FISH 336 Introduction to Aquaculture

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1 FISH 336 Introduction to Aquaculture 1. Distance Delivered from Kodiak 2. Dr. Scott Smiley cell phone: (907) office hours by appointment

2 FISH 336 Logistics Goals I My Goals for Course I - Assist Students to: 1. Understand Aquacultural Operations 2. Understand Critiques of Aquaculture 3. Understand Importance of Site Choice 4. Have Overview of Aquaculture Species

3 FISH 336 Logistics Goals II My Goals for Course II - Assist Students to: 5. Know Why to Close the Life Cycle 6. Understand Water Quality Issues 7. Have Knowledge of Appropriate Feeds 8. Understand Threats to Farm Operations

4 FISH 336 Background Info 1. Finfish Aquaculture is Illegal in Alaska 2. Dialog 1990 Finfish Farming Task Force 3. Real Issues: Common Property Rights, Investments in PNP (Hatchery) System 4. Other Issues: Genetics, Disease, Economics 5. Bans Private Stocking, Fee Fishing and Farmed Fish used for Human Food 6. Only Exemption is for Ornamental Fish

5 FISH 336 Logistics Course Organization 1. Lectures at MWF 10:30 11:30 2. Course Schedule / Calendar is on Website 3. Lecture pdf posted on website after lecture 4. Supplemental Reading Materials on Website 5. Grading: Paper 25 % Midterm 25 % Final 50 %

6 FISH 336 Course Textbook I Stickney, RR., Aquaculture 2nd Edition: An Introductory Text. CABI Publications. ISBN: (paperback) TABLE OF CONTENTS General Overview of Aquaculture Getting Started Culture Systems Understanding & Maintaining Water Quality

7 FISH 336 Course Textbook II TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued) Diseases of Aquaculture Species Reproduction and Early Rearing Prepared Feeds Aquatic Animal Nutrition A Pot-Porrri of Additional Topics

8 FISH 336 Other Reference Volumes TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued) Diseases of Aquaculture Species Reproduction and Early Rearing Prepared Feeds Aquatic Animal Nutrition A Potpourri of Additional Topics

9 Background Dr. Scott Smiley 1. Been with UAF since Education: BA Zoology UC Berkeley (1979) MSc Zoology Univ Washington (1984) PhD Zoology Univ Washington (1986) Sea Cucumber Reproduction & Development Postdocs: ( ) Biochemistry / Molecular Biology Dept. Biochem. & Biophysics UC San Francisco 3. Fish Tech Center in Kodiak Since 1995

10 Teaching History - Scott Smiley 1. Biology (Biol. & Wildl. Dept.) The Sub-Organismal Semester. 2. Developmental Biology, Cell Biology, & Evolution (Biol. & Wildl. Dept.) 3. Fish 261 Introduction to Fish Utilization 4. Three Post-Doctoral Fellows 5. Three Graduate Students, currently one.

11 Research Interests Scott Smiley 1. Sea Cucumber Taxonomy & Systematics 2. Feed Ingredients from Seafood Processing Byproducts 3. Alternative Salmon Products 4. Nearshore Aquaculture in Alaska

12 FISH 336 Introduction to Aquaculture LECTURE TOPICS 1. Logistics 2. History & Importance of Aquaculture 3. General Principles of Aquaculture 4. Common Aquaculture Species 5. Basic Business Concerns 6. Siting Aquaculture Facilities

13 FISH 336 Logistics LECTURE TOPICS (continued) 7. Grow-out Systems 8. Closing Life Cycles 9. Genetically Defined Species 10. Nutritional Physiology 11. Water Quality 12. Biosecurity

14 FISH 336 Logistics LECTURE TOPICS 13. Stress & Immune System 14. Diseases, Predators, Parasites 15. Diets and Feeds 16. Harvesting & Markets 17. Aquaculture in Alaska FINAL EXAM Monday May 7, 10:30-12:30

15 Fish 336 TERM PAPER 1. Subject: An Aspect of the Aquaculture of (could be: a species, a method, a location). 2. Due Friday April 20, Graded & Returned at Final Exam. 3. Prof Smiley Must OK your Topic Choice by Friday February Pages, References must Include Journal Articles, but Books and Web Publications are OK.

16 Term Paper TOPICS Why Your Species? Site Location & Why? Water Quality?, Feeds?, Seed Stock?, Feeds? Closed/Open Circulation?, Immune Systems? Nutritional Physiology?, Diseases?, Stress

17 FISH 336 Introduction to Aquaculture Define Aquaculture: The rearing or farming of aquatic species under controlled or semi-controlled conditions and is equivalent to underwater agriculture. Farming also implies individual or corporate ownership of the stock being cultivated.

18 What Are The Aquaculture Species? A Huge Number ~800 Algae - unicells & macrophytes Higher Plants (watercress) Echinoderms (sea cucumbers, urchins) Molluscs (bivalves, snails, octopus) Crustaceans (shrimps, crabs, crayfish) Chordata (finfish - > 200 species) Reptiles (alligators, snakes, lizards) Amphibians (frogs)

19 FISH 336 Introduction to Aquaculture Aquaculture has an ancient history - but it has lagged far behind terrestrial Agriculture. The recent explosion in Aquaculture is largely due to escape from dependence on natural production of the seed for most species. In freshwater - 60% all production is farmed, while in marine waters < 1% fish production is farmed

20 FISH 336 Introduction to Aquaculture ~50% of Food Fish Come from Aquaculture Fastest Growing of all Food Sectors 51.7 Million metric tons, $78.8 Billion Alaska 2.46 Mmt (1.7% of total) Annual; Growth Rate ~7% 2.9 Billion People Rely on Aquaculture FAO 2006

21 Percent Total Dietary Protein Derived from Fish: by Region Region % Pop n % 1. No America ~ 7 % 530M 7.5% 2. Europe ~ 11% 740M 10.5% 3. Africa ~ 17% 995M 14% 4. Asia ~ 26% 4.15B 60% 5. So America NA 385M 5.5%

22 US 2007 Aquaculture Values Catfish Molluscs Trout Other Fish Baitfish $455.4 M $243.0 M $210.6 M $187.7 M $40.3 M

23 World Tilapia Production

24 2006 FAO Reports China Produced 67% Aquaculture Biomass 49% of Aquaculture Value Worldwide Aquaculture Trade is 2x the Worldwide Trade in Meat and Poultry 800 Species under Aquaculture Worldwide

25 US Aquaculture Imports Shrimp Salmon Canned Tuna Fresh & Frozen Other Canned $4.1 Billion $1.6 Billion $661 Million $12.1 Billion $1.6 Billion

26 MT(Million) World Fisheries Production Aquaculture Capture Total Year

27 Alaska s Strengths & Opportunities 1. Wild Natural Product 2. Sound Fisheries Management 3. Omega 3 Fatty Acids 4. Vitamin D 5. Whitefish Strong Tilapia Coming on 6. Wild Salmon now Niche Market Item 7. No Effective Substitutes for: Halibut, Sablefish, Crab.

28 Alaska: Weaknesses & Threats 1. Inconsistent (Seasonal) Supply & Quality 2. Labor Issues 3. Aquaculture: Salmon, Tilapia, Cod 4. Farmed Industry Keeps Lowering Costs 5. US & Europe: Low Seafood Consumption 6. US: Unwillingness to Pay More for Food

29 FISH 336 Introduction to Aquaculture

30 FISH 336 Introduction to Aquaculture

31 FISH 336 Introduction to Aquaculture

32 FISH 336 Introduction to Aquaculture

Alaska s Strengths & Opportunities

Alaska s Strengths & Opportunities Alaska s Strengths & Opportunities 1. Wild Natural Product 2. Sound Fisheries Management 3. Omega 3 Fatty Acids 4. High Concentrations Vitamin D 5. Whitefish Strong but Tilapia Coming on 6. Wild Salmon

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