1 Disease emergence and spread related to wildlife trade: aquatic species Barry Hill President, OIE Aquatic Animal Health Standards Commission Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (Cefas) Weymouth, United Kingdom
2 Introductions of aquatic animals diseases due to international trade Introduction of new diseases of aquatic animals into a country most commonly occurs through importation of live aquaculture animals but also animals derived from wild populations The introduction of exotic pathogens into countries is a major reason for major epizootics in farmed and wild populations of aquatic animals..
3 Selected examples of international spread of diseases of aquatic wildlife Spring viraemia of carp Gyrodactylosis of Atlantic salmon Crayfish plague Ranavirus infections of amphibians Chytridiomycosis of amphibians
4 Spring viraemia of carp in the UK
5 Outbreaks of Spring Viraemia of Carp in UK High mortalities, loss of stock. Loss of business, anglers reject Cost of eradication Environmental/Ecological damage SVC virus
6 SVC disease confirmed in UK Supervised site clearance and disinfection 3 years of testing before declared free High costs involved
7 Some outbreaks linked to illegal imports
8 Illegal trade (smuggling) in live wild fish Illegal Import of 1 Tonne of Roach and Bream from Holland (March 2002)
9 Reason for such illegal imports?
10 Angling is a very popular sport and many anglers want to catch large specimen fish. Commercial sport fisheries often want to enhance their stocks of fish to attract publicity and increase business. There can be temptation to buy large wild fish from dubious dealers, including fish imported illegally from other countries where SVC is endemic and fish are much cheaper.
11 Atlantic salmon sport fishing is also popular and subject to stock enhancement of rivers in some countries
12 Wild salmon enhancement programmes are normally restricted to government agencies rather than carried out by the private sector but this does not necessarily provide protection against disease introduction.
13 In Norway, catastrophic losses of wild Atlantic salmon populations occurred following the introduction of the parasite Gyrodactylus salaris into the country, probably as a result of official importations of juvenile salmon for river stock enhancement efforts.
14 Gyrodactylus salaris Difficulty in identification, x 400 species. Threat to wild salmon populations rather than farmed salmon. Use of Rotonone has been tried in Norway to eradicate it
15 1970s & 80s 1970s Transfer of G. salaris from Baltic river salmon to Atlantic river salmon via imported juvenile salmon for restocking. Subsequently spread to many rivers in Norway before problem realised (Note: arrows only illustrative, not geographically precise.)
16 Over the years following the introduction of G. salaris to the country, catastrophic losses of Atlantic salmon were seen in Norway.
17 G. salaris eradication programme has been in progress for many years in Norway and some rivers are now free, but at great cost.
18 Crayfish plague throughout Europe
19 Historical trade of live freshwater crayfish from the North America to Europe for human consumption, and later for farming, has led to the introduction and widespread distribution of the devastating fungal disease crayfish plague of wild native species.
20 Native crayfish Signal crayfish Photos courtesy of Birgit Oidtmann
21 Mass mortalities caused by crayfish plague Photo courtesy of Birgit Oidtmann
22 European rivers are now widely affected and native crayfish populations are in decline in many areas. One native crayfish species has recently been re- One native crayfish species has recently been reclassified from vulnerable to endangered in the IUNC Red List of Threatened Species.
23 Diseases of amphibians Infection with ranavirus Infection with Batrachochytium dendrobatidis (Chytridiomycosis)
24 Ranavirus infection in amphibians
25 Examples of epidemics of ranavirus disease in wild amphibian populations BRITAIN On-going common frog (Rana temporaria) common toad (Bufo bufo) CANADA Saskatchewan 1997 tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum) U.S.A. Arizona 1995 Sonoran tiger salamander (A. tigrinum stebbinsi) N. Dakota 1998 tiger salamander (A. tigrinum) Maine 1998 tiger salamander (A. tigrinum) Utah 1998 tiger salamander (A. tigrinum)
26 Epidemics of ranaviral disease in wild amphibian populations ARGENTINA N.W. Patagonia < On-going Leptodactylid frog (Atelognathus patagonicus)
28 Are imports of live amphibians the cause of emergence and spread of ranaviruses?
29 There has been a very large international trade in amphibians for the pet industry over the past few decades.
30 From the data published by Schlaepfer et al. (2005) it has been estimated* that the global trade in amphibians for pets is greater than 6,000,000 individuals per annum. Moribund and dead animals are often present in consignments on arrival. * OIE Ad hoc Group on Amphibian Diseases (2006)
32 Imports of amphibians into UK for the pet trade were sampled at a border inspection post. Several consignments from different continents Several consignments from different continents were found to be infected with ranavirus.
33 Ranavirus infections were confirmed in consignments of frogs originating from: Africa Central America North America Asia
34 There have been other detections of ranavirus in ornamental amphibians imported into Europe In June 2004, mass mortality occurred in red tailed knobby newts imported into Belgium probably from Asia (China?). (Pasmans et al., The Veterinary Journal, 176, )
35 So, international trade in live amphibians, many of which are from wild populations, is causing global spread of ranaviruses
37 Associated with mass mortalities and amphibian population declines globally and possibly contributing to the extinction of some species.
38 The source and possible route of international spread of chytriomycosis?
39 Historical international trade in wild-caught Xenopus frogs from Africa from mid-1930s for human pregnancy testing and for scientific studies has distributed them worldwide.
40 Chytridiomycosis: out of Africa? Weldon et al. (2004). Emerging Infectious Diseases Vol. 10, No 12
41 So, there are numerous examples of serious diseases being spread internationally through trade of wild aquatic animals.
42 It is clear that without effective implementation of national and international bio-security measures, the occurrence, trans-boundary spread and serious economic and/or ecological impact of aquatic animal diseases will continue.
43 Globally agreed standards for sanitary measures to apply to international trade in live aquatic animals are laid out in the OIE Aquatic Animal Health Code and in the OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals.
45 OIE Aquatic Animal Health Code The aim of the Aquatic Animal Health Code (Aquatic Code) is to assure the sanitary safety of international trade in live aquatic animals (fish, molluscs, crustaceans and amphibians) and their products. This is achieved through the detailing of health measures to be used by the competent authorities of importing and exporting countries to prevent the transfer of agents pathogenic for aquatic animals or humans, while avoiding unjustified trade barriers.
46 OIE Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animals The purpose of the Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals (Aquatic Manual) is to provide a uniform approach to the detection of the diseases listed in the Aquatic Code, so that the requirements for health certification in connection with trade in aquatic animals and aquatic animal products can be met.
47 Detailed OIE guidance on surveillance for aquatic animal diseases is also available
50 In conclusion There are clear risks of emergence and spread of aquatic animal diseases associated with international trade in aquatic wildlife. Much of this international trade is currently unregulated by trading countries in terms of health safeguards. OIE standards and guidance are available to greatly reduce the disease risks. All that is needed is for national governments, international regulators and traders to enforce them.
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