CIVL Paragliding and Hang-Gliding Committees CIVL GAP. Centralised Cross-Country Competition Scoring for Hang-Gliding and Paragliding

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1 CIVL Paragldng and Hang-Gldng Commttees CIVL GAP Centralsed Cross-Country Cometton Scorng for Hang-Gldng and Paragldng 2014 Edton Revson 1.1 Publshed March 23, 2014

2 CIVL GAP Centralsed Cross-Country Cometton Scorng for Hang-Gldng and Paragldng Edtor's note: Hang-gldng and aragldng are sorts n whch both men and women artcate. Throughout ths document the words "he", "hm" or "hs" are ntended to aly equally to ether sex unless t s secfcally stated otherwse. Revson Author Changes 1.1 Joerg Ewald Correcton of a number of tyos FEDERATION AERONAUTIQUE INTERNATIONALE Mason du Sort Internatonal Avenue de Rhodane 54 CH-1007 Lausanne Swtzerland Coyrght 2014 All rghts reserved. Coyrght n ths document s owned by the Fédératon Aéronautque Internatonale (FAI. Any erson actng on behalf of the FAI or one of ts Members s hereby authorsed to coy, rnt, and dstrbute ths document, subject to the followng condtons: 1. The document may be used for nformaton only and may not be exloted for commercal uroses. 2. Any coy of ths document or orton thereof must nclude ths coyrght notce. Note that any roduct, rocess or technology descrbed n the document may be the subject of other Intellectual Proerty rghts reserved by the Fédératon Aéronautque Internatonale or other enttes and s not lcensed hereunder Edton, Revson 1.1 2

3 Contents CIVL GAP Centralsed Cross-Country Cometton Scorng for Hang-Gldng and Paragldng 1 Introducton Scoe Sources Changes from revous edton Dfferences between Hang-Gldng and Paragldng The GAP Phlosohy Hstory Scorng Process Defntons Flghts Locatons and dstances Tmes Use of Tracklog Data Poston Dstance Alttude Tme Cometton Parameters Nomnal Launch Nomnal Dstance Mnmum Dstance Nomnal Goal Nomnal Tme Fnal Glde Decelerator Score-back Tme Task Settng Defnton of a task Defnton of control zones Defnton of goal Start rocedures Dstances Flyng a task Race task Oen dstance task Task evaluaton Reachng a control zone Reachng a concal end of seed secton Reachng goal Flown dstance Tme for seed secton Task Valdty Launch Valdty Dstance Valdty Tme Valdty Ponts Allocaton Plot score Dstance onts Tme onts Leadng onts Arrval onts Secal cases ESS but not goal Early start Stoed tasks Penaltes Task rankng Overall task rankng Edton, Revson 1.1 3

4 CIVL GAP Centralsed Cross-Country Cometton Scorng for Hang-Gldng and Paragldng 13.2 Female task rankng Naton task rankng Cometton rankng Overall cometton rankng Female cometton rankng Naton cometton rankng Tes FTV Fxed Total Valdty Edton, Revson 1.1 4

5 CIVL GAP Centralsed Cross-Country Cometton Scorng for Hang-Gldng and Paragldng 1 Introducton Ths document contans all defntons requred to score centralsed cross-country comettons for both hang-gldng and aragldng. Its man urose s to serve as an addendum to sectons 7A and 7B of the FAI sortng code. Addtonally, t should serve as an educatonal tool for all artes nvolved n such comettons, as a reference for the mlementaton of scorng systems, as well as a bass for future mrovements and modfcatons. 1.1 Scoe The document s scoe s restrcted to scorng of FAI Category 1 cross-country comettons for hanggldng and aragldng: World and Contnental chamonshs n both sorts. CIVL s rule settng targets these comettons exclusvely, whereas organsers of FAI Category 2 comettons as well as nonsanctoned comettons are free to score ther comettons however they lke. Most of them do follow CIVL s lead, though, so ths document should also cover the majorty of Category 2 events as well. 1.2 Sources The remander of ths document s based on: The GAP Gude (2011 edton FAI Sortng Code Secton 7A for Hang-Gldng (2013 edton FAI Sortng Code Secton 7B for Paragldng (2013 edton The scorng mlementaton wthn CIVL s scorng software, FS (aka FScom Aendx C of the Paragldng World Cu Assocaton s 2013 Cometton Rules 1.3 Changes from revous edton Changes from the 2012 edton of ths document wll be marked wth a vertcal sdebar. 1.4 Dfferences between Hang-Gldng and Paragldng Intally, both hang-gldng and aragldng comettons used the same system for scorng, generally known as GAP. But over tme, through ther two searate sortng codes, the two dsclnes ntroduced more and more changes that would only aly to one, but not the other. Ths manly n nonstandard stuatons such as stoed tasks, lots landng just short of goal, or lots crossng the start lne too early. Where not exlctly stated otherwse, the contents of ths document always aly to both dsclnes. Defntons alyng only to one, but not the other, are clearly marked as such. Text marked n blue ales exclusvely to hang-gldng. Text marked n orange ales exclusvely to aragldng Edton, Revson 1.1 5

6 CIVL GAP Centralsed Cross-Country Cometton Scorng for Hang-Gldng and Paragldng 2 The GAP Phlosohy CIVL s scorng system s generally known as GAP, named after the frst-name ntals of ts three nventors Gerolf Henrchs (G, Angelo Craanzano (A and Paul Mollson (P. Ther ntenton was to create a far scorng system easly adatable to any cometton anywhere n the world, both for hang gldng and aragldng, wth a hlosohy that s easy for the lot to understand, regardless of the mathematcal comlexty of the underlyng formulas. 2.1 Hstory Work on GAP started n 1998, and t was offcally ntroduced n 2000, to allow scorng of comettons based on GPS track logs, nstead of hotograhc evdence as t had been used untl then. In 2002, an udated verson, named GAP 2002 was ublshed. Ths ntroduced the concet of leadng onts, whch are calculated by comarng the comlete track logs of all lots n a task. Leadng onts relaced the dearture onts used n GAP 2000 In 2005, a varaton of GAP 2002 was ntroduced n Australa, named OzGAP or OzGAP The dfference to GAP les manly n the way arrval onts are calculated, but ths was never adoted by CIVL. In 2008, GAP 2008 was offcally released. The man scorng mechansms remaned unchanged from the 2002 edton, but the mlementaton of GAP 2008 ncluded several rules ntroduced n the sortng codes for ether hang-gldng or aragldng. These cover stoed tasks, startng too early, and landng between the end of the seed secton and goal. In 2011, GAP 2011 marked another software release where the man scorng remaned unchanged from the 2002 defnton and mlementaton. The man changes were all for aragldng: alttude bonus n stoed tasks, as well as a reduced number of avalable onts n stoed tasks and n tasks wth no lots n goal. In 2012, the Jum the Gun rule for early starts n hang-gldng comettons changed n S7A. Ths was mlemented n FS, but ths was also released, unfortunately, as GAP The 2014 edton resented here ntroduces a number of sgnfcant changes for aragldng, a few of whch also aly to hang gldng. The majorty of those changes orgnate from the Paragldng World Cu Assocaton (PWCA, and 2014 wll be the frst tme that both CIVL and PWCA score ther aragldng comettons usng the same formula. The changes are: Nomnal launch arameter, see 5.1 (hang gldng and aragldng Fnal glde decelerator, see 5.6 (aragldng Goal shae, see 6.3 (aragldng Purely lnear dstance onts, see 11.1 (aragldng Adjusted formula for leadng onts, see 11.3 (aragldng No more arrval onts, see 11.4 (aragldng Scorng of stoed tasks, see 12.3 (hang gldng and aragldng Use of FTV for cometton scorng, see 14.1 (aragldng 2014 Edton, Revson 1.1 6

7 CIVL GAP Centralsed Cross-Country Cometton Scorng for Hang-Gldng and Paragldng 2.2 Scorng Process Scorng follows a nne-ste rocess, as dected n Fgure 1: 1. Settng the cometton arameters, or GAP arameters, accordng to the cometton ste, the exected lot level and the exected tasks. Ths haens once for each cometton, at the outset, and must not be changed throughout the cometton. See secton Settng a task ths haens tycally once er day on flyable days. See secton Lettng the lots fly the task. See secton Evaluatng the task, by collectng all lots track logs for ths task, and determnng for each lot the dstance flown and, f the end of seed secton was reached, n what tme ths haened. See secton Calculatng the task valdty based on the task s statstcal values such as fastest tme to ESS, number of lots n goal, average dstance flown and several others. See secton Ponts allocaton: Calculatng the maxmum number of onts awarded for dstance, seed, leadng and arrval, based on the task valdty and the statstcal values found n the task evaluaton. See secton Scorng each lot s flght, by calculatng the awarded onts for dstance, seed, leadng and arrval. The outcome, the lots total score, s the sum of these four values. See sectons 11 and Rankng all lots accordng to ther total score for the task results. See secton Aggregaton of task results for cometton scorng and rankng. See secton 14. 1: Defne cometton arameters Cometton arameters 2: Defne task Task defnton 3: Fly task Track logs 4: Evaluate track logs For all lots: dstance, tme to ESS 5: Calculate task valdty Task valdty 6: Allocate avalable onts Avalable onts 7: Score flghts Plots scores 8: Rank lots Task results 9: Create cometton rankng Cometton results Fgure 1: Scorng rocess 2014 Edton, Revson 1.1 7

8 CIVL GAP Centralsed Cross-Country Cometton Scorng for Hang-Gldng and Paragldng 3 Defntons The term hang glder, n ths secton, covers all classes. These defntons take recedence over the ones gven n the General Secton. 3.1 Flghts Flght: A flght of a hang glder, startng at take-off, and endng wth the landng Free flght: The art of a flght n whch the hang glder s not towed, carred or asssted by another arcraft or searate external or jettsonable ower source. Flght erformance: The achevement attaned durng free flght. Cometton task (short task : See secton 6.1 Cometton flght: A flght n a cometton n whch a lot attemts to acheve a task as desgned by the cometton s task commttee. 3.2 Locatons and dstances Take-off: Place where lots launch for the task. Seed secton: A tmed secton of the task where seed onts are awarded. The lots that comlete the seed secton fastest receve the most tme onts. Start of seed secton (SSS: The locaton where tmng of the task starts. In a task defnton, ths s ether an ext or an entry cylnder. For an ndvdual lot, t s the lace where he crossed that cylnder to begn flyng the seed secton. Turnont (TP: A turnont s a geograhcal ont, defned by coordnates and alttude above mean sea level. Control zone: A geograhcal area whch must be reached by the lots n the course of a cometton task. End of seed secton (ESS: The cylnder/lne/ont where tmng of the task stos. Goal: The fnsh lne or cylnder defnng the task s end. Can be dentcal to ESS, but s often chosen as a lne or a smaller cylnder nsde or even away from an ESS cylnder for safety reasons. Landng lace: The ont where any art of the hang glder or ts crew frst touches the ground. Task dstance: The shortest ossble dstance a lot has to fly to fnsh the task. Ths means he has to fly to the boundary of each cylnder, not the turnonts at the cylnders centres. Flown dstance: A lot s ndvdual acheved dstance n a task. Fnsh ont: Ether the landng lace or the goal crossng ont Edton, Revson 1.1 8

9 3.3 Tmes CIVL GAP Centralsed Cross-Country Cometton Scorng for Hang-Gldng and Paragldng Race start: The tme when lots are allowed to cross SSS and begn flyng the seed secton. In a race to goal task wth a sngle start gate, ths s also the start tme for all lots. Start tme: Tme when a lot starts flyng the seed secton. Start gate: A tmng reference for SSS. Deendng on the chosen start rocedure, multle Start Gates can be avalable, offerng lots a choce of dfferent race start tmes. Wndow oen tme: The tme from when lots are allowed to launch. Task deadlne: The tme untl whch lots flghts are beng scored. All dstance covered after ths tme wll not be counted for scorng. Fnsh tme: Tme when a lot crossed the ESS boundary n the requred drecton (ext or entry for the frst tme after comletng all revous ortons of the task. Task tme: Tme a lot took to fly the seed secton. Landng tme: The tme at whch any art of the hang glder or ts crew frst touched the ground Edton, Revson 1.1 9

10 CIVL GAP Centralsed Cross-Country Cometton Scorng for Hang-Gldng and Paragldng 4 Use of Tracklog Data 4.1 Poston Coordnates of ostons, such as turn onts or lot ostons, are always gven as WGS84 coordnates, based on the WGS84 ellsod. The coordnate format s UTM by default, but other formats can be chosen by organsers as arorate. 4.2 Dstance In general, task evaluaton occurs n the x/y lan, therefore dstance measurements are always exclusvely horzontal measurements. The earth model used s the FAI shere, wth a radus of km. In aragldng, for fnal glde decelerators (5.6 and alttude bonus n stoed tasks (12.3.6, alttude s also consdered, but ths does not affect dstance calculatons between two geograhc onts. In hang gldng, for alttude bonus n stoed tasks (12.3.6, alttude s also consdered, but ths does not affect dstance calculatons between two geograhc onts. The dstance between two onts, dentfed by ther radan coordnates lat1/long1 and lat2/long2, s calculated usng the Haversne formula. dstlat lat2 lat1 dstlong long2 long1 dstlat a (sn 2 2 coslat1* coslat2 * (sn radandstance 2 * arctan 2( a, 1 a dstance radandstance * dstlong 2 2 To reroduce ths formula n Excel, the followng modfcaton s necessary due to a dfferent mlementaton of the arctan2 functon: radandst ance 2*arctan 2( a, 1 a New dstance measurement Startng January 1 st, 2015, all dstance measurements and horzontal arsace valdatons are based on the WGS84 ellsod 1. From then on, t s each lot s resonsblty to ether use an nstrument that ndcates dstances to relevant features (such as turn onts or arsace boundares based on the same earth model, or to adjust ther flyng to comensate for the dfferences n dstance calculatons between dfferent earth models. Dstance between two onts s calculated usng the Vncenty 2 formula. Planar rojectons, such as for examle a localsed Transverse Mercator 3 rojecton wth a scale factor <1, acheve suffcent accuracy for all ractcal uroses, where calculaton erformance s 1 See htt://en.wkeda.org/wk/world_geodetc_system#a_new_world_geodetc_system:_wgs_84 2 See htt://en.wkeda.org/wk/vncenty%27s_formulae 3 See htt://en.wkeda.org/wk/transverse_mercator_rojecton 2014 Edton, Revson

11 CIVL GAP Centralsed Cross-Country Cometton Scorng for Hang-Gldng and Paragldng a concern (for examle n flght nstruments, or where no formula exsts to solve a roblem on the ellsod (for examle dstance between ont and lne, as used for arsace evaluaton. The January 1 st, 2015 deadlne can be moved by the CIVL Bureau to a later date f a survey amongst nstrument and software manufacturers shows that the man manufacturers have not yet managed to modfy ther software to measure dstance based on the WGS84 ellsod. 4.3 Alttude Alttude evaluaton s based on GPS alttude, as gven n GPS tracklogs New alttude measurement Startng January 1 st, 2015, alttude evaluaton s based both on GPS and barometrc alttude, as gven n GPS tracklogs. Only GPS tracks where GPS alttude s gven n reference to the Geod 4, as delvered by all commercal GPS modules, wll be acceted n CIVL s FAI Category 1 events. By default, n CIVL s FAI Category 1 events, the alttude values used n fnal glde decelerators and to determne alttude bonus n stoed task are calculated from a combnaton of GPS and barometrc alttude, usng the Dmov 5 True Alttude algorthm. To score tasks takng nto account the calculated true alttude values, a score keeer must ether re-rocess the raw tracklog fles wth the software ublshed by Danel Dmov, or, f suorted by the scorng software, use the bult-n functonalty of the scorng software to the same effect. Organsers may choose to use the less accurate ure GPS alttude nstead. Arsace volaton checks rely exclusvely on GPS alttude for the tme beng. 4.4 Tme Tme evaluaton s based on GPS tme, as gven n GPS tracklogs. For better readablty, tmes of the day may be exressed n local tme for the cometton locaton. 4 See htt://en.wkeda.org/wk/geod 5 See htt://fs.fa.org/w-content/uloads/2013/03/true-alttude-calculatons.df. Note that a real-tme verson of the algorthm dscussed n ths aer s currently under develoment. Ths verson wll be enable nstrument manufacturers to dslay True Alttude n flght Edton, Revson

12 CIVL GAP Centralsed Cross-Country Cometton Scorng for Hang-Gldng and Paragldng 5 Cometton Parameters Before the frst task, the followng arameters must be defned by the meet drector, or another erson or grou as defned by the cometton s local regulatons: 1. Nomnal Launch 2. Nomnal Dstance 3. Mnmum Dstance 4. Nomnal Goal 5. Nomnal Tme The values set for these arameters defne how each task s valdty s calculated. They should therefore be chosen very carefully, consderng the realstc otental of the flyng ste. Settng the values too low wll revent the formula from dstngushng between demandng, hgh qualty tasks and quck, easy low qualty tasks whch are sometmes the only oton due to weather condtons. In aragldng comettons, the followng must also be defned by the same erson or grou who defnes the frst fve cometton arameters above: 6. Fnal glde decelerator 7. Score-back tme for stoed task 5.1 Nomnal Launch When lots do not take off for safety reasons, to avod dffcult launch condtons or bad condtons n the ar, Launch Valdty s reduced (see secton 9.1. Nomnal Launch defnes a threshold as a ercentage of the lots n a cometton. Launch Valdty s only reduced f fewer lots than defned by that threshold decde to launch. The recommended default value for Nomnal Launch s 96%, whch means that Launch Valdty wll only be reduced f fewer than 96% of the lots resent at launch chose to launch. 5.2 Nomnal Dstance Nomnal dstance should be set to the exected average task dstance for the cometton. Deendng on the other cometton arameters and the dstances actually flown by lots, tasks shorter than Nomnal Dstance wll be devalued n most cases. Tasks longer than nomnal dstance wll usually not be devalued, as long as the lots fly most of the dstance. In order for GAP to be able to dstngush between good and not-so-good tasks, and devalue the latter, t s mortant to set nomnal dstance hgh enough Mnmum Dstance The mnmum dstance awarded to every lot who takes off. It s the dstance below whch t s ontless to measure a lot's erformance. The mnmum dstance arameter s set so that lots who 6 See also ths excellent seres of artcles on the subject: Part 1:htt://ozreort.com/ ; Part 2: htt://ozreort.com/ ; Part 3: htt://ozreort.com/ Edton, Revson

13 CIVL GAP Centralsed Cross-Country Cometton Scorng for Hang-Gldng and Paragldng are about to "bomb out" wll not be temted to fly nto the next feld to get ast a grou of lots they all receve the same amount of onts anyway. 5.4 Nomnal Goal The ercentage of lots the meet drector would wsh to have n goal n a well-chosen task. Ths s tycally 20 to 40%. Ths arameter has a very margnal effect on dstance valdty (see secton Nomnal Tme Nomnal tme ndcates the exected task duraton, the amount of tme requred to fly the seed secton. If the fastest lot s tme s below nomnal tme, the task wll be devalued. There s no devaluaton f the fastest lot s tme s above nomnal tme. Nomnal tme should be set to the exected normal task duraton for the cometton ste, and nomnal dstance / nomnal tme should be a bt hgher than tycal average seeds for the area. 5.6 Fnal Glde Decelerator The concet of a fnal glde decelerator was ntroduced to counteract a develoment n cometton araglder desgn whch favoured stablty at hgh seeds over stablty at trm seed. The two fnal glde decelerators avalable are: Concal end of seed secton (CESS: Instead of a cylnder, the end of seed secton s an nverted cone. Tme stos for a lot when they enter that cone. For detals see Arrval alttude tme bonus (AATB: The tme bonus s calculated based on each lot s alttude above goal when crossng the end of seed secton cylnder. Ths bonus s then deducted from the lot s seed secton tme to determne the score tme. See also 8.5. For safety reasons, a meet drector may decde to not use any fnal glde decelerator for an ndvdual task. Ths must be announced at the task brefng, and a secfc reason must be gven, ndcatng what exact rsk s beng averted by not usng the fnal glde decelerator chosen for that cometton. 5.7 Score-back Tme In a stoed task, ths value defnes the amount of tme before the task sto was announced that wll not be consdered for scorng. The default s 5 mnutes, but deendng on local meteorologcal crcumstances, t may be set to a longer erod for a whole cometton. See also secton Edton, Revson

14 CIVL GAP Centralsed Cross-Country Cometton Scorng for Hang-Gldng and Paragldng 6 Task Settng 6.1 Defnton of a task A task can ether be a race task or an oen dstance task Race task A race task defnton conssts of: 1. A launch ont, gven as GPS coordnates 2. A number of control zones 3. A goal 4. An ndcaton whch of the control zones s the start (start of seed secton 5. If goal does not serve as end of seed secton: An ndcaton whch of the control zones s the end of seed secton, along wth ts secfc arameters (such as nclne and radus for CESS, alttude tme bonus factor for AATB 6. A launch tme wndow 7. A start rocedure, ncludng tmng 8. Otonally, a task deadlne In excetonal crcumstances, wth regard to restrcted launch areas and oor flyng condtons, to ensure the task s far for 2/3rds of the lots, a task may be run wthout leadng/dearture onts. Ths s to be declared at the task brefng Oen dstance task An oen dstance task defnton conssts of: 1. A launch ont, gven as GPS coordnates 2. A number of control zones 3. Otonally, an ndcaton whch of the control zones s the start 4. Otonally, a drecton for the fnal, oen dstance leg 5. A launch tme wndow 6. If a start control zone exsts: A start tme 7. A task deadlne 6.2 Defnton of control zones Control zones are geograhcal areas whch must be reached by the lots n the course of a task. The only control zone tye s the turnont cylnder. The three tyes of control zones are the turnont cylnder, the concal end of seed secton and the goal sem-crcle Defnton of a turnont cylnder A turnont cylnder s defned as: 2014 Edton, Revson

15 CIVL GAP Centralsed Cross-Country Cometton Scorng for Hang-Gldng and Paragldng 1. A centre ont c, gven as GPS coordnates 2. A radus r, gven n meters 3. An ndcaton whether the cylnder s an ext or an enter cylnder. Ths defnes whether the corresondng turnont s consdered reached by a lot when crossng the cylnder s boundary from ts nsde to the outsde, or from ts outsde to the nsde. A turnont cylnder s then gven as the cylnder wth radus r around the axs whch cuts the x/y lan orthogonally at the cylnder s centre ont c. For task evaluaton uroses, only the cylnder s rojecton n the x/y lan s consdered: a crcle of radus r around c. Note that for start cylnders (SSS, enter only makes sense f the followng turnont cylnder les wthn the SSS cylnder. Lkewse, an ext only makes sense f the frst turnont les outsde of the SSS cylnder. Currently, the start drecton cannot be set wthn FS. Instead the rogram automatcally scores accordng to ths logc Defnton of concal end of seed secton A concal end of seed secton s defned as: 1. A centre ont c, gven as GPS coordnates and alttude 2. An nclne, gven as a rato of alttude/dstance to the centre ont 3. A radus r, ndcatng the sze of the crcle resultng from the ntersecton between the cone and a horzontal lane at goal alttude A concal end of seed secton s gven as the cone resultng from an axs of nclnaton through the centre ont c, whch s equal to ont c, but has ts alttude lowered by r/ metres comared to c. The nclne s chosen for each task. The default value s 1:3.5. Values suggested for use are between 1:2.5 and 1:4. r Control zone c c' arctan( Fgure 2: Concal end of seed secton from the sde 6.3 Defnton of goal A goal can be 1. A cylnder (enter or ext, see above, or 2. A lne, defned by: a. A centre ont c, gven as GPS coordnates b. A length l, gven n meters 2014 Edton, Revson

16 CIVL GAP Centralsed Cross-Country Cometton Scorng for Hang-Gldng and Paragldng If CESS s used, goal must be ether a lne at the cone s centre ont, a cylnder at the cone s centre ont wth a radus smaller than radus r of the cone defnton, or be located at a ont that s dfferent from the cone s centre ont Goal lne A goal lne s defned as a band of x/y wdth l through the centre ont, whch s cut orthogonally by the x/y rojecton of the connectng lne between the centre of the last cylnder before goal wth a dfferent centre ont than goal, and the goal lne s centre ont. For task evaluaton uroses, only the band s rojecton n the x/y lan s consdered: a lne through the centre ont c whch s erendcular to the connectng lne between the centre of the last cylnder before goal wth a dfferent centre ont than goal (P, and the goal lne s centre ont c, and whch extends for l/2 nto both drectons from the centre ont. See Fgure 3. Goal lnes must be crossed n the drecton of flght when comng from the last cylnder before goal wth a dfferent centre ont than goal. The goal control zone conssts of the sem-crcle wth radus l/2 behnd the goal lne, when comng from the last turn ont that s dfferent from the goal lne centre. Enterng that zone wthout ror crossng of the goal lne s equvalent to crossng the goal lne. Physcal lnes can be used n addton to the offcal, vrtual goal lne as defned by GPS coordnates, to ncrease attractveness for sectators and meda, and to ncrease vsblty for lots. Physcal lnes must be at least 50m long and 1m wde, made of whte materal and securely attached to the ground. The hyscal lne must match as closely as ossble the corresondng vrtual lne as defned by the goal GPS coordnates and the drecton of the last task leg. It must not be lad out further from the revous turn ont than the goal GPS coordnates. By default, the goal lne length l s set to 400m Edton, Revson

17 CIVL GAP Centralsed Cross-Country Cometton Scorng for Hang-Gldng and Paragldng c P Fgure 3: Goal lne defnton 6.4 Start rocedures Start rocedures defne how an ndvdual lot s start tme s determned. A start can be ether ar- or ground-started, and t can be ether a race to goal or an elased tme start Ar start For ar-started tasks, the comettors are free to launch any tme durng the launch wndow, and to fly about, regardless of any turnont or start cylnders, u to ther race start. Race start s defned as the crossng of the start cylnder n the rescrbed drecton for the last tme before contnung to flyng through the remander of the task Ground start In a ground-started task, the race starts wth the lots launch. Snce a launch can be dffcult to detect from a GPS track, the task setters must set a cylnder around the launch area as the frst turnont. A lot s start s regstered when he exts ths cylnder for the frst tme. In the case of a race to goal task, the launch wndow oen tme s the same as the frst (or only start gate tme Race to goal A race to goal start s defned by one or more so-called start gates. The frst or only start gate s gven as a daytme. Subsequent start gates are gven as a tme nterval, along wth the number of start gates. Examle 1: We have a Race to Goal task, the start gate oens at 13: Edton, Revson

18 CIVL GAP Centralsed Cross-Country Cometton Scorng for Hang-Gldng and Paragldng Examle 2: We have a Race to Goal task wth 5 start gates from 13:30 at a 20 mnutes nterval. the start gate tmes n ths case are 13:30, 13:50, 14:10, 14:30, and Plots are free to start any tme after the frst (or sngle start gate. A lot s start tme s then defned as the tme of the last start gate after whch he started flyng the seed secton of the task. Examle 3: Gven the start gates from Examle 2 above, lot A, crossng the start cylnder at 13:49:01, wll be gven a start tme of 13:30. Any lot startng after 14:50 wll be gven a start tme of 14:50. Startng before the frst (or only start gate s consdered a faled start. Some refer to ths as jumng the gun. The two dsclnes handle faled starts dfferently, see secton Elased tme An elased tme start s defned by a sngle start gate, gven as a daytme. Plots are free to start any tme after ths start gate. A lot s start tme s then defned as the tme at whch he started flyng the seed secton of the task. Each lot has therefore an ndvdual start tme. Examle 1: We have an Elased Tme task, the start gate oens at 12:30 lot A startng at 12:31:03 has a start tme of 12:31:03, lot B startng at 15:48:28 has a start tme of 15:48: Dstances Task dstance Task dstance s defned as the ath of shortest dstance from the start ont to goal that touches all turnont cylnders. The method to calculate ths dstance s bured n FS code and wll be documented at a later tme. Currently, ths method mstreats the case where after ESS one or several turnonts have to be reached wth centres dfferent from ESS centre ont: The two legs to and from ESS are otmzed for dstance as well, whch can result n a longer last leg before ESS than what lots exerence n realty. As a result, lots can reach ESS wth a shorter flown dstance than what FS ndcates s the dstance requred to reach ESS. Ths only affects lots landng between ESS and goal, but does not reresent a dsadvantage to those lots. The seed secton dstance calculaton used for scorng (see below s not affected by ths Seed secton dstance Seed secton dstance s defned as the ath of shortest dstance from start of seed secton to end of seed secton that touches all turnont cylnders. The method to calculate ths dstance s the same as for task dstance Edton, Revson

19 CIVL GAP Centralsed Cross-Country Cometton Scorng for Hang-Gldng and Paragldng 7 Flyng a task 7.1 Race task Gven a task defnton, the lots task then conssts of launchng at the take-off ont wthn the launch tme wndow, reachng all gven control zones n the gven order and drecton (enter or ext, ncludng the start of seed secton cylnder at a tme ermtted by the start rocedure. A task s concluded by crossng the goal lne n the drecton from the last cylnder before goal wth a dfferent centre ont than goal towards goal. In the absence of a goal lne, the task concluson s acheved by reachng the fnal turnont cylnder. If a task deadlne s gven, flghts are only consdered u to that tme. 7.2 Oen dstance task In oen dstance tasks, the lot s task conssts of launchng from the take-off ont wthn the launch tme wndow, reachng all gven control zones n the gven order and drecton (enter or ext, ncludng, f one s defned, the start cylnder at or after the gven start tme, and then fly the maxmum dstance, ether along a gven drecton, or n a free drecton f none s gven, away from the last gven control zone. Flghts are consdered u to the task deadlne Edton, Revson

20 CIVL GAP Centralsed Cross-Country Cometton Scorng for Hang-Gldng and Paragldng 8 Task evaluaton From each lot s track, task evaluaton determnes the dstance ths lot flew along the task, and the tme ths lot took to fly the seed secton. 8.1 Reachng a control zone Reachng a turnont cylnder A cylnder s consdered reached by a lot f that lot s track log shows the lot crossng out of the cylnder n the case of an ext cylnder, or nto the cylnder n case of an enter cylnder, by contanng at least one track ont closer to the cylnder s centre than the cylnder radus (enter or further away from the cylnder s centre than the cylnder radus (ext. Durng task evaluaton, only the x/y coordnates are consdered, and a ont must le wthn (enter or outsde of (ext the crcle reresentng the turnont cylnder n the x/y lan. Ths s determned by measurng the dstance between a track ont and the turnont. Ths dstance must be greater (ext or smaller (enter than the cylnder s radus. To comensate for dfferent dstance calculatons and dfferent earth models n use by today s GPS devces (FAI shere vs. WGS84 ellsod, a 0.5% tolerance s used for ths calculaton. Ths had to be ntroduced so that a lot readng the dstance to the next cylnder centre from hs GPS devce can rely on havng reached the turnont when the dstance dslayed by the nstrument s smaller than the defned turnont cylnder radus. For enter cylnders, ths means that a tracklog ont that s closer to the turnont than r*1.005 s consdered roof of reachng the turnont. For ext cylnders, ths means that a tracklog ont that s further away from the turnont than r*0.995 s consdered roof of reachng the turnont. Startng January 1 st, 2015 rovded all dstance measurements are then based on the WGS84 ellsod (see 4.2 the tolerance for turnont cylnders n CIVL s FAI Category 1 events wll be reduced to 0.01% of the cylnder radus, wth a mnmum of 5 meter. Organsers of FAI Category 2 events may contnue usng the exstng 0.5% tolerance, to accommodate lots flyng wth nstruments whch calculate dstance based on the FAI shere. The tme when a control zone was reached s determned by the tme a so-called crossng occurred. A crossng s defned as a ar of consecutve track onts, of whch at least one les nsde the band determned by the turnont s centre, ts radus and the tolerance value. tolerance 0.5% 0.01% mntoleran ce 0 5m turnont turnont crossng : nnerradu s : outerradu s turnont dstance( center, trackont (dstance( center, trackont dstance( center, trackont mn( radus max( radus : j : (dstance( center, trackont j1 j j1 outerradu s nnerradu s outerradu s *(1 tolerance, radus *(1 tolerance, radus j nnerradu s mntoleran ce mntoleran ce The tme of a crossng deends on whether t actually cuts across the actual cylnder, or whether both onts le wthn the tolerance band, but on the same sde of the actual cylnder Edton, Revson

21 CIVL GAP Centralsed Cross-Country Cometton Scorng for Hang-Gldng and Paragldng (dstance( center, trackont radus dstance( center, trackont (dstance( center, trackont radus dstance( center, trackont turnont ESS : crossng. tme trackont j j j1. tme (dstance( center, trackont radus dstance( center, trackont (dstance( center, trackont radus dstance( center, trackont turnont ESS : crossng. tme trackont. tme (dstance( center, trackont radus (dstance( center, trackont radus crossng. tme nterolat etme( trackont j j j j j dstance( center, trackont, trackont j1 j1 dstance( center, trackont j1 j1 j1 radus j1 radus radus j1 radus radus j1 radus : The method used to nterolate the crossng tme s bured n FS code and wll have to be documented at a later ont. Fnally, gven all n crossngs for a turnont cylnder, sorted n ascendng order by ther crossng tme, the tme when the cylnder was reached s determned. turnont turnont SSS : reachngtme SSS : reachngtme crossng. tme crossng. tme n Reachng a concal end of seed secton A concal end of seed secton s consdered reached by a lot f that lot s track log contans at least one ont where the requred glde angle to the cone s centre ont s equal to or smaller than the cone s nclne. trackontj. alttude centercess. alttude crossng : j : nclne dstance( center, trackont trackontj 1. alttude centercess. alttude nclne dstance( center, trackont j 1 crossng. tme nterolat etme( trackont CESS CESS j 1 j, trackont Gven all n crossngs for a CESS, sorted n ascendng order by ther crossng tme, the tme when CESS was reached s determned. reachngt mecess crossng. tme 0 If goal s at the CESS centre ont, and a lot reaches goal wthout revously enterng the CESS, he s consdered havng reached CESS at the tme when he crossed the goal lne. j Edton, Revson

22 CIVL GAP Centralsed Cross-Country Cometton Scorng for Hang-Gldng and Paragldng 8.3 Reachng goal Goal cylnder Verfcaton of a lot reachng a goal cylnder s acheved by the same method as verfcaton of reachng a turnont cylnder ( Goal lne To reach goal n the case of a goal lne, the goal lne must be crossed n flght. Ths s acheved when a lne drawn between two adjacent onts n the lot s tracklog crosses the goal lne n the correct drecton. Enterng the goal control zone (sem-crcle behnd the goal lne, see from any drecton wthout ror crossng of the goal lne s equvalent to crossng the goal lne. If a hyscal lne s used, crossng ether the vrtual or the hyscal goal lne counts as havng reached goal. An offcal observaton (through a goal marshal or smlar of a lot crossng the lne n flght overrules a negatve goal crossng decson based on the lot s tracklog. Not crossng a hyscal goal lne for obvous safety reasons must be consdered n the lots favour. The hyscal goal lne s crossed when the hang glder s nose cuts the lne, n the correct drecton, before a landng s made. The hyscal goal lne s crossed when the araglder lot s leadng foot cuts the lne, n the correct drecton, before a landng s made. 8.4 Flown dstance Race task To determne a lot s flown dstance, a frst ste determnes whch turnonts he reached consderng all tmng restrctons: launch wthn launch tme wndow, vald start, but only untl the task deadlne tme. After the last turnont the lot reached, for every remanng track ont, the shortest dstance to goal s calculated usng the method descrbed n secton The flown dstance s then calculated as task dstance mnus the shortest dstance the lot stll had to fly. Therefore, for scorng, the lot s best dstance along the course lne s consdered, regardless of where the lot landed n the end. If a lot fles less than mnmum dstance, he wll be scored for ths mnmum dstance. Ths also ales to lots who are not able to roduce a vald GPS tracklog, but for whom launch offcals verfy launch wthn the launch wndow. If a lot reaches goal, he wll be scored for the task dstance. : PlotsLandngBeforeGoal : bestdstance taskdstance mn( track. ont shortestd stancetogo al( track. ont : PlotsReachngGoal : bestdstance max( mnmumdstance, taskdstance 2014 Edton, Revson

23 CIVL GAP Centralsed Cross-Country Cometton Scorng for Hang-Gldng and Paragldng Oen dstance task In an oen dstance task, f a lot lands before the last of any gven control zones, hs flown dstance s calculated accordng to For lots flyng further than the last control zone, the flown dstance s calculated by addng the lot s best dstance flown n the oen dstance art of the task (after the last control zone to task dstance between launch and the last control zone. If the task gave a drecton for the oen dstance leg, then the lot s best dstance rojected onto that drecton s consdered. 8.5 Tme for seed secton The tme a lot took to fly the seed secton s determned by hs start tme (whch s nfluenced by the task s start rocedure and the tme he crossed the start of seed secton cylnder and the tme when he crossed the end of seed secton after reachng all revous turn onts. The smallest unt for tme measurement s one second. Plots who do not reach the end of seed secton cylnder do not get a tme. : PlotsReachngESS : tme tmeatess starttme If AATB s used, lots receve a tme bonus for ther alttude above goal when crossng the ESS cylnder. The number of seconds they receve for each meter s exressed by the ATTB factor. By default, the ATTB factor s 0.45 s/m. Values suggested for use are between 0.2 s/m and 0.7 s/m. : PlotsReachngESS : arrvalalttudetmebonus tme tmeatess starttme ( crossng, ESS. alttude goal. alttude * ATTBfactor arrvalalttudetmebonus 2014 Edton, Revson

24 CIVL GAP Centralsed Cross-Country Cometton Scorng for Hang-Gldng and Paragldng 9 Task Valdty The task valdty s a value between 0 and 1 and measures how sutable a cometton task s to evaluate lots sklls. It s calculated for each task after the task has been flown, by multlyng the three valdty coeffcents: Launch valdty, dstance valdty, and tme valdty. TaskVald ty 9.1 Launch Valdty LaunchValdty*DstanceValdty*TmeValdty Launch valdty deends on nomnal launch and the ercentage of lots actually resent at take-off who launched. If the ercentage of lots on take-off who launch s equal to nomnal launch, or hgher, then launch valdty s 1. If, for examle, only 20% of the lots resent at take-off launch, launch valdty goes down to about 0.1. The reasonng behnd launch valdty: Launch condtons may be dangerous, or otherwse unfavourable. If a sgnfcant number of lots at launch thnk that the day s not worth the rsk of launchng, then the gung-ho lots who dd go wll not get so many onts. Ths s a safety mechansm. Plots resent are lots arrvng on take-off, wth ther gear, wth the ntenton of flyng. For scorng uroses, Plots resent are all lots not n the Absent status (ABS: Plots who took off, lus lots resent who dd not fly (DNF. DNFs need to be attrbuted carefully. A lot who does not launch due to llness, for nstance, s not a DNF, but an ABS. NumberOfPlotsFlyng LVR mn( 1, NumberOfPlotsPresent * NomnalLaunch LaunchValdty 0.027* LVR 2.917* LVR * LVR 3 Fgure 4: Launch valdty curve 9.2 Dstance Valdty Dstance valdty deends on nomnal dstance, nomnal goal, the longest dstance flown and the sum of all dstances flown beyond mnmum dstance. If the task dstance s qute short n relaton to nomnal dstance, the day s robably not a good measure of lot skll because there would not be many decsons to make Edton, Revson

25 CIVL GAP Centralsed Cross-Country Cometton Scorng for Hang-Gldng and Paragldng If a task s longer than nomnal dstance, the day wll not be devalued because of dstance valdty, even f the nomnal goal arameter value s not acheved, as long as a far ercentage of lots fly a good dstance. Ths sounds lke a vague statement, but the task setter should try to set tasks that are reasonable for the day and achevable. If everyone lands n goal, you must ask f ths was a vald test of skll - t robably was f the fastest tme and the dstance flown were reasonably long. If everyone lands short of goal, was t an unsutable task but stll a good test of lot skll? You also can have the case where a task that s shorter than nomnal dstance, has a dstance valdty of almost 1. Ths wll haen when a large ercentage of the lots fly a large ercentage of the course but, n ths case, you stll have a ractcal devaluaton because there wll be lttle sreadng between lots scores. In the formula below, denotes an ndvdual lot. SumOfFlownDstancesOverMnDst max( 0, FlownDst (( NomGoal 1 * ( NomDst MnDst max( 0, ( NomGoal* ( BestDst NomDstArea 2 SumOfFlownDstancesOverMnDst DVR NumPlotsFlyng * NomDstArea DstanceValdty mn( 1, DVR MnDst NomDst 9.3 Tme Valdty Tme valdty deends on the fastest tme to comlete the seed secton, n relaton to nomnal tme. If the fastest tme to comlete the seed secton s longer than nomnal tme, then tme valdty s always equal to 1. If the fastest tme s qute short, the day s robably not a good measure of lot skll because there would not be many decsons to make and, because of ths, luck can dstort scores as there wll be lttle ossblty to recover any accdental loss of tme. If no lot fnshes the seed secton, then tme valdty s not based on tme but on dstance: The dstance of the lot who fles the furthest n relaton to nomnal dstance s then used to calculate the tme valdty the same way as f t was the tme. BestTme If one lot reached ESS: TVR mn( 1, NomnalTm e BestDstan ce If no lot reached ESS: TVR mn(1, NomnalDs tance TmeVald ty max(0, mn(1, * TVR 2.098* TVR * TVR 2014 Edton, Revson

26 CIVL GAP Centralsed Cross-Country Cometton Scorng for Hang-Gldng and Paragldng Fgure 5: Tme valdty curve 2014 Edton, Revson

27 CIVL GAP Centralsed Cross-Country Cometton Scorng for Hang-Gldng and Paragldng 10 Ponts Allocaton The avalable onts for each task are 1000*Task Valdty. These onts are dstrbuted between dstance onts, tme onts, leadng onts and arrval onts. The dstrbuton deends on the ercentage of lots who reached goal before the task deadlne, comared to lots who launched, as well as the chosen goal form. It s exressed n terms of weght factors for each of the four ont categores: Dstance weght, tme weght, leadng weght and arrval weght. Weght factors are always between 0 and 1. A weght factor of 0.5 for dstance, for examle, means that 50% of the day s avalable overall onts are avalable for dstance onts. NumberOfPlotsInGoal GoalRato NumberOfPlotsFlyng DstanceWe ght * GoalRato 1.713* GoalRato 0.587* GoalRato 1 DstanceWe ght LeadngWe ght *1.4 8 ArrvalWe ght ArrvalWe ght 1 DstanceWe ght 8 0 TmeWeght 1 DstanceWeght LeadngWeght ArrvalWeght AvalableDstancePonts 1000* TaskValdty* DstanceWeght AvalableTmePonts 1000* TaskValdty* TmeWeght AvalableLeadngPonts 1000* TaskValdty* LeadngWeght AvalableArrvalPonts 1000* TaskValdty* ArrvalWeght Fgure 6: Ponts allocaton curves for hang gldng 2014 Edton, Revson

28 CIVL GAP Centralsed Cross-Country Cometton Scorng for Hang-Gldng and Paragldng Avalablel Ponts 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% DstanceWeght LeadngWeght TmeWeght 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Goal Rato Fgure 7: Ponts allocaton curves for aragldng From the above t follows that f nobody reaches ESS, then a maxmum of 900 onts are avalable for dstance and 18 onts for leadng but, of course, no onts for tme nor arrval. Ths s also the maxmum ossble number of onts for an oen dstance task. numberofplotsatess 0 : AvalableDstancePo nts 1000 * TaskValdty * DstanceWe ght AvalableTmePonts 0 AvalableLeadngPonts 1000 * TaskValdty * LeadngWe ght AvalableArrvalPonts 0 Max( AvalableDstancePo nts 900 Max( avalableleadngponts 18 Max( avalabletotalponts Edton, Revson

29 CIVL GAP Centralsed Cross-Country Cometton Scorng for Hang-Gldng and Paragldng 11 Plot score Each lot s score s the sum of that lot s dstance, tme, leadng and arrval onts, rounded to the nearest whole number, 0.5 beng rounded u. : PlotsLaunched : TotalScore ArrvalPonts DstancePonts TmePonts LeadngPonts 11.1 Dstance onts The dstance consdered for each lot to calculate dstance onts s that lot s best dstance along the course lne, u untl the lot landed or the task deadlne was reached, whchever comes frst. One half of the avalable dstance onts are assgned to each lot lnearly, based on the lot s dstance flown n relaton to the best dstance flown n the task. The other half s assgned takng nto consderaton the dffculty of the klometers flown. LnearFracton Dstance 2 * BestDstance Dst10 *( Dstance nt( Dstance DffcultyFracton *10 Dst10 *10 DffScore Dst10 (( DffScore Dst10 1 DffScore Dst10 DstancePo nts ( LnearFracton DffcultyFracton * AvalableDstancePonts In the case of a stoed task, a lot s dstance may be ncreased by an alttude bonus (see The avalable dstance onts are assgned to each lot lnearly, based on the lot s dstance flown n relaton to the best dstance flown n the task. DstancePo nts Dstance BestDstan ce * Dffculty calculaton AvalableDstancePo nts To measure the relatve dffculty of each 100 meters of the task, we consder the number of lots who landed n the successve few klometers, and the dstance flown. In a frst ste, for each 100 meter secton of the task, the number of lots who landed n that secton s counted. Plots who landed before mnmum dstance are counted as havng landed at mnmum dstance. Only lots who landed out are consdered for ths calculaton, lots who reached goal are not counted Edton, Revson

30 CIVL GAP Centralsed Cross-Country Cometton Scorng for Hang-Gldng and Paragldng : nt( MnDst *10 : PlotsLanded PlotsLanded nt( MnDst*10 0 Plot:nt( Plot. Dstance*10 nt( MnDst*10 : nt( MnDst *10 & nt( MaxDst *10 : PlotsLanded 1 q: qplotslandedout :nt( Dstance *10 1 q Then the dffculty for each 100 meter secton of the task s calculated by countng the number of lots who landed further along the task. If 100 lots land out on a flght of 100 km, the next 3 km are consdered. If 10 lots land out n 100 km, the next 30 km are consdered. The varable LookAheadDst contans the number of 100 meter slots to look ahead for ths. 30* BestDstan ceflown LookAheadDst max(30, round (,0 NumberOfPlotsLanded Out : nt( MaxDst *10 : Dffculty SumOfDffculty Dffculty jmn( LookAheadDst,nt( BestDstanceFlown *10 j PlotsLanded Relatve dffculty s then calculated by dvdng each 100 meter slot s dffculty by twce the sum of all dffculty values. Dffculty : nt( MaxDst *10 : RelatveDffculty 2* SumOfDffculty Fnally, we can calculate the dffculty score ercentage for each 100 meter slot. j : nt( MnDst *10 : DffScore jnt( MnDst*10 : nt( MnDst *10 & nt( BestDstan ceflown *10 : DffScore j0 : nt( BestDstan ceflown *10 : DfffScore RelatveDffculty 0.5 j j j0 RelatveDffculty j The dffculty calculaton does not aly to aragldng Examle for dffculty calculaton For an examle of how the dffculty calculaton works, see Fgure 8: Note how the sloe of the green curve (the total Dstance onts becomes steeer before an area where many lots landed and flatter just after. The red crcles show these areas before the bg grou at the 41 km mark, and after the 46 km mark. There are two reasons for ths: 1. For safety and retreval reasons, we do not want to encourage lots to fly only a short dstance ast a grou of landed lots. 2. If a lot lands somewhere, he or she robably got nto trouble just before, and then glded a whle before landng Edton, Revson

31 CIVL GAP Centralsed Cross-Country Cometton Scorng for Hang-Gldng and Paragldng Fgure 8: Samle Dstance Ponts 11.2 Tme onts Tme onts are assgned to the lot as a functon of best tme and lot tme the tme the lot took to comlete the seed secton. Slow lots wll get zero onts for seed f ther tme to comlete the seed secton s equal to or longer than the fastest tme lus the square root of the fastest tme. All tmes are measured n hours. SeedFracton TmePonts Examles max( 0,1 SeedFracton 3 ( Tme BestTme BestTme * AvalableTmePonts For three examles of Tme Pont dstrbutons for tasks wth dfferent best tmes, see Fgure 9 and Table Edton, Revson

32 CIVL GAP Centralsed Cross-Country Cometton Scorng for Hang-Gldng and Paragldng Fgure 9: Samle tme ont dstrbutons Fastest Tme 80% Tme Ponts tme 50% Tme Ponts tme 0 Tme Ponts tme 1:00 1:05 1:21 2:00 2:00 2:08 2:30 3:24 (3.4 hours 3:00 3:09 3: (4.7 hours Table 1: Samle tme ont dstrbuton (all tmes n hours:mnutes 11.3 Leadng onts Leadng onts are awarded to encourage lots to start early and to reward the rsk nvolved n flyng n the leadng grou. Plots wll get leadng onts even f they landed before goal or the end of seed secton. LC mn mn( : PlotsFlown : LC LeadngFactor LeadngPonts max(0,1 ( LC LeadngFactor 3 LC LC mn mn 2 * AvalableLeadngPonts To get an mresson of the way leadng onts are awarded deendng on a task s mnmal leadng coeffcent, see Fgure Edton, Revson

33 CIVL GAP Centralsed Cross-Country Cometton Scorng for Hang-Gldng and Paragldng Fgure 10: Leadng onts for varous LC mn Leadng coeffcent Each started lot s track log s used to calculate the leadng coeffcent (LC, by calculatng the area underneath a grah defned by each track ont s tme, and the dstance to ESS at that tme. The tmes used for ths calculaton are gven n seconds from the moment when the frst lot crossed SSS, to the tme when the last lot reached ESS. For lots who land out after the last lot reached ESS, the calculaton kees gong untl they land. The dstances used for the LC calculaton are gven n klometers and are the dstance from each ont s oston to ESS, startng from SSS, but never more than any revously reached dstance. Ths means that the grah never goes back : even f the lot fles away from goal for a whle, the corresondng onts n the grah wll use the revously reached best dstance towards ESS. In hang gldng, the orgnal formula for the leadng coeffcent s used, whch s based on the lot s remanng dstance to ESS. LC : PlotsLandedOut tasktme( t LC : PlotsLandedOut tasktme( t LC tasktme( t mn( TaskDeadlne, tme( t bestdstto ESS( t : 0 t : ttrackpont sinss LC LC tasktme( t *(bestdstt oess( t LastTme tasktme( t * LengthOfSeedSecton max * bestdstto ESS( t * bestdstto ESS( t LengthOfSeedSecton bestdstto ESS( t mn(bestd sttoess( t LastPlotAtESS TrackPontsInSS : max max ESSTme ESSTme 1 bestdstto ESS( t, LenghtOfSeedSecton dstanceflown( t 2014 Edton, Revson max max LastPlotAtESS LastPlotAtESS Paragldng uses a slghtly modfed formula for the leadng coeffcent, where the lot s remanng dstance to ESS s squared. Ths results more leadng onts for lots who fly out front early n the task, comared to the orgnal formula. : :

34 LC bestdsttoess( t : 0 t bestdsttoess( t CIVL GAP Centralsed Cross-Country Cometton Scorng for Hang-Gldng and Paragldng : t TrackPont sinss tasktme( t : PlotsLandedOut tasktme( t LC : PlotsLandedOut tasktme( t LC LC LC LastTme tasktme( t *(bestdsttoess( t 1800 * LengthOfSeedSecton * bestdsttoess( t * bestdsttoess( t tasktme( t mn( TaskDeadlne, tme( t 0 LastPlotAtESS max LengthOfSeedSecton TrackPontsInSS mn(bestdsttoess( t : max max ESSTme ESSTme 1 1 max max 2 2 bestdsttoess( t 2 LastPlotAtESS 2 LastPlotAtESS : :, LenghtOfSeedSecton dstanceflown( t In tasks where CESS s used, the CESS s centre ont s consdered the last ont of the seed secton. For LC calculatons, any lot crossng nto the CESS s cone s mmedately awarded the remanng dstance to the cone s centre Examle 2 Fgure 11: Samle track log grahs for LC calculaton Blue was the frst to enter the seed secton, but Black was the frst lot to cross the end of seed secton. Green started at the same tme as Blue, but landed short, after about 23km and just over 40 mnutes of flght nsde the seed secton. Black was fastest, therefore wll get the most tme onts, but he started late, robably had lots out front to show the way durng the frst 22km, but was leadng after that Edton, Revson

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