1 Some notes about Comparing GU & Savier airfoil equipped half canard In S4 wind tunnel (France) Matthieu Scherrer Adapted from Charlie Pujo & Nicolas Gorius work
2 Contents Test conditions 3. S-4 Wind-tunnel The team The tested canards Limitation : a comparison work Qualitative work : flow visualization 5 2. Wool string visualization Laser flow visualization Oil flow visualization Visualization report Quantitative work (/2) : polar measurements 7 3. Data for comparing VariEze Canard equipped with GU and Savier airfoil Canard equipped with GU airfoil Canard equipped with Savier airfoil Comparison of canards equipped with GU and Savier airfoil D visualisation of lift coefficient Canard equipped with GU airfoil Canard equipped with Savier airfoil Effect of wetted surface ( rain ) and transition on canard equipped with Savier Airfoil Quantitative work (2/2) : extrapolation from polar measurements Extrapolated data for airfoils alone Data adapted to flight condition Result of in flight measurements Comparison of GU and Savier airfoil Conclusion 4 2
3 Chapter Test conditions. S-4 Wind-tunnel The S-4 wind tunnel used to be a commercial low speed wind tunnel until three years ago. Now property of ENSICA school since two years, it is used in a pedagogic way, for studies realized by student. But the measurement equipment is still the original high quality equipment. Figure.: S4 wind tunnel elliptic test section. The main data are : Elliptic free test section 2x3m. Speed between and 4m/s. Canard mounted on three mast, with 6 axis measurement (only 3 used). Laser and UV light equipment for flow visualisation or measurement. Camera and light for filming each test. 3
4 .2 The team This study was conducted as a pedagogic project ( PIR ) for two French SUPAERO young students : Charlie Pujo and Nicolas Gorius. they produced a (French) report, highlighting some of the main points observe throughout this study. Figure.2: The full team within test section. This project was initiated by Fabrice Claudel, helped by Patrick Lefebvre. according to Klaus Savier s work and drawings. The study was directed by Paul Claude Dufour and Matthieu Scherrer. The new canard was build.3 The tested canards Full size half-canards were tested into the wind tunnel. A small flat plate was put to create a symmetry axis. Both GU and Savier canards were similarly intalled in the wind tunnel. The wind speed was set to the maximum available, that is 4m/s. this will gives correct values of Reynolds number for the low speed enveloppe of the VariEze, but too low for high speed..4 Limitation : a comparison work Here are some limitation about the work that was done. Only half a canard, without fuselage influence, was tested. The symmetry plane was not a perfect one. It was possible to measure and then subtract only a part of drag created by the fittings and attachment device. As a consequence, the absolute value concerning C d and C lmax might not be accurate. But the fittings and attachment system were similar for both canard. This work is then a Comparison of the two canards.
5 Chapter 2 Qualitative work : flow visualization There were many way available to visualize the airflow over the canards. We tried characterize the canards with each of those. NB : this was done partly in a pedagogical objective. 2. Wool string visualization It was possible to move a wool string all aver the canard. Then functionning of the flap gap or wing tip vortex could be observed. 2.2 Laser flow visualization Wing tip flow was through laser tomography. A laser beam was split into a plan, and smoke was send. Then the wing tip vortex could be studied. There as no qualitative difference in aspect between the vortex of the two different canard. 2.3 Oil flow visualization The oil flow visualization were the most interesting qualitative testing. It was possible to visualize and analyze the laminar to turbulent transition on the extrados, and the quality of this transition. Shortly summed up, we may say : GU Canard Savier canard C l.5, no flap defl. Position of transition 6-65% 4% Laminar bubble wide (% of chord) & thick (oil) short (3-4% of chord) & thin (no oil) C l.2, no flap defl. Position of transition - 25% Laminar bubble - disappearing Intrados was not much observed. It was tried to trip the laminar boundary layer to turbulent on the GU airfoil, to kill the laminar bubble. This does work with quite thick scotch tape. 5
6 Other visualization were made to observed the wing tip flow. The path of the vortex wing tip can be clearly seen. 2.4 Visualization report Each visualization run was fully filmed. A 3 minutes sequences was assembled by Charlie Pujo and Nicolas Gorius, and compressed as an *.AVI film. It represents the best visualization report. Indeed, photograph are too static to represents properly those visualisations. This *.AVI film ( 5 Mo) might be available on the internet or on an ftp site (to be defined). I will also issue a compilation of some of the photographs taken during those visualization trial.
7 Chapter 3 Quantitative work (/2) : polar measurements 3. Data for comparing VariEze Canard equipped with GU and Savier airfoil Here are displayed the results of measurement on the two canards. Three axis were measured : Lift force values. Drag force values. Pitching moment values, at 25% of chord (that aerodynamical center). First are presented values for GU canard, and then for Savier canard. Finally comparison are made and some conclusion drawn. 7
8 3.. Canard equipped with GU airfoil Flap setting 27deg 5deg 7.5deg deg 7.5deg 5deg 24deg Lift coefficient GU Airfoil C l Alpha (deg) Figure 3.: Lift coefficient vs incidence. Note the tricky hysteresis behavior for high flap deflection.
9 Flap setting 27deg 5deg 7.5deg deg 7.5deg 5deg 24deg Drag polar GU Airfoil C l Alpha (deg) Figure 3.2: Lift coefficient vs drag coefficient.
10 Drag polar (detail) GU Airfoil.2.8 Flap setting 27deg 5deg 7.5deg deg 7.5deg 5deg 24deg.6 C l C d Figure 3.3: Lift coefficient vs drag coefficient, detailed around minimum drag.
11 . Flap setting 27deg 5deg.5 7.5deg deg 7.5deg 5deg 24deg Moment coefficient (at 25% chord) GU Airfoil.5 C m Alpha (deg) Figure 3.4: Moment coefficient vs incidence, detailed around minimum drag.
12 3..2 Canard equipped with Savier airfoil Flap setting 5deg deg 8deg 3deg deg 5deg 3deg 4deg Lift coefficient Savier Airfoil C l Alpha (deg) Figure 3.5: Lift coefficient vs incidence. Contrary to GU airfoil, there is no hysteresis behavior for high flap deflection.
13 Flap setting 5deg deg 8deg 3deg deg 5deg 3deg 4deg Drag polar Savier Airfoil C l Cd Figure 3.6: Lift coefficient vs drag coefficient.
14 Drag polar (detail) Savier Airfoil.2.8 Flap setting 5deg deg 8deg 3deg deg 5deg 3deg 4deg.6 C l Cd Figure 3.7: Lift coefficient vs drag coefficient, detailed around minimum drag.
15 . Flap setting 5deg deg.5 8deg 3deg deg 5deg 3deg 4deg.5 Moment coefficient (at 25% chord) Savier Airfoil C m Alpha (deg) Figure 3.8: Moment coefficient vs incidence.
16 3..3 Comparison of canards equipped with GU and Savier airfoil We shall now plot the C l, C d and C m values on the same graphics. Some results Here are the main results concerning lift : The Savier canard can reach the same C l range as GU canard, including very high values for C lmax. This C l range is obtained for different flap setting and incidence for GU or Savier canard. Hence the importance of a correct setting of the rigging angle on the fuselage. The Savier has apparently no problem with hysteresis for high flap deflection, comparing to the GU. It can be hoped that Savier canard might not present tricky behavior with high loading as GU sometime does. Then some results concerning drag : The Savier canard has a lower minimum drag coefficient than GU canard. This corresponds to lower C d at low loads, that is high speed configuration. Minimum drag for the Savier canard is reached for -3 o flap defelction The polar for Savier canard is more rounded and closed than for GU, than is C d gets higher for the Savier than for the GU when its load gets higher. My two cents about this : my impression is that Savier canard is more adapted to high speed, even if less laminar, and then would have less C lmax with no flap deflection. But thanks to a carefully design slat, it can reach as high C lmax as GU canard, while being more performing for high speed.
17 2.5 Lift coefficient GU & Savier Airfoil GU airfoil Savier airfoil C l Alpha (deg) Figure 3.9: Lift coefficient vs incidence. Contrary to GU, Savier airfoil has no hysteresis behavior for high flap deflection. C l slope is more regular for Savier than for GU.
18 2.5 Drag polar GU & Savier Airfoil GU airfoil Savier airfoil 2.5 C l Cd Figure 3.: Lift coefficient vs drag coefficient. Savier airfoil. Effect of flap deflection may seem higher for
19 Drag polar (detail) GU & Savier Airfoil.2 GU airfoil Savier airfoil.8.6 C l Cd Figure 3.: Lift coefficient vs drag coefficient, detailed around minimum drag. Minimum drag is smaller for Savier than for GU airfoil.
20 . Moment coefficient (at 25% chord) GU & Savier Airfoil C m Alpha (deg) Figure 3.2: Moment coefficient vs incidence. Absolute values of C m are smaller for Savier than for GU airfoil.
21 3.2 3D visualisation of lift coefficient 3.2. Canard equipped with GU airfoil C l according to incidence and flap setting GU Airfoil Flap setting (deg) Incidence (deg) Figure 3.3: Lift coefficient as a function of both incidence and flap setting. Tri-dimensionnal view.
22 4 C l according to incidence and flap setting GU Airfoil Flap setting (deg) Incidence (deg) Figure 3.4: Lift coefficient as a function of both incidence and flap setting. Levels view.
23 3.2.2 Canard equipped with Savier airfoil C l according to incidence and flap setting Savier Airfoil Flap setting (deg) Incidence (deg) Figure 3.5: Lift coefficient as a function of both incidence and flap setting. Tri-dimensionnal view.
24 C l according to incidence and flap setting Savier Airfoil Flap setting (deg) Incidence (deg) Figure 3.6: Lift coefficient as a function of both incidence and flap setting. Levels view.
25 3.3 Effect of wetted surface ( rain ) and transition on canard equipped with Savier Airfoil Artificial transition was created by carborandum located at 5% chord. Wetted surface referred to measurements with visualization oil on the canard. One conclusion is that if transition occurred early, performance is really affected. But it seems Savier airfoil is resistant to wetted surface, since wetted surface did not seem to create transition. This point should be detailed further.
26 .2 Effect of rain & transition on lift coefficient Natural airfoil Wetted extr. Transition extr. 5% Savier Airfoil C l Alpha (deg) Figure 3.7: Lift coefficient vs incidence. Savier airfoil seems to be not really hurt by wetted surface, whereas genuine transition reduced greatly maximum lift.
27 .2 Effect of rain & transition on drag polar Savier Airfoil Natural airfoil Wetted extr. Transition extr. 5% C l C d Figure 3.8: Lift coefficient vs drag coefficient.
28 .9.8 Effect of rain & transition on moment coefficient Savier Airfoil Natural airfoil Wetted extr. Transition extr. 5% C m Alpha (deg) Figure 3.9: Moment coefficient vs incidence.
29 Chapter 4 Quantitative work (2/2) : extrapolation from polar measurements From raw data, some calculation work can be done for extrapolating some complementary data. At first, the part of the airfoil within drag can be extracted. Then, we can look carefully the wind tunnel data on each functioning point that is encountered in steady flight. 29
30 4. Extrapolated data for airfoils alone In short, drag measured for the half canard can be split into : Mounting drag C dmount, that is drag causes by the fitting device into the wind tunnel. Airfoil drag C dairf Induced drag C di C d = C dmount + C dairf + C di (4.) Assuming the left plate is a correct plan of symmetry, we can say that the effective aspect ratio is about λ = 5. This is coherent with the C l slope measured. Then the induced drag can be expressed as C di = πλ C l 2, and subtracted from the total drag coefficient. Then we can compare airfoil, since Mounting drag C dmount is comparable for both half canards. NB : so keep in mind that the minimum drag values C d plotted contains C dmount, that is fittings and attachment system. So that they are not genuine airfoil C d.
31 Flap setting 27deg 5deg 7.5deg deg 7.5deg 5deg 24deg Drag polars GU Airfoil C l Alpha (deg) Figure 4.: Lift coefficient vs drag coefficient, for airfoil only.
32 Flap setting 5deg deg 8deg 3deg deg 5deg 3deg 4deg Drag polars Savier Airfoil C l Alpha (deg) Figure 4.2: Lift coefficient vs drag coefficient, for airfoil only.
33 2.5 2 GU airfoil Savier airfoil Drag polars comparison GU & Savier Airfoil.5 C l C d Figure 4.3: Comparison of drag polars for airfoils only. Savier Airfoil has a less laminar behavior (more rounded polar ), but lower C dmin.
34 4.2 Data adapted to flight condition An attempt to get the effective in flight parameters over the canards was made. Every parameter were not known, but this is a good start for the comparison of both canard. Indeed, wind tunnel data have to be treated to be used with the different parameters Measurement of flap deflection and fuselage attitude was installed into three aircraft (F-PYHR (Savier canard), F-PYOP (GU Canard), F-PYSM (GU Canard)). Similar measurements were made on the three aircraft to reduce scatter effect. Measurements were made for aircraft wing-loadings close to each other. Data were collected at first on a steady, constant attitude path, for basic values of incidence and flap deflection. Then some measurements were also made with constant bank and altitude, for higher load on the canard. From measurements, calculations were made to get the effective aerodynamic incidence on the canard, influenced by the wing. Some interpolations of the wind tunnel results were made to get the exact functioning parameters of the canards within the collected data. We should keep in mind the following points : A weak point of this study is that we could not get precise CG location for each aircraft. CG location influences canard load, hence its performance. We supposed that empty CG location were comparable on the different aircraft, according to the building plan. It is a pity we could not make the measurements of both canards on the same aircraft. This will be soon possible on F-PYIB (Savier & GU canard) which is currently grounded, and this study will be released. Reynolds number for wind tunnel data corresponds to low speed. Some results If you look only on the effective drag polar for the canard of trimmed aircraft, Savier Canard has a lower drag coefficient only for low C l values. If you plot C d as a function of speed of the trimmed aircraft, Savier Canard has lower drag coefficient for a larger speed domain. If you plot value of the drag force, as a function of speed of the trimmed aircraft, Savier Canard saves really quite a lot drag at high speed. This is caused partly to the magnifying effect of V 2 value.
35 4.2. Result of in flight measurements Measured flap setting and incidence according to speed for the canard of trimmed aircraft (Based on in flight measurement) 5 GU, Flap setting GU, Incidence Savier, Flap setting Savier, Incidence 5 (deg) Speed (km/h) Figure 4.4: Measured flap setting and incidence on aircraft equipped with both canard. Flap setting was directly measured, whereas incidence was calculated from fuselage attitude, including deflection and rigging angle of the canard.
36 .6 Calculated effective C l for the canard of trimmed aircraft according to speed (Based on in flight measurement) Resulting GU Resulting Savier.4.2 C l V (km/h) Figure 4.5: C l for trimmed aircraft vs speed, on aircraft equipped with both canard.
37 4.2.2 Comparison of GU and Savier airfoil Effective C l for the canard of trimmed aircraft (Calculation based on in flight measurement plus wind tunnel interpolation) 2 Resulting GU Resulting Savier.5 C l Incidence (deg) Figure 4.6: C l for trimmed aircraft vs incidence and flap setting, as put on the wind tunnel measurement.
38 .6.4 Effective drag polar for the canard of trimmed aircraft (Calculation based on in flight measurement plus wind tunnel interpolation) Resulting GU Resulting Savier.2 C l C d Figure 4.7: C l vs C d for the canard of trimmed aircraft, interpolated from wind tunnel measurement.
39 .8.6 Drag coefficient for the canard of trimmed aircraft according to speed (Calculation based on in flight measurement plus wind tunnel interpolation) Resulting GU Resulting Savier.4.2 C d V (km/h) Figure 4.8: C d for the canard of trimmed aircraft vs speed, interpolated from wind tunnel measurement. Savier airfoil equipped canard has higher drag coefficient for intermediate speed, whereas at low and high speed C d is lower.
40 Drag values in Newton (N) for the canard of trimmed aircraft according to speed (Calculation based on in flight measurement plus wind tunnel interpolation) 3 2 Drag (N) Resulting GU Resulting Savier V (km/h) Figure 4.9: Drag values in Newton (N) for the canard of trimmed aircraft vs speed, interpolated from wind tunnel measurement. Drag value is /4 lower for the Savier Canard at high speed.
41 Chapter 5 Conclusion This paper has presented the measurements made in a pedagogical project, performed by french students. In this summary, experimental parameters were described. Then presentation of raw data were performed. Some extrapolation were also made to use the raw data in in flight conditions. From those data, others work could be done. The measurement chain was top quality, and we are confident about the measurements that were made. We are really happy to have benefit from S-4 wind tunnel. The main regret we have is that the wind tunnel could not produce more than 4m/s. It would have been nice to measure hinge moment on the flap, since reduction allowed by Savier Canard is a key point observed in flight. We hope this work will help being confident about the Savier Canard. 4
References: FAA-H-8083-3; FAA-8083-3-25 Objectives Key Elements Elements Schedule Equipment IP s Actions SP s Actions Completion Standards The student should develop knowledge of the elements related to
Flight Control Systems Introduction Dr Slide 1 Flight Control System A Flight Control System (FCS) consists of the flight control surfaces, the respective cockpit controls, connecting linkage, and necessary
ICAS 2000 CONGRESS STUDIES ON THE OPTIMUM PERFORMANCE OF TAPERED VORTEX FLAPS Kenichi RINOIE Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 113-8656, JAPAN Keywords: vortex flap,
Parasite Drag by David F. Rogers http://www.nar-associates.com Copyright c 2005 David F. Rogers. All rights reserved. How many of you still have a Grimes rotating beacon on both the top and bottom of the
IMPACT OF FUSELAGE CROSS SECTION ON THE STABILITY OF A GENERIC FIGHTER Robert M. Hall NASA Langley Research Center Hampton, Virginia ABSTRACT Many traditional data bases, which involved smooth-sided forebodies,
Aircraft flight control systems are classified as primary and secondary. The primary control systems consist of those that are required to safely control an airplane during flight. These include the ailerons,
Chapter-6 EFFECT OF GURNEY FLAPS AND WINGLETS ON THE PERFORMANCE OF THE HAWT 6.1 Introduction The gurney flap (wicker bill) was a small flat tab projecting from the trailing edge of a wing. Typically it
Man Powered Aircraft Group Aerofoil Design for Man Powered Aircraft By F. X. Wortmann Universitat Stuttgart From the Second Man Powered Aircraft Group Symposium Man Powered Flight The Way Ahead 7 th February
Learning Objectives 081 Principles of Flight Conventions for questions in subject 081. 1. The following standard conventions are used for certain mathematical symbols: * multiplication. > = greater than
A ifferent Approach to Teaching Engine-Out Glides es Glatt, Ph., ATP/CFI-AI, AGI/IGI When student pilots begin to learn about emergency procedures, the concept of the engine-out glide is introduced. The
Uncontrolled copy not subject to amendment Principles of Flight Principles of Flight Learning Outcome 1: Know the principles of lift, weight, thrust and drag and how a balance of forces affects an aeroplane
ICAS 2002 CONGRESS LEADING-EDGE VORTEX FLAPS FOR SUPERSONIC TRANSPORT CONFIGURATION -EFFECTS OF FLAP CONFIGURATIONS AND ROUNDED LEADING-EDGES- Kenichi RINOIE*, Dong Youn KWAK**, Katsuhiro MIYATA* and Masayoshi
10TH INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON PARTICLE IMAGE VELOCIMETRY PIV13 Delft, The Netherlands, July 1-3, 2013 Aerodynamic characteristics around the stalling angle of the discus using a PIV Kazuya Seo 1 1 Department
ANALYSIS OF AERODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF A SUPERCRITICAL AIRFOIL FOR LOW SPEED AIRCRAFT P.Sethunathan 1, M.Niventhran 2, V.Siva 2, R.Sadhan Kumar 2 1 Asst.Professor, Department of Aeronautical Engineering,
Lift for a Finite Wing all real wings are finite in span (airfoils are considered as infinite in the span) The lift coefficient differs from that of an airfoil because there are strong vortices produced
Static Extended Trailing Edge for Lift Enhancement: Experimental and Computational Studies T. Liu, J. Montefort, W. Liou Western Michigan University Kalamazoo, MI 49008 and Q. Shams NASA Langley Research
Preliminary Analysis of Drag Reduction for The Boeing 747-400 By: Chuck Dixon, Chief Scientist, Vortex Control Technologies LLC 07. 31. 2012 Potential for Airflow Separation That Can Be Reduced By Vortex
EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF THE AERODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF A K TANDEM CONFIGURATION João Barbosa * & Jorge Gonçalves & Pedro Gamboa Department of Aerospace Sciences Universidade da Beira Interior
Region I-MA Student Conference AIAA - 2005 April 8-9, 2005 / Charlottesville, Virginia Experimental Investigation of the Aerodynamics of a Modeled Dragonfly Wing Section Michelle Kwok * and Rajat Mittal
International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research Volume 4, Issue 1, January-213 1 Improved Aerodynamic Characteristics of Aerofoil Shaped Fuselage than that of the Conventional Cylindrical Shaped
Improvement of an Artificial Stall Warning System for Sailplanes Loek M. M. Boermans and Bart Berendsen Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Aerospace Engineering P.O.Box 5058, 2600 GB Delft, The
28 TH INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF THE AERONAUTICAL SCIENCES TRAILING EDGE TREATMENT TO ENHANCE HIGH LIFT SYSTEM PERFORMANCE Catalano F.M.*, Ceròn E.D.* Greco P.C. * Laboratory of Aerodynamics EESC-USP Brazil
Flying Wings By Henry Cole FLYING WINGS REPRESENT THE THEORETICAL ULTIMATE IN AIRCRAFT DESIGN. USE THESE IDEAS, AVAILABLE AFTER A YEAR, OF RESEARCH, TO DEVELOP PRACTICAL MODELS. The rubber version of this
Wind Tunnel Measurements on Details of Laminar Wings Jürgen Frey, Technische Universität Dresden Institut für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, Arbeitsgruppe Experimentelle Aerodynamik Abstract Flow visualization
Wind Tunnel Measurements on Details of Laminar Wings Jürgen Frey Juergen.Frey@tu-dresden.de Technische Universität Dresden Institut für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik Arbeitsgruppe Experimentelle Aerodynamik
GLIDER BASICS WHAT IS GLIDER? A light engineless aircraft designed to glide after being towed aloft or launched from a catapult. 2 PARTS OF GLIDER A glider can be divided into three main parts: a)fuselage
Liu, X., Azarpeyvand, M., & Joseph, P. (2015). On the acoustic and aerodynamic performance of serrated airfoils. Paper presented at The 22nd International Congress on Sound and Vibration, Florence, France.
25 TH INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF THE AERONAUTICAL SCIENCES EXPERIMENTAL AND NUMERICAL STUDY OF A TWO- ELEMENT WING WITH GURNEY FLAP F.M. Catalano PhD.( firstname.lastname@example.org ) *, G. L. Brand * * Aerodynamic
Numerical Analysis of Wings for UAV based on High-Lift Airfoils Sachin Srivastava Department of Aeronautical Engineering Malla Reddy College of Engineering & Technology, Hyderabad, Telangana, India Swetha
Homework Exercise to prepare for Class #2. Answer these on notebook paper then correct or improve your answers (using another color) by referring to the answer sheet. 1. Identify the major components depicted
Original idea from Captain A. Wagner T TAKEOFF & LANDING IN ICING CONDITIONS here have been a number of accidents related to take-off in conditions in which snow and/or other forms of freezing precipitation
loads investigations of HAWT with wind tunnel tests and site measurements Shigeto HIRAI, Senior Researcher, Nagasaki R&D Center, Technical Headquarters, MITSUBISHI HEAVY INDSUTRIES, LTD, Fukahori, Nagasaki,
Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Procedia Engineering 200 (2010) (2009) 2437 2442 000 000 Procedia Engineering www.elsevier.com/locate/procedia 8 th Conference of the International Sports Engineering
AIAA-24-5 Computational Investigation of Airfoils with Miniature Trailing Edge Control Surfaces Hak-Tae Lee, Ilan M. Kroo Stanford University, Stanford, CA 9435 Abstract Miniature trailing edge effectors
AE2610 Introduction to Experimental Methods in Aerospace AERODYNAMIC FORCES ON A WING IN A SUBSONIC WIND TUNNEL Objectives The primary objective of this experiment is to familiarize the student with measurement
WIND-INDUCED LOADS OVER DOUBLE CANTILEVER BRIDGES UNDER CONSTRUCTION S. Pindado, J. Meseguer, J. M. Perales, A. Sanz-Andres and A. Martinez Key words: Wind loads, bridge construction, yawing moment. Abstract.
WING PROFILE WITH VARIABLE FLAP March 2009 INTRODUCTION Flaps are something that can be found on a majority of aeroplanes. That they fill an important purpose in affecting the aircraft s performance is
A Table Top Wind Tunnel You Can Build Basic principles of aerodynamics can be studied in the classroom with this simple, inexpensive wind tunnel. All you need to build it is some cardboard boxes, glue,
APPLICATION OF RESEARCH RESULTS AT LM WIND POWER Herning / March 27 / 2014 By Jesper Madsen Chief Engineer Aerodynamics and Acoustics AGENDA 1. EUDP Projects 1. DANAERO MW 2. Optimization of vortex generators
THE RUDDER starting from the requirements supplied by the customer, the designer must obtain the rudder's characteristics that satisfy such requirements. Subsequently, from such characteristics he must
International Journal of Mechanical & Mechatronics Engineering IJMME-IJENS Vol:10 No:03 49 Induced Drag Reduction for Modern Aircraft without Increasing the Span of the Wing by Using Winglet Mohammad Ilias
NASA Technical Memorandum 464 Low-Speed Wind-Tunnel Investigation of the Stability and Control Characteristics of a Series of Flying Wings With Sweep Angles of 5 Scott P. Fears Lockheed Engineering & Sciences
PRE-TEST Module 2 The Principles of Flight Units 1-2-3.../60 points 1 Answer the following questions. (20 p.) moving the plane (4) upward / forward. Opposed to that is 1. What are the names of the four
International Journal of Materials, Mechanics and Manufacturing, Vol. 3, No., February 2 Numerical and Experimental Investigations of Lift and Drag Performances of NACA Wind Turbine Airfoil İzzet Şahin
Aerospace Design Project Design of a class-3 Ultralight airplane Ludovic Noels Grigorios Dimitriadis L.Noels@ulg.ac.be email@example.com 1. Context Groups from 4 to 5 students will design a class-3
Design of a Flapped Laminar Airfoil for High Performance Sailplane Krzysztof Kubrynski 1 Warsaw University of Technology, Institute of Aeronautics and Applied Mechanics, Warsaw, Poland The paper discusses
Chapter 5 Flight Controls Introduction This chapter focuses on the flight control systems a pilot uses to control the forces of flight, and the aircraft s direction and attitude. It should be noted that
Job Sheet 1 Blade Aerodynamics The rotor is the most important part of a wind turbine. It is through the rotor that the energy of the wind is converted into mechanical energy, which turns the main shaft
DESIGN OF THE MODERN FAMILY OF HELICOPTER AIRFOILS Wojciech KANIA, Wienczys!aw STALEWSKI, BogumHa ZWIERCHANOWSKA Institute of Aviation Summary The paper presents results of numerical design and experimental
Theory of Flight 6.01 Aircraft Design and Construction References: FTGU pages 9-14, 27 Main Teaching Points Parts of an Airplane Aircraft Construction Landing Gear Standard Terminology Definition The airplane
Racecar Rear Wing Setup Optimization via 2D CFD Simulations Simulating Systems Ground Transportation Motorsport Graduate Engineer Test & Development Lotus Cars STAR Global Conference 2014 Vienna Austria
RMC-based severity metrics: possibilities and scalings Grégoire Winckelmans and Ivan De Visscher Université catholique de Louvain (UCL), Institute of Mechanics, Materials and Civil Engineering (immc) WaPT
EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF AN AIRFOIL WITH CO-FLOW JET FLOW CONTROL By ADAM JOSEPH WELLS A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS
DYNAMIC STALL AND CAVITATION OF STABILISER FINS AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON THE SHIP BEHAVIOUR Guilhem Gaillarde, Maritime Research Institute Netherlands (MARIN), the Netherlands SUMMARY The lifting characteristics
Página 1 de 5 Why does a golf ball have dimples? page 1 A golf ball can be driven great distances down the fairway. How is this possible? Is the drive only dependent on the strength of the golfer or are
DESIGN OF AN AERODYNAMIC MEASUREMENT SYSTEM FOR UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE AIRFOILS L. Velázquez-Araque 1 and J. Nožička 1 1 Department of Fluid Dynamics and Power Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF LIFT & DRAG PERFORMANCE OF NACA0012 WIND TURBINE AEROFOIL Mr. Sandesh K. Rasal 1, Mr. Rohan R. Katwate 2 1 PG Student, 2 Assistant Professor, DYPSOEA Ambi Talegaon, Heat Power
et al. , Noack et al.  for circular cylinder flows, Van Oudheusden  for square cylinder and Durgesh  for a flat plate model. The first two modes appear as phase-shifted versions of each
Chapter 1. GENERAL AERODYNAMICS Unless otherwise indicated, this handbook is based on a helicopter that has the following characteristics: 1 - An unsupercharged (normally aspirated) reciprocating engine.
WSEAS TRANSACTIONS on APPIED and THEORETICA ECHANICS The Design Improvement of Airfoil for Flying Wing UAV PRASETYO EDI, NUKAN YUSOFF and AZNIJAR AHAD YAZID Department of Engineering Design & anufacture,
Proceedings of the International Conference on Mechanical Engineering 2009 (ICME2009) 26-28 December 2009, Dhaka, Bangladesh ICME09- AERODYNAMICS OF TEXTILES FOR ELITE CYCLIST Harun Chowdhury, Firoz Alam,
THE DESIGN OF WING SECTIONS Published in "Radio Control Model News" Issue Number 8 Winter 93 Aerofoil section design has advanced a great deal since great pioneers like Horatio Phillips experimented with
1 JOURNAL PUBLICATIONS 71. Lee, T., Mageed, A., Siddiqui, B. and Ko, L.S., (2016) Impact of ground proximity on aerodynamic properties of an unsteady NACA 0012 airfoil, submitted to Journal of Aerospace
NASA Technical Memorandum 4542 Effect of Leading- and Trailing-Edge Flaps on Clipped Delta Wings With and Without Wing Camber at Supersonic Speeds Gloria Hernandez, Richard M. Wood, and Peter F. Covell
HIGH ALTITUDE AERODYNAMICS CRITICAL ASPECTS OF MACH FLIGHT In recent years, a number of corporate jet airplanes have been involved in catastrophic loss of control during high-altitude/high-speed flight.
OUTLINE TACOMA NARROWS BRIDGE FLOW REGIME PAST A CYLINDER VORTEX SHEDDING MODES OF VORTEX SHEDDING PARALLEL & OBLIQUE FLOW PAST A SPHERE AND A CUBE SUMMARY TACOMA NARROWS BRIDGE, USA THE BRIDGE COLLAPSED
AIRCRAFT STRUCTURAL DESIGN & ANALYSIS K. RAMAJEYATHILAGAM To invent an airplane is nothing To build one is something But to fly is everything Lilienthal DAY 1 WHAT IS AN AIRCRAFT? An aircraft is a vehicle,
Some High Lift Aerodynamics Part 1 Mechanical High Lift Systems W.H. Mason Configuration Aerodynamics Class Why High Lift is Important Wings sized for efficient cruise are too small to takeoff and land
JOURNAL OF AIRCRAFT Vol. 38, No. 1, January February 2001 Low-Speed Natural-Laminar-Flow Airfoils: Case Study in Inverse Airfoil Design Ashok Gopalarathnam and Michael S. Selig University of Illinois at
Principles of Sailing This is a PowerPoint set of charts presented by Demetri Telionis on March 21, 2015 at the Yacht Club of Hilton Head Island. The aim of this presentation was to help the audience understand
THE PENNSYLVANIA STATE UNIVERSITY SCHREYER HONORS COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF AEROSPACE ENGINEERING DESIGN OF A SERIES OF AIRFOILS FOR THE PSU ZEPHYRUS HUMAN-POWERED AIRCRAFT Tony S. Tao A thesis submitted in
STAR Global Conference 2014 Vienna, March 17-19 Optimization of a Wing-Sail shape for a small boat G. Lombardi, F. Cartoni, M. Maganzi Dept. of Civil and Industrial Engineering of Pisa Aeronautical Section
Aircraft - Very Heavy Lift at Very Low Cost Stephen Funck This is a span loader for standard shipping containers. The design goal is the lowest cost per ton / mile. Low wing loading allows for low flight
JAR 23.301 Loads \ JAR 23.301 Loads (a) Strength requirements are specified in terms of limit loads (the maximum loads to be expected in service) and ultimate loads (limit loads multiplied by prescribed
On the Wing... #162 Twist Distributions for Swept Wings, Part 2 Having defined and provided examples of lift distributions in Part 1, we now move on to describing the stalling patterns of untwisted and
Journal of Physics: Conference Series OPEN ACCESS Wind Tunnel Tests of Wind Turbine Airfoils at High Reynolds Numbers To cite this article: E Llorente et al 014 J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 54 0101 View the article
Breaking the Sound Barrier: The Aerodynamic Breakthroughs that Made It Possible John D. Anderson Jr. Professor Emeritus Department of Aerospace Engineering University of Maryland & Curator for Aerodynamics
Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Procedia Engineering 34 (2012 ) 140 145 9 th Conference of the International Sports Engineering Association (ISEA) Effects of seam and surface texture on tennis
Principles of glider flight [ Lecture 2: Control and stability ] Richard Lancaster Email: Richard@RJPLancaster.net Twitter: @RJPLancaster ASK-21 illustrations Copyright 1983 Alexander Schleicher GmbH &
STABILITY OF MULTIHULLS Author: Jean Sans (Translation of a paper dated 10/05/2006 by Simon Forbes) Introduction: The capsize of Multihulls requires a more exhaustive analysis than monohulls, even those
Journal of Physics: Conference Series OPEN ACCESS Design of a family of new advanced airfoils for low wind class turbines To cite this article: Francesco Grasso 2014 J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 555 012044 View
My Background Flying RC sailplanes since 1976 First competition 1977 US Nationals, placed 2 nd Only pilot to win world champion for both FAI recognized soaring disciplines FAI world record holder for declared
Your consent to our cookies if you continue to use this website.