #Problem 7: 3.11 #Problem 8: 3.15 #Problem 9: 3.22 #Problem 10: 3.32 #Problem
More informationMore About Solids, Liquids and Gases ASSIGNMENT
More About Solids, Liquids and Gases ASSIGNMENT 1. Fill in the blank spaces by choosing the correct words from the list given below: List : water, density, altitudes, lateral, intermolecular, force, cohesion,
More informationEDEXCEL NATIONALS UNIT 6 MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES and APPLICATIONS. ASSIGNMENT No. 4
EDEXCEL NATIONALS UNIT 6 MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES and APPLICATIONS ASSIGNMENT No. 4 NAME: I agree to the assessment as contained in this assignment. I confirm that the work submitted is my own work. Signature
More informationFigure 1: You and Your Elephant
INSTRUCTORS NOTE (Dr. Jack Blumenthal) The thought experiment or problem described herein, together with the accompanying approach and calculations was developed by two seniors and their instructor at
More informationPhysics, Chapter 8: Hydrostatics (Fluids at Rest)
University of Nebraska  Lincoln DigitalCommons@University of Nebraska  Lincoln Robert Katz Publications Research Papers in Physics and Astronomy 1958 Physics, Chapter 8: Hydrostatics (Fluids at Rest)
More informationApplications of Bernoulli s principle. Principle states that areas with faster moving fluids will experience less pressure
Applications of Bernoulli s principle Principle states that areas with faster moving fluids will experience less pressure Artery o When blood flows through narrower regions of arteries, the speed increases
More informationSubstances that are liquids or solids under ordinary conditions may also exist as gases. These are often referred to as vapors. Properties of Gases
Common Student Misconceptions Students need to be told to always use temperature in Kelvin in gas problems. Students should always use units in gaslaw problems to keep track of required conversions. Due
More informationName: Class: Date: SHORT ANSWER Answer the following questions in the space provided.
CHAPTER 11 REVIEW Gases SECTION 1 SHORT ANSWER Answer the following questions in the space provided. 1. Pressure =. For a constant force, when the surface area is tripled the pressure is (a) doubled. (b)
More informationATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE
ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE 3.1 Air weight 3.2 Torricelli s experience 3.3 Pressure measuring unit 3.1 AIR WEIGHT Solid bodies have their own weight, and gaseous bodies such as air also have their own weight.
More informationFigure Vaporliquid equilibrium for a binary mixture. The dashed lines show the equilibrium compositions.
Another way to view this problem is to say that the final volume contains V m 3 of alcohol at 5.93 kpa and 20 C V m 3 of air at 94.07 kpa and 20 C V m 3 of air plus alcohol at 100 kpa and 20 C Thus, the
More informationHomework of chapter (3)
The Islamic University of Gaza, Civil Engineering Department, Fluid mechanicsdiscussion, Instructor: Dr. Khalil M. Al Astal T.A: Eng. Hasan Almassri T.A: Eng. Mahmoud AlQazzaz First semester, 2013. Homework
More informationChapter 3: Atmospheric pressure and temperature
Chapter 3: Atmospheric pressure and temperature 3.1 Distribution of pressure with altitude The barometric law Atmospheric pressure declines with altitude, a fact familiar to everyone who has flown in an
More informationExercises The Atmosphere (page 383) 20.2 Atmospheric Pressure (pages )
Exercises 20.1 The Atmosphere (page 383) 1. The energizes the molecules in Earth s atmosphere. 2. Why is gravity important to Earth s atmosphere? 3. What would happen to Earth s atmosphere without the
More informationVACUUM TESTING PRECAST CONCRETE MANHOLES
1 OF 5 testing is a quick, safe and practical way to validate manhole system integrity. Manhole sections can be tested at the precast concrete plant prior to delivery or on site prior to backfilling. Here
More informationOrganisation Internationale de Métrologie Légale
Organisation Internationale de Métrologie Légale OIML INTERNATIONAL RECOMMENDATION Pressure balances Manomètres à piston OIML R 110 Edition 1994 (E) CONTENTS Foreword... 3 1 Scope... 4 2 Terminology...
More informationThe Discussion of this exercise covers the following points:
Exercise 53 Wet Reference Leg EXERCISE OBJECTIVE Learn to measure the level in a vessel using a wet reference leg. DISCUSSION OUTLINE The Discussion of this exercise covers the following points: Measuring
More informationHow does atmospheric pressure vary? Measuring atmospheric pressure at different altitudes above sea level
Objective The purpose of this activity is to study atmospheric pressure variations, as we reach higher altitudes, in order to create a hypothesis. The hypothesis will be tested by using the Labdisc air
More informationPROBLEMS FOR CHAPTER 2  PRESSURE. Question 1
PROBLEMS FOR CHAPTER 2  PRESSURE Question 1 The basic elements of a hydraulic press are shown in Figure 1. The plunger has an area of 3cm 2, and a force, F 1, can be applied to the plunger through a
More informationPneumatic deadweight tester Model CPB3500
Calibration technology Pneumatic deadweight tester Model CPB3500 WIKA data sheet CT 31.22 Applications Primary standard for calibrating the scale in a pneumatic range from 1... 120 bar / 14.5... 1,600
More informationLab Dates. CRHS Academic Chemistry Unit 11 Gas Laws Notes
Name Period CRHS Academic Chemistry Unit 11 Gas Laws Notes Quiz Date Lab Dates Exam Date Notes, Homework, Exam Reviews and Their KEYS located on CRHS Academic Chemistry Website: https://cincochem.pbworks.com
More informationS265 Remote seals with capillary tube. 2600T Series Pressure Transmitters. Engineered solutions for all applications
Contents Data Sheet S265 2600T Series Pressure Transmitters Engineered solutions for all applications Wide range of remote seal types Allows optimum design for each application without compromising performance
More informationWorksheet 1.7: Gas Laws. Charles Law. GuyLassac's Law. Standard Conditions. Abbreviations. Conversions. Gas Law s Equation Symbols
Name Block Worksheet 1.7: Gas Laws Boyle s Law Charles Law GuyLassac's Law Combined Gas Law For a given mass of gas at constant temperature, the volume of a gas varies inversely with pressure PV = k The
More informationJAR23 Normal, Utility, Aerobatic, and Commuter Category Aeroplanes \ Issued 11 March 1994 \ Section 1 Requirements \ Subpart C  Structure \ General
JAR 23.301 Loads \ JAR 23.301 Loads (a) Strength requirements are specified in terms of limit loads (the maximum loads to be expected in service) and ultimate loads (limit loads multiplied by prescribed
More information4.) There are no forces of attraction or repulsion between gas particles. This means that
KINETIC MOLECULAR (KM) THEORY OF MATTER NOTES  based on the idea that particles of matter are always in motion  assumptions of the KM Theory 1.) Gases consist of large numbers of tiny particles that
More informationChapter 6: Air Pressure Measuring air pressure Variations due to temperature and water vapor Development of pressure systems Generation of winds
Chapter 6: Air Pressure Measuring air pressure Variations due to temperature and water vapor Development of pressure systems Generation of winds Understanding Air Pressure: pressure exerted by the weight
More informationUNIT 10  GASES. Notes & Worksheets  Honors
Ideal Gas Equation 1 WKSHT 1.) What is the pressure exerted by 2.0 moles of an ideal gas when it occupies a volume of 12.0 L at 373 K? 2.) A flashbulb of volume 2.6 cm 3 contains O 2 gas at a pressure
More informationPSI Chemistry: Gases Multiple Choice Review
PSI Chemistry: Gases Multiple Choice Review Name Kinetic Molecular Theory 1. According to the kineticmolecular theory, particles of matterare in constant motion (A) have different shapes (B) have different
More information20 Gases. Gas molecules are far apart and can move freely between collisions.
Gas molecules are far apart and can move freely between collisions. Gases are similar to liquids in that they flow; hence both are called fluids. In a gas, the molecules are far apart, allowing them to
More informationThe Ideal Gas Constant
Chem 2115 Experiment # 8 The Ideal Gas Constant OBJECTIVE: This experiment is designed to provide experience in gas handling methods and experimental insight into the relationships between pressure, volume,
More informationGas molecules are far apart. collisions The Atmosphere
Gas molecules are far apart and can move freely between collisions. Gases are similar to liquids in that they flow; hence both are called fluids. In a gas, the molecules are far apart, allowing them to
More informationModeling air mass flow into a football and resulting pressure after cooling
Modeling air mass flow into a foot and resulting pressure after cooling Dr. Joseph S. Jewell www.joejewell.com 1 February 2015 Abstract: Realistic modeling of the rapid filling process for a foot, neglected
More informationEcoPROSeries 420mA SUBMERSIBLE PRESSURE TRANSMITTER INSTRUCTIONS
EcoPROSeries 420mA SUBMERSIBLE PRESSURE TRANSMITTER INSTRUCTIONS EcoPROSeries 420mA SUBMERSIBLE PRESSURE TRANSMITTER INSTRUCTIONS 9001:2008 ISO CERTIFIED COMPANY Table of Contents Introduction  EcoPROSeries
More informationMULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
Test General Chemistry CH116 UMass Boston Summer 2013 Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) The pressure exerted by a column of
More informationTHE GAS STATE. Unit 4. CHAPTER KEY TERMS HOME WORK 9.1 Kinetic Molecular Theory States of Matter Solid, Liquid, gas.
Unit 4 THE GAS STATE CHAPTER KEY TERMS HOME WORK 9. Kinetic Molecular Theory States of Matter Solid, Liquid, gas Page 4 # to 4 9. Boyles Law P α /V PV = Constant P V = P V Pressure Atmospheric Pressure
More informationExercise 52. Bubblers EXERCISE OBJECTIVE DISCUSSION OUTLINE. Bubblers DISCUSSION. Learn to measure the level in a vessel using a bubbler.
Exercise 52 Bubblers EXERCISE OBJECTIVE Learn to measure the level in a vessel using a bubbler. DISCUSSION OUTLINE The Discussion of this exercise covers the following points: Bubblers How to measure
More informationtime v (vertical) time
NT4EQRT20: PROJECTILE MOTION FOR TWO ROCKS VELOCITY AND ACCELERATION GRAPHS II Two identical rocks are thrown horizontally from a cliff with Rock A having a greater velocity at the instant it is released
More informationChapter 4, Problem 30.
Chapter 4, Problem 30. A wellinsulated rigid tank contains 5 kg of a saturated liquid vapor mixture of water at l00 kpa. Initially, threequarters of the mass is in the liquid phase. An electric resistor
More informationKineticMolecular Theory of Matter
Gases Properties of Gases Gas Pressure Gases What gases are important for each of the following: O 2, CO 2 and/or He? A. B. C. D. 1 2 Gases What gases are important for each of the following: O 2, CO 2
More informationHow does atmospheric pressure vary? Measuring atmospheric pressure at different altitudes above sea level
Dimension 2 Cross Cutting Concepts Dimension 1 Science and Engineering Practices FRAMEWORK FOR K12 SCIENCE EDUCATION 2012 USA Standards Correlation The Dimension I practices listed below are called out
More informationINSTRUCTIONAL GOAL: Explain and perform calculations regarding the buoyant force on a
Snap, Crackle, Pop! Submarine Buoyancy, Compression, and Rotational Equilibrium Bill Sanford, Physics Teacher, Nansemond Suffolk Academy, Suffolk 2012 Naval Historical Foundation STEMH Teacher Fellowship
More informationConcepTest PowerPoints
ConcepTest PowerPoints Chapter 10 Physics: Principles with Applications, 6 th edition Giancoli 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall This work is protected by United States copyright laws and is provided solely for
More informationLab 11 Density and Buoyancy
b Lab 11 Density and uoyancy Physics 211 Lab What You Need To Know: Density Today s lab will introduce you to the concept of density. Density is a measurement of an object s mass per unit volume of space
More informationExperiment 8 GAS LAWS
Experiment 8 GAS LAWS FV 6/25/2017 MATERIALS: Amontons Law apparatus, Boyle s Law apparatus, Avogadro s Corollary apparatus, four beakers (2 L), warmwater bath, ice, barometer, digital thermometer, air
More informationBubble Elimination Device in Hydraulic Systems
Bubble Elimination Device in Hydraulic Systems Ryushi SUZUKI 1, Yutaka TANAKA 2, Shinichi YOKOTA 3 1 President, Opus Corp. 652 Todoroki, Setagayaku, Tokyo 158, Japan 2 Associate Professor, Department
More informationMatter is made up of particles which are in continual random motion Misconception: Only when a substance is in its liquid or gas state do its
Kinetic Theory of Matter Matter is made up of particles which are in continual random motion Misconception: Only when a substance is in its liquid or gas state do its particles move because in these two
More informationPressure Measurement. Introduction. Engr325 Instrumentation. Dr Curtis Nelson 3/1/17
3/1/17 Pressure Measurement Engr325 Instrumentation Dr Curtis Nelson Introduction A cluster of 72 heliumfilled balloons over Temecula, California in April of 2003. The helium balloons displace approximately
More informationI. Introduction. Lesson title: How does pressure effect a scuba diver at different depths?
I. Introduction Lesson title: How does pressure effect a scuba diver at different depths? Grade level audience: Regents Chemistry 11th Grade Lesson overview: Students have been introduced to the definition
More informationToday: Finish Chapter 13 (Liquids) Start Chapter 14 (Gases and Plasmas)
Today: Finish Chapter 13 (Liquids) Start Chapter 14 (Gases and Plasmas) Gases and plasmas: Preliminaries Will now apply concepts of fluid pressure, buoyancy, flotation of Ch.13, to the atmosphere. Main
More information