1 Some notes about Comparing GU & Savier airfoil equipped half canard In S4 wind tunnel (France) Matthieu Scherrer Adapted from Charlie Pujo & Nicolas Gorius work
2 Contents Test conditions 3. S-4 Wind-tunnel The team The tested canards Limitation : a comparison work Qualitative work : flow visualization 5 2. Wool string visualization Laser flow visualization Oil flow visualization Visualization report Quantitative work (/2) : polar measurements 7 3. Data for comparing VariEze Canard equipped with GU and Savier airfoil Canard equipped with GU airfoil Canard equipped with Savier airfoil Comparison of canards equipped with GU and Savier airfoil D visualisation of lift coefficient Canard equipped with GU airfoil Canard equipped with Savier airfoil Effect of wetted surface ( rain ) and transition on canard equipped with Savier Airfoil Quantitative work (2/2) : extrapolation from polar measurements Extrapolated data for airfoils alone Data adapted to flight condition Result of in flight measurements Comparison of GU and Savier airfoil Conclusion 4 2
3 Chapter Test conditions. S-4 Wind-tunnel The S-4 wind tunnel used to be a commercial low speed wind tunnel until three years ago. Now property of ENSICA school since two years, it is used in a pedagogic way, for studies realized by student. But the measurement equipment is still the original high quality equipment. Figure.: S4 wind tunnel elliptic test section. The main data are : Elliptic free test section 2x3m. Speed between and 4m/s. Canard mounted on three mast, with 6 axis measurement (only 3 used). Laser and UV light equipment for flow visualisation or measurement. Camera and light for filming each test. 3
4 .2 The team This study was conducted as a pedagogic project ( PIR ) for two French SUPAERO young students : Charlie Pujo and Nicolas Gorius. they produced a (French) report, highlighting some of the main points observe throughout this study. Figure.2: The full team within test section. This project was initiated by Fabrice Claudel, helped by Patrick Lefebvre. according to Klaus Savier s work and drawings. The study was directed by Paul Claude Dufour and Matthieu Scherrer. The new canard was build.3 The tested canards Full size half-canards were tested into the wind tunnel. A small flat plate was put to create a symmetry axis. Both GU and Savier canards were similarly intalled in the wind tunnel. The wind speed was set to the maximum available, that is 4m/s. this will gives correct values of Reynolds number for the low speed enveloppe of the VariEze, but too low for high speed..4 Limitation : a comparison work Here are some limitation about the work that was done. Only half a canard, without fuselage influence, was tested. The symmetry plane was not a perfect one. It was possible to measure and then subtract only a part of drag created by the fittings and attachment device. As a consequence, the absolute value concerning C d and C lmax might not be accurate. But the fittings and attachment system were similar for both canard. This work is then a Comparison of the two canards.
5 Chapter 2 Qualitative work : flow visualization There were many way available to visualize the airflow over the canards. We tried characterize the canards with each of those. NB : this was done partly in a pedagogical objective. 2. Wool string visualization It was possible to move a wool string all aver the canard. Then functionning of the flap gap or wing tip vortex could be observed. 2.2 Laser flow visualization Wing tip flow was through laser tomography. A laser beam was split into a plan, and smoke was send. Then the wing tip vortex could be studied. There as no qualitative difference in aspect between the vortex of the two different canard. 2.3 Oil flow visualization The oil flow visualization were the most interesting qualitative testing. It was possible to visualize and analyze the laminar to turbulent transition on the extrados, and the quality of this transition. Shortly summed up, we may say : GU Canard Savier canard C l.5, no flap defl. Position of transition 6-65% 4% Laminar bubble wide (% of chord) & thick (oil) short (3-4% of chord) & thin (no oil) C l.2, no flap defl. Position of transition - 25% Laminar bubble - disappearing Intrados was not much observed. It was tried to trip the laminar boundary layer to turbulent on the GU airfoil, to kill the laminar bubble. This does work with quite thick scotch tape. 5
6 Other visualization were made to observed the wing tip flow. The path of the vortex wing tip can be clearly seen. 2.4 Visualization report Each visualization run was fully filmed. A 3 minutes sequences was assembled by Charlie Pujo and Nicolas Gorius, and compressed as an *.AVI film. It represents the best visualization report. Indeed, photograph are too static to represents properly those visualisations. This *.AVI film ( 5 Mo) might be available on the internet or on an ftp site (to be defined). I will also issue a compilation of some of the photographs taken during those visualization trial.
7 Chapter 3 Quantitative work (/2) : polar measurements 3. Data for comparing VariEze Canard equipped with GU and Savier airfoil Here are displayed the results of measurement on the two canards. Three axis were measured : Lift force values. Drag force values. Pitching moment values, at 25% of chord (that aerodynamical center). First are presented values for GU canard, and then for Savier canard. Finally comparison are made and some conclusion drawn. 7
8 3.. Canard equipped with GU airfoil Flap setting 27deg 5deg 7.5deg deg 7.5deg 5deg 24deg Lift coefficient GU Airfoil C l Alpha (deg) Figure 3.: Lift coefficient vs incidence. Note the tricky hysteresis behavior for high flap deflection.
9 Flap setting 27deg 5deg 7.5deg deg 7.5deg 5deg 24deg Drag polar GU Airfoil C l Alpha (deg) Figure 3.2: Lift coefficient vs drag coefficient.
10 Drag polar (detail) GU Airfoil.2.8 Flap setting 27deg 5deg 7.5deg deg 7.5deg 5deg 24deg.6 C l C d Figure 3.3: Lift coefficient vs drag coefficient, detailed around minimum drag.
11 . Flap setting 27deg 5deg.5 7.5deg deg 7.5deg 5deg 24deg Moment coefficient (at 25% chord) GU Airfoil.5 C m Alpha (deg) Figure 3.4: Moment coefficient vs incidence, detailed around minimum drag.
12 3..2 Canard equipped with Savier airfoil Flap setting 5deg deg 8deg 3deg deg 5deg 3deg 4deg Lift coefficient Savier Airfoil C l Alpha (deg) Figure 3.5: Lift coefficient vs incidence. Contrary to GU airfoil, there is no hysteresis behavior for high flap deflection.
13 Flap setting 5deg deg 8deg 3deg deg 5deg 3deg 4deg Drag polar Savier Airfoil C l Cd Figure 3.6: Lift coefficient vs drag coefficient.
14 Drag polar (detail) Savier Airfoil.2.8 Flap setting 5deg deg 8deg 3deg deg 5deg 3deg 4deg.6 C l Cd Figure 3.7: Lift coefficient vs drag coefficient, detailed around minimum drag.
15 . Flap setting 5deg deg.5 8deg 3deg deg 5deg 3deg 4deg.5 Moment coefficient (at 25% chord) Savier Airfoil C m Alpha (deg) Figure 3.8: Moment coefficient vs incidence.
16 3..3 Comparison of canards equipped with GU and Savier airfoil We shall now plot the C l, C d and C m values on the same graphics. Some results Here are the main results concerning lift : The Savier canard can reach the same C l range as GU canard, including very high values for C lmax. This C l range is obtained for different flap setting and incidence for GU or Savier canard. Hence the importance of a correct setting of the rigging angle on the fuselage. The Savier has apparently no problem with hysteresis for high flap deflection, comparing to the GU. It can be hoped that Savier canard might not present tricky behavior with high loading as GU sometime does. Then some results concerning drag : The Savier canard has a lower minimum drag coefficient than GU canard. This corresponds to lower C d at low loads, that is high speed configuration. Minimum drag for the Savier canard is reached for -3 o flap defelction The polar for Savier canard is more rounded and closed than for GU, than is C d gets higher for the Savier than for the GU when its load gets higher. My two cents about this : my impression is that Savier canard is more adapted to high speed, even if less laminar, and then would have less C lmax with no flap deflection. But thanks to a carefully design slat, it can reach as high C lmax as GU canard, while being more performing for high speed.
17 2.5 Lift coefficient GU & Savier Airfoil GU airfoil Savier airfoil C l Alpha (deg) Figure 3.9: Lift coefficient vs incidence. Contrary to GU, Savier airfoil has no hysteresis behavior for high flap deflection. C l slope is more regular for Savier than for GU.
18 2.5 Drag polar GU & Savier Airfoil GU airfoil Savier airfoil 2.5 C l Cd Figure 3.: Lift coefficient vs drag coefficient. Savier airfoil. Effect of flap deflection may seem higher for
19 Drag polar (detail) GU & Savier Airfoil.2 GU airfoil Savier airfoil.8.6 C l Cd Figure 3.: Lift coefficient vs drag coefficient, detailed around minimum drag. Minimum drag is smaller for Savier than for GU airfoil.
20 . Moment coefficient (at 25% chord) GU & Savier Airfoil C m Alpha (deg) Figure 3.2: Moment coefficient vs incidence. Absolute values of C m are smaller for Savier than for GU airfoil.
21 3.2 3D visualisation of lift coefficient 3.2. Canard equipped with GU airfoil C l according to incidence and flap setting GU Airfoil Flap setting (deg) Incidence (deg) Figure 3.3: Lift coefficient as a function of both incidence and flap setting. Tri-dimensionnal view.
22 4 C l according to incidence and flap setting GU Airfoil Flap setting (deg) Incidence (deg) Figure 3.4: Lift coefficient as a function of both incidence and flap setting. Levels view.
23 3.2.2 Canard equipped with Savier airfoil C l according to incidence and flap setting Savier Airfoil Flap setting (deg) Incidence (deg) Figure 3.5: Lift coefficient as a function of both incidence and flap setting. Tri-dimensionnal view.
24 C l according to incidence and flap setting Savier Airfoil Flap setting (deg) Incidence (deg) Figure 3.6: Lift coefficient as a function of both incidence and flap setting. Levels view.
25 3.3 Effect of wetted surface ( rain ) and transition on canard equipped with Savier Airfoil Artificial transition was created by carborandum located at 5% chord. Wetted surface referred to measurements with visualization oil on the canard. One conclusion is that if transition occurred early, performance is really affected. But it seems Savier airfoil is resistant to wetted surface, since wetted surface did not seem to create transition. This point should be detailed further.
26 .2 Effect of rain & transition on lift coefficient Natural airfoil Wetted extr. Transition extr. 5% Savier Airfoil C l Alpha (deg) Figure 3.7: Lift coefficient vs incidence. Savier airfoil seems to be not really hurt by wetted surface, whereas genuine transition reduced greatly maximum lift.
27 .2 Effect of rain & transition on drag polar Savier Airfoil Natural airfoil Wetted extr. Transition extr. 5% C l C d Figure 3.8: Lift coefficient vs drag coefficient.
28 .9.8 Effect of rain & transition on moment coefficient Savier Airfoil Natural airfoil Wetted extr. Transition extr. 5% C m Alpha (deg) Figure 3.9: Moment coefficient vs incidence.
29 Chapter 4 Quantitative work (2/2) : extrapolation from polar measurements From raw data, some calculation work can be done for extrapolating some complementary data. At first, the part of the airfoil within drag can be extracted. Then, we can look carefully the wind tunnel data on each functioning point that is encountered in steady flight. 29
30 4. Extrapolated data for airfoils alone In short, drag measured for the half canard can be split into : Mounting drag C dmount, that is drag causes by the fitting device into the wind tunnel. Airfoil drag C dairf Induced drag C di C d = C dmount + C dairf + C di (4.) Assuming the left plate is a correct plan of symmetry, we can say that the effective aspect ratio is about λ = 5. This is coherent with the C l slope measured. Then the induced drag can be expressed as C di = πλ C l 2, and subtracted from the total drag coefficient. Then we can compare airfoil, since Mounting drag C dmount is comparable for both half canards. NB : so keep in mind that the minimum drag values C d plotted contains C dmount, that is fittings and attachment system. So that they are not genuine airfoil C d.
31 Flap setting 27deg 5deg 7.5deg deg 7.5deg 5deg 24deg Drag polars GU Airfoil C l Alpha (deg) Figure 4.: Lift coefficient vs drag coefficient, for airfoil only.
32 Flap setting 5deg deg 8deg 3deg deg 5deg 3deg 4deg Drag polars Savier Airfoil C l Alpha (deg) Figure 4.2: Lift coefficient vs drag coefficient, for airfoil only.
33 2.5 2 GU airfoil Savier airfoil Drag polars comparison GU & Savier Airfoil.5 C l C d Figure 4.3: Comparison of drag polars for airfoils only. Savier Airfoil has a less laminar behavior (more rounded polar ), but lower C dmin.
34 4.2 Data adapted to flight condition An attempt to get the effective in flight parameters over the canards was made. Every parameter were not known, but this is a good start for the comparison of both canard. Indeed, wind tunnel data have to be treated to be used with the different parameters Measurement of flap deflection and fuselage attitude was installed into three aircraft (F-PYHR (Savier canard), F-PYOP (GU Canard), F-PYSM (GU Canard)). Similar measurements were made on the three aircraft to reduce scatter effect. Measurements were made for aircraft wing-loadings close to each other. Data were collected at first on a steady, constant attitude path, for basic values of incidence and flap deflection. Then some measurements were also made with constant bank and altitude, for higher load on the canard. From measurements, calculations were made to get the effective aerodynamic incidence on the canard, influenced by the wing. Some interpolations of the wind tunnel results were made to get the exact functioning parameters of the canards within the collected data. We should keep in mind the following points : A weak point of this study is that we could not get precise CG location for each aircraft. CG location influences canard load, hence its performance. We supposed that empty CG location were comparable on the different aircraft, according to the building plan. It is a pity we could not make the measurements of both canards on the same aircraft. This will be soon possible on F-PYIB (Savier & GU canard) which is currently grounded, and this study will be released. Reynolds number for wind tunnel data corresponds to low speed. Some results If you look only on the effective drag polar for the canard of trimmed aircraft, Savier Canard has a lower drag coefficient only for low C l values. If you plot C d as a function of speed of the trimmed aircraft, Savier Canard has lower drag coefficient for a larger speed domain. If you plot value of the drag force, as a function of speed of the trimmed aircraft, Savier Canard saves really quite a lot drag at high speed. This is caused partly to the magnifying effect of V 2 value.
35 4.2. Result of in flight measurements Measured flap setting and incidence according to speed for the canard of trimmed aircraft (Based on in flight measurement) 5 GU, Flap setting GU, Incidence Savier, Flap setting Savier, Incidence 5 (deg) Speed (km/h) Figure 4.4: Measured flap setting and incidence on aircraft equipped with both canard. Flap setting was directly measured, whereas incidence was calculated from fuselage attitude, including deflection and rigging angle of the canard.
36 .6 Calculated effective C l for the canard of trimmed aircraft according to speed (Based on in flight measurement) Resulting GU Resulting Savier.4.2 C l V (km/h) Figure 4.5: C l for trimmed aircraft vs speed, on aircraft equipped with both canard.
37 4.2.2 Comparison of GU and Savier airfoil Effective C l for the canard of trimmed aircraft (Calculation based on in flight measurement plus wind tunnel interpolation) 2 Resulting GU Resulting Savier.5 C l Incidence (deg) Figure 4.6: C l for trimmed aircraft vs incidence and flap setting, as put on the wind tunnel measurement.
38 .6.4 Effective drag polar for the canard of trimmed aircraft (Calculation based on in flight measurement plus wind tunnel interpolation) Resulting GU Resulting Savier.2 C l C d Figure 4.7: C l vs C d for the canard of trimmed aircraft, interpolated from wind tunnel measurement.
39 .8.6 Drag coefficient for the canard of trimmed aircraft according to speed (Calculation based on in flight measurement plus wind tunnel interpolation) Resulting GU Resulting Savier.4.2 C d V (km/h) Figure 4.8: C d for the canard of trimmed aircraft vs speed, interpolated from wind tunnel measurement. Savier airfoil equipped canard has higher drag coefficient for intermediate speed, whereas at low and high speed C d is lower.
40 Drag values in Newton (N) for the canard of trimmed aircraft according to speed (Calculation based on in flight measurement plus wind tunnel interpolation) 3 2 Drag (N) Resulting GU Resulting Savier V (km/h) Figure 4.9: Drag values in Newton (N) for the canard of trimmed aircraft vs speed, interpolated from wind tunnel measurement. Drag value is /4 lower for the Savier Canard at high speed.
41 Chapter 5 Conclusion This paper has presented the measurements made in a pedagogical project, performed by french students. In this summary, experimental parameters were described. Then presentation of raw data were performed. Some extrapolation were also made to use the raw data in in flight conditions. From those data, others work could be done. The measurement chain was top quality, and we are confident about the measurements that were made. We are really happy to have benefit from S-4 wind tunnel. The main regret we have is that the wind tunnel could not produce more than 4m/s. It would have been nice to measure hinge moment on the flap, since reduction allowed by Savier Canard is a key point observed in flight. We hope this work will help being confident about the Savier Canard. 4
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