Animals of the Benthic Environment II

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1 Animals of the Benthic Environment II Anticipation Guide Name: Section: 1. he shallow offshore ocean floor extends from the spring low tide shoreline to the seaward edge of the continental shelf. 2. he diversity of benthic organisms is higher beneath upwelling regions. his is because upwelling waters that are rich in nutrients produce high pelagic production, so large amounts of dead organic matter are produced. 3. A rocky bottom within the shallow inner subtidal zone is usually covered with various types of marine macro algae. 4. Kelp attaches itself to slow-moving organisms as deep as 30 meters and is usually found over rocky bottoms. 5. A bed of kelp (fast growing variety) is called a kelp meadow. 6. he genus Panulirus includes the Caribbean lobster. 7. he American (Maine) lobster s species is Homarus americanus. 8. Kelp is attached to the ground by an appendage called a holdfast. 9. he largest Maine lobster caught was 0.75m long. 10. Oysters are thick-shelled sessile bivalve mollusks. 11. Each female oyster produces thousands of eggs. 12. Individual corals are called polyps. small benthic organisms. 13. A coral reef is an individual animal. 14. Corals are not sensitive to temperature, living in any water above 18 C. 15. Coral reefs can live above 35 latitude. 16. here is no such thing as a deep-water coral. 17. Corals need little sunlight to grow. 18. Corals will die if the water becomes too fresh. 19. he algae that lives in a mutalistic relationship is called zooxanthellae that lives within the polyp 20. Coral reef actually contain up to 6 times as much algal biomass as animal biomass.

2 21. On many large coral reefs there is a well-developed vertical and horizontal zonation of the reef slope. 22. Australia's Great Barrier Reed is more than 2000km long. 23. Many tropical countries receive more than 50% of their gross national produce as tourism related to reefs. 24. Bioerosion is the erosion of living things. 25. he crown of thorns is a necessary part of a coral reef biome. 26. All coral reefs are increasing their biomass. 27. he speed of deep water currents can be increased during an abyssal storm. 28. Only 1 3 % of the food produced in the euphotic (or sunlit) zone makes it to the deep-ocean floor. 29. Large fish and mammals are never food for deep water benthic organisms. 30. Many of the organisms that inhabit the deep sea have special adaptations to help them detect food using chemical clues. 31. he first time a hydrothermal vent was visited was in Black smokers are primarily composed of sulfides of copper, zinc, and silver. 33. Archea are primitive single-celled organisms that resemble bacteria. 34. here is an idea called the dead whale hypothesis. 35. Mussels found at hydrothermal vents are edible. 36. At a hypersaline seep biocommunity the ocean water has a salinity of 46.2%. 37. In 1984 dense biological communities associated with oil and gas seeps on the Gulf of Mexico continental slope which are biocommunities (biomes) that get their energy from hydrogen sulfide. 38. he deep biosphere is a biome that exists deep in our ocean. 39. Hydrothermal vent communities occur near black smokers and rely on chemosynthetic Archea for food. 40. he Earth s deep biosphere is an active area of ocean research.

3 Short Answer 1. Explain the connection between kelp forests and sea urchins. 2. What is meant by the term urchin barren? 3. Compare the Spiny Lobster to the American Lobster. 4. Complete the diagram. What does kelp provide to an ecosystem?

4 5. Describe an oyster bed. 6. What is the difference between a polyp and a coral reefs. 7. Using the diagram, how does an oyster-drill snail. 8. How are Coral Reefs rely on water temperature? Does this affect where they can live? 9. What are deep water corals?

5 10. (a) What is coral bleaching? (b) How do El Nino events affect coral reefs? (c) What diseases can affect coral reefs? 11. What five conditions, fully explained each, are required for coral growth?

6 12. What does the vocabulary word hermatypic mean with respect to mutualism? (Define mutalism from an earlier exercise). 13. What is a mixotroph? 14. Zonation means a difference in the conditions as you get deeper ion our ocean. How do conditions on a coral reef change as you get deeper? 15. What is the importance of coral reefs?

7 17. How did the attempts to smash crown-of-thorn sea stars up fair in Australia? Explain in detail the problem / success. 18. How long would a whale s remains last on the sea floor? How did they find this out? 19. What is a hydrothermal vent community? 20. What is the dead-whale hypothesis? 21. Describe the deep biosphere. What do we know about it?

8 m m m Oceans 11 Marine Biome 12/1/2014

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