Calculating Total Uncertainty of Temperature Calibration with a Dry Block. Calibration White Paper. Beamex.

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1 Beamex Calibration White Paper Calculating Total Uncertainty of Temperature Calibration with a Dry Block World-class calibration solutions

2 Calculating Total Uncertainty of Temperature Calibration with a Dry Block In Calibration World magazine (Spring/Summer 2011) there was an article on temperature and the calibration of temperature instruments. In this article we continue with temperature-related articles. We will discuss the various uncertainty components related to temperature calibration using a temperature dry-block. Also, we will discuss how to calculate the total uncertainty of a calibration performed with a dry block. Temperature dry block First, let s discuss what a temperature dry block is: consists of a heatable and/or coolable metallic block, controller, an internal control sensor and optional readout for external reference sensor. This article will focus on models that use interchangeable metallic multi-hole inserts. There are fast and lightweight dry blocks for industrial field use as well as models that deliver near bath-level stability in laboratory use. There are also some work safety issues that favor dry blocks in preference to liquid baths. For example, in temperatures above 200 C liquids can produce undesirable fumes or there may be fire safety issues. If a drop of water gets into hot silicon oil, it could even cause a small steam explosion which may splash hot oil on the user. Dry blocks are almost without exception meant to be used dry. Heat transfer fluids or pastes are sometimes used around or inside the insert, but they don t necessarily improve performance. They may actually even impede the dry block s performance and damage its internal components. EURAMET The EURAMET guideline (EURAMET /cg-13/v.01, July 2007 [previously EA-10/13]): This Euramet calibration guide defines a normative way to calibrate dry blocks. As most of the manufacturers nowadays publish their product specifications including the main topics in the Euramet guide, the products are easier to compare. Main topics in the EURAMET guideline include: Display accuracy Axial uniformity Radial uniformity Loading Stability over time Hysteresis Sufficient immersion (15 x diameter) Stem loss for 6 mm or greater probes Probe clearance (<= 0,5 mm at C) (<= 1,0 mm at C) Related uncertainty components Let s have a look at the various uncertainty components that are related to temperature calibration done using a dry block. These components are relevant to all manufacturers dry blocks. Some manufacturers specify these components and some do not. It is possible to use a dry block with the block s internal measurement as the reference (true value), or you can also use an external reference temperature probe inserted in the block as a reference measurement. Internal measurement as reference First, let s discuss the uncertainty components related to the use of a dry block s internal measurement as reference. The following components should be taken into account: Display accuracy (accuracy of the internal measurement) It is important to remember that all of the thermometers based on thermal contact measure their own temperature. With dry blocks, the internal control sensor is typically located inside the actual block, whereas the probes to be calibrated are immersed in the insert. There is always thermal resistance between the internal sensor and the probes inside the insert and other sources of uncertainty need to be considered. Calculating Total Uncertainty of Temperature Calibration with a Dry Block 2

5 External reference sensor The external reference sensor (PRT) is typically much more capable of producing accurate measurements than the internal sensor. However, using an external reference does not automatically mean better results. All of the previously mentioned uncertainty factors need to be carefully considered. Uncertainty related to the reference probe components includes the probe s calibration uncertainty, drift, hysteresis, stem conduction, and the readout device s uncertainty. Of course, the external reference sensor needs a unit that measures the sensor. It can be the block or an external device. Calculating Total Uncertainty of Temperature Calibration with a Dry Block 5

6 CALCULATION EXAMPLES There we calculate two total uncertainty examples. One is done using the internal temperature measurement and the other with a reference probe. In both cases the MB155R is used as the dry block. The temperature in both examples is 0 C. Due to the rectangular probability distribution of the specifications, they are divided by the square root of three to get the Standard Uncertainty. The standard uncertainties are combined as the root sum of the squares. Finally the combined uncertainty has been multiplied by two to get the expanded uncertainty. As can be seen in the examples the total expanded uncertainty using the internal reference sensor is 135 mk (0.135 C). When using an external reference sensor the total expanded uncertainty is 34 mk (0.034 C). The various uncertainty components used in the examples can be found in the specifications in the product brochures. MB155R with internal C Component Specification ( C) Standard Uncertainty ( C) Display Accuracy Hysteresis Axial Uniformity Radial Uniformity Stability Loading Effect Combined Uncertainty: Expanded Uncertainty: MB155R with external C Component Specification ( C) Standard Uncertainty ( C) Axial Uniformity Radial Uniformity Stability Loading Effect Ref sensor measurement Combined Uncertainty: Expanded Uncertainty: Reference Sensor (Beamex RPRT-420) Component Specification ( C) Standard Uncertainty ( C) Short-term repeatability Drift Hysteresis Calibration uncertainty Combined Uncertainty: Expanded Uncertainty: MB155R and RPRT-420 Combined uncertainty: Expanded Uncertainty: All specifications have a rectangular probability distribution. That is why they are divided by the square root of three to get Standard Uncertainty. Calculating Total Uncertainty of Temperature Calibration with a Dry Block 6

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