Physical Implications of Complete Streets Policies

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1 Presentation Overview Physical Implications of Complete Norm Cox, ASLA, LLA Landscape Architect Ann Arbor, Michigan, 10:45 to Noon What Are Complete Streets? What Matters to Bicyclists and Pedestrians What Do Complete Streets Look Like? How Do You Implement Them? Additional Resources Complete Streets in a Nutshell Importance of a Network Complete streets are planned designed, operated and maintained such that all users may safely comfortably and conveniently Move along and across streets throughout a community All users include: Pedestrians Bicyclists Transit users Motorists Trucks All users include: Children Elderly People of various abilities Complete Streets An interconnected system Requires a range of facility types accommodate the different users Think of a system that works for all user types at all times of the day and all times of the year Balancing of Transportation Modes A Broader Definition of Street Each mode of transportation impacts the level of service of the other modes A street encompasses the Road Landscape Traditionally motorized traffic received the priority Now looking to balance the modes How the balance is struck is based on street typology and context While complete streets share many common elements the design of each street depends on its context Sidewalks Architecture A community s streets are a defining characteristic Streets constitute a community s single most important public space in terms of size, visibility and use. 1

2 Looking Beyond The Physical Roadway Complete Streets go beyond physical design and infrastructure A Transitional Period in Transportation If there is one constant in our streets over time, it is change Establishing a culture and policies that provide safe and efficient transportation choices Each era ushers in new modes and new sets of challenges Like any cultural shift, this will not happen overnight Complete Streets is a cultural change similar to the Americans with Disabilities Act. Like the ADA, it is will be a long-term venture. Unlike the ADA it is voluntary, not an unfunded state or federal mandate There is a collective recognition that the system we have now does not fully meet our current needs By all users we mean all legal users of the roadway including: There has been a concerted move towards Complete Streets in the USA since the early 1990 s Context Urban Form Influences Nonmotorized Travel Physical Implications of Complete What Matters the Most? Research Has Shown That Urban Form Influences Mode Choice and Total Miles Traveled Context Critical Mass Pedestrian Issues Bicyclist Issues The Most Important Factors Are Density (Population) Diversity (Land Use) Design (Street Network) Directness of Travel Block Size is an Excellent Measurement of Directness of Travel Directness of Travel Impacts Actual Use Context Safety in Numbers The Most Effective Way To Increase the Safety of Pedestrians and Bicyclists is To Increase the Numbers of Pedestrians and Bicyclists Pedestrians and Bicyclists Become Expected Roadway Users In Portland The Number of Crashes Held Almost Steady While the Number of Cyclists Dramatically Increased 2

3 Safety in Numbers The Concept Applies Community Wide and To Specific Locations and Times Context Area Analysis Match Proposed Improvements to Different Contexts Less Frequent Use Needs More Visible Facilities to Increase Motorists Awareness This is The Opposite of How Motorized Facilities Are Dealt With Dangerous Designs and Situations May be Off- Set By Expectations of Encountering Pedestrians. Pedestrian Issues Crossing the Road Average Walking Trip for Personal Business is About ½ Mile, A 10 Minute Walk A 10% Detour for An Average Walking Trip is 264 (less than a city block) Pedestrians Do Not Go Out of Their Way Crosswalk Spacing Analysis Where Crosswalks Are Spaced Over an 1/8 of Mile Apart and There is Demand, You Can Expect Pedestrians Crossing the Streett Cross Check with Crash Data Road Crossing Difficulty Analysis Pedestrian Issues Sidewalk Level of Service Measurement of How Difficult a Person Would Typically Find it To Cross A Road at an Unmarked Mid- Block Crosswalk Considers: Number of Lanes, Speed and Traffic Volumes A Facility with Vertical B Facility with Buffer C Facility along Curb Buffer Grade Lanes Speed ADT A 2 <30 <5,000 B ,000 10,000 C ,000 15,000 D ,000 20,000 E ,000+ D No Facility, but Passable E No Facility, Not Passable 3

4 Existing Sidewalk Level of Service Analysis Bicycle Issues Four Types of Bicyclists A Measurement of the Degree of Separation from the Roadway Can Be Used to Track Progress Over Time Strong & Fearless <1% Always Biking Any Road Regardless of Condition Enthused & Confident 7% Frequently Bike Like Designated Facilities Such As Bike Lanes Interested but Concerned 60% Occasional Rider Local Roads and Trails No Way, No How 33% Not Really This Clear Cut. There Is Movement Between the Groups. Developed by Roger Geller, Bicycle Coordinator, Portland Office of Transportation In-Road Bicycling Quality Analysis Measurement of Bicyclist Comfort Within The Roadway Considers: Traffic Volumes, Speed and Presence of Bike Lane Roadside Pathway Suitability Analysis How Many Driveway and Road Crossing Are There? Grade Lanes Speed ADT A 2 <30 <5,000 B ,000 10,000 C ,000 15,000 D ,000 20,000 E ,000+ x Sidewalks/Roadside Pathways vs. Bike Lanes Local Road Connectors Motorists Are Not Looking for Bicyclists on Sidewalks or Sidepaths Especially When They Are Bicycling Opposite the Flow of Traffic Bicycling on the Sidewalk is Generally Slower and More Inconvenient than Bicycling on the Roadway. Most Local Residential Roads Can Provide Key Links Without Special Facilities Often Local Roads Are a Key Part of Many Bicyclists and Pedestrians Commuting Routes the presence of pedestrians motorists that block the sidewalk or crosswalk. There is a reason experienced bicyclists Travel on the road. But Many of the Routes are Unknown to the General Public Even Experienced Bicyclists Who Are Comfortable Bicycling in Traffic Often Choose Residential Roads as Part of the Routes 4

5 Potential Local Road Connector Identification Shadow System That Uses Local Roads and Short Trails Routes That Links Parks, Schools, Natural Features and Major Destinations Physical Implications of Complete What Do Complete Streets Look Like? Primary Links Neighborhood Connectors Off-Road Trails Not As Direct, But Much Less Traffic Than Primary Roads A Spectrum of Non-Motorized Routes Primary Links Urban Arterial Example A non-motorized network may be seen as having three main components Primary Links Neighborhood Connectors Bike Lanes Frequent Mid-block Crossings Some Vertical Sidewalk Buffers Off-Road Trails Often Faced with Situations Where ROW is Limited Primary Links Suburban Arterial Example Primary Links Urban Collector Example In Downtown Areas May Use Shared Use Arrow Used Where A Bike Lane is Not Feasible and/or Desirable Indicated To Motorists To Expect Bicycles Indicates to Bicyclists To: Ride With Traffic Ride A Safe Distance Away From Car Doors On-Street Parking Helps Pedestrian Level of Service 5

6 Primary Links Suburban Collector Example Primary Links Suburban Collector Example Road Types Overview May Target Certain Roads To Have A Bicycle and Pedestrian Focus Lower Speeds 2 to 3 Lanes Primary Routes Non-Motorized Zone A typical 66 ROW is capable of supporting a multi-modal roadway Additional ROW required to accommodate additional motor vehicle lanes NOT the nonmotorized facilities Establish a Non-Motorized Zone Neighborhood Connector Neighborhood Connector 6

7 Neighborhood Connector Wayfinding Is Critical Off-Road Pathways A Shared Use Path Outside of a Road ROW Suitable for Bicyclists and Pedestrians Complement, But Do Not Replace On-road Facilities Wonderful Recreation Resource Great Place for Inexperienced Bicyclists to Build Skills Provide Transportation and Recreation Links with Minimal Exposure to Motorized Vehicles Bike Lane Potential Through 4 to 3 Lane Conversion Physical Implications of Complete How Do You Implement Them? A Spectrum of Nonmotorized Lines Suitability of the Conversion Depends on Traffic Volume and the Nature of the Signalized Intersections Bike Lane Potential Through Lane Narrowing We Often Find Cases Where We Can Safely Narrow the Lane Width Potential Roadway Conversions Not Unusual to Find that 50 to 60% of All Primary Roads May be Converted to Add Bike Lanes Potential for an additional 9.9 Miles of Bike Lanes in the Near Future 7

8 As Part of Road Reconstruction Project Non-motorized Network Diagram Some Roads Will Need to Be Reconstructed In Order To Add Bike Lanes Principal Links Auto Focus Bike/Ped Focus Neighborhood Connectors Neighborhood Greenways Bike Routes Crossing Improvements Off-Road Trails x Non-Motorized Network Example Construct in Phases Fill Small Gaps Implement Road Conversions When Restriping or Resurfacing Roads Identify and Establish Key Cross Community Corridors Continuous Routes Proof of Concept x Physical Implications of Complete Additional Resources Towards Complete Streets in Michigan Project Partners Michigan Department of Community Health Michigan Association of Planning Michigan Trails & Greenways Alliance Healthy Kids Healthy Michigan American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Healthy Kids Healthy Michigan 8

9 Module 1: An Overview Training Curriculum Module 2: Influencing Policy Training Plan Understanding what complete streets are and what they means to your community How to implement an appropriate complete streets policy in your community Module 3: Stakeholder Engagement Training Plan Module 4: Planning & Regulations Training Plan How to develop the community support necessary to implement complete streets in your community Updating community plans and regulations to support complete streets policy implementation Module 5: Design & Applications Training Plan Best practices in complete street design Questions or Comments Please Contact: Norman D. Cox, ASLA, LLA 205 Nickels Arcade Ann Arbor, MI Phone

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