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4 Figure 4 Diagram from Maycock and Hall (1984) showing Various Geometric Terms (C e = entry path curvature, e = entry width, v = approach half-width, θ = angle between arms, ICD = inscribed circle diameter, CID = central island diameter) USA Method Section of the USA document 'Roundabouts: An Informational Guide' (FHWA, 2000) provides the following criteria for speed control through roundabouts: Maximum entry design speeds for various types of roundabouts (Exhibit 6-4 of FHWA [2000]). These criteria are shown in Table 1. The maximum speeds vary from 25km/h to 50km/h. The model is intended to minimise the relative speed between conflicting traffic streams (especially entering/circulating and exiting/circulating streams). A speed consistency model which limits the decrease in speed between successive horizontal elements to 20km/h to minimise single vehicle accidents (Section of FHWA [2000]). Exhibit 6-13 of FHWA (2000) (shown in Table 2) gives maximum entry path radii to ensure that the decrease in speed between entering vehicles and right turning vehicles is limited to 20km/h. Vehicle path symbols in Exhibit 6-13 are explained in Exhibit 6-12 (refer Figure 5). Table 1 - USA Criteria for Maximum Entry Design Speeds (FHWA, 2000) 31 March 2008 Page 4 of 22

5 Table 2 - USA Criteria for Maximum Entry Path Radii to Limit the Decrease in Speed between Entering Vehicles and Left Turning Vehicles to 20km/h (FHWA, 2000) USA Vehicle Path Model To calculate speed values for a particular roundabout to compare to the maximum design values above, the following are provided: A vehicle path model as given in Section of FHWA (2000). A speed prediction model as given in Section of FHWA (2000). Figure 5 - USA Symbols used for Vehicle Path Radii (FHWA, 2000) 31 March 2008 Page 5 of 22

8 Figure 7 - Vehicle path construction for the right lane of multi-lane roundabouts (QDMR, 2006) through movement shown Figure 8 Queensland Speed Prediction Model for Roundabouts (QDMR, 2006) ARNDT Roundabout Program Because of the amount of design effort required to manually calculate the values of all of the speed parameters in QDMR (2006), the computer program ARNDT 'A Roundabout Numerical Design Tool' was developed. Users of the program input geometric, traffic volume and speed environment data for a particular roundabout. The program outputs values of the speed parameters and identifies any parameters exceeding the maximum limits. 31 March 2008 Page 8 of 22

19 APPENDIX A VEHICLE PATH MODELS APPLICABLE TO THE MAXIMUM ENTRY PATH RADII IN TABLE 4 Single Lane Entries The method of construction of the entry path for single lane entries is given in Figure A1. Use this figure for roundabouts comprising one or two lanes. Steps to construct the entry path are given below. Step 1 - Where no approach curve/s are used, draw a line parallel to the right approach edge at an offset D. This line is the approach path. Where an approach curve/s is used, draw this line on the last approach curve in the direction of travel at an offset of M 1. Step 2 - Draw a curved line parallel to the edge of the central island at an offset M 2. For an elliptical/oval/oblong roundabout, the line may comprise multiple radii. Step 3 - Draw the entry path. This is a circular curve drawn tangentially to the lines constructed in Steps 1 and 2 located at an offset D from the closest point on the left entry edge. The radius of the entry path drawn in Step 3 must be no greater than the values for single lane entries given in Table 4. If the radius is exceeded, tighten the entry curve, relocate the approach leg and/or increase the roundabout size to achieve the maximum value. If a circular curve cannot be drawn according to the criterion in Step 3, appropriate entry curvature has not been provided. Figure A1 - Construction of the Entry Path of a Single Lane Entry Notes: 1. D = 1.5m when measuring from a road centre-line or kerb face, 1.0m when measuring from a lane edge line. 2. M 1 = Half the width of the approach lane 3. M 2 = Half of the width of the circulating carriageway (for two-lane roundabouts, the width of the inner circulating lane may be used) 31 March 2008 Page 19 of 22

20 Two-lane Entries Staying in Correct Lane The method of construction of the entry path for two-lane entries for drivers staying in the correct lane is given in Figure A2. The vehicle path is drawn in the right entry lane and the inner circulating lane. Steps to construct the entry path for drivers staying in the correct lane are given below. Step 1 - Where no approach curve/s are used, draw a line parallel to the right approach edge at an offset D. This line is the approach path. Where an approach curve/s is used, draw this line on the last approach curve in the direction of travel at an offset of M 1. Step 2 - Draw a curved line parallel to the edge of the central island at an offset M 2. For an elliptical/oval/oblong roundabout, the line may comprise multiple radii. Step 3 - Draw the entry path for drivers staying in the correct lane. This is a circular curve drawn tangentially to the lines constructed in Steps 1 and 2 located at an offset D from the closest point on the left edge of the right most lane. The radius of the entry path for drivers staying in the correct lane drawn in Step 3 must be no greater than the values for 'two lane entries staying in correct lane' given in Table 4. If the radius is exceeded, tighten the entry curve, relocate the approach leg and/or increase the roundabout size to achieve the maximum value. If a circular curve cannot be drawn according to the criterion in Step 3, appropriate entry curvature has not been provided. Figure A2 - Construction of the Entry Path of a Two-Lane Entry Staying in the Correct Lane Notes: 1. D = 1.5m when measuring from a road centre-line or kerb face, 1.0m when measuring from a lane edge line. 2. M 1 = Half the width of the right approach lane 3. M 2 = Half of the width of the inner circulating lane 31 March 2008 Page 20 of 22

21 Two-lane Entries Cutting Across Lanes The method of construction of the entry path for two-lane entries for drivers cutting across lanes is given in Figure A3. Steps to construct the entry path for drivers cutting across lanes are given below. Step 1 - Where no approach curve/s are used, draw a line parallel to the right approach edge at an offset D. This line is the approach path. Where an approach curve/s is used, draw this line on the last approach curve in the direction of travel at an offset of M 1. Step 2 - Draw a curved line parallel to the edge of the central island at an offset M 2. For an elliptical/oval/oblong roundabout, the line may comprise multiple radii. Step 3 - Draw the entry path for drivers cutting across lanes. This is a circular curve drawn tangentially to the lines constructed in Steps 1 and 2 located at an offset D from the closest point on the left edge of the left entry lane. The radius of the entry path drawn in Step 3 must be no greater than the radius of the entry path for drivers staying in the correct lane (constructed in accordance with Figure A2) multiplied by the factor for 'two lane entries cutting across lanes' given in Table 4. If the radius is exceeded, lengthen the entry curve, relocate the approach leg and/or increase the roundabout size to achieve the maximum value. If a circular curve cannot be drawn according to the criterion in Step 3, appropriate entry curvature has not been provided. Figure A3 - Construction of the Entry Path of a Two-Lane Entry Cutting Across Lanes Notes: 1. D = 1.5m when measuring from a road centre-line or kerb face, 1.0m when measuring from a lane edge line. 2. M 1 = Half the width of the right approach lane 3. M 2 = Half of the width of the circulating carriageway (the width of the inner circulating lane may be used) 31 March 2008 Page 21 of 22

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