# THE FLIGHT COMPUTER AND NAVIGATION PLOTTER

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1 AND NAVIGATION PLOTTER GOAL: HOW TO USE A MANUAL E6B FOR FLIGHT PLANNING AND ENROUTE NAVIGATION. COMPUTING SIDE OF E6B Distance, Speed, and Time Enroute Fuel Consumption and Duration Computation of True Airspeed using Temperature and Altitude Determination of Density Altitude True Altitude Calculation & Interpellation techniques for interpreting temp/alt data WIND SIDE OF E6B Determination of Wind Correction Angle, and True Heading Determination of Ground Speed, Variation and Magnetic Heading Use of Deviation to determine Compass Heading NAVIGATION PLOTTER Plotting and determining True Course Distances MANY EXERCISES ALONG THE WAY..

2

3 SPEED, DISTANCE, TIME, FUEL No complex formulas LEGENDS ON E6B Speed, Distance Time A B C OR Gallon per hour, Fuel Burned Time A B C THIS WILL BECOME LESS COMPLEX AS WE DO PRACTICE EXERCISE

4 DISTANCE DISTANCE (Scale A, above the time) = 1. Speed (Scale A-speed index) * 2. Time (Scale B) Speed 1 Time (below) 2 Distance here Use either Minutes (B) or Hours (C) SPEED 120 TIME 120 MINUTES DISTANCE = 240 MILES CAUTION: SCALABILITY (12 can be 12, 120, 1200) APPLY COMMON SENSE

5 DISTANCE PRACTICE Problem 1. Speed 2. Time Distance (A) 120 minutes (B) 240 SM or NM: What & Where HOW TO CONVERT #1 240 SM = 208 NM *ALWAYS use KTS not MPH, and NM not SM

6 DISTANCE PRACTICE Problem 1. Speed 2. Time Distance MPH 1 HR 20 Minutes 140 SM

7 DISTANCE PRACTICE Problem 1. Speed 2. Time Distance 3 90 MPH 300 Minutes 450

8 DISTANCE PRACTICE Problem 1. Speed 2. Time Distance MPH 2 HRS 15 MIN 338

9 DISTANCE PRACTICE Problem 1. Speed 2. Time Distance MPH 2 HRS 05 MIN 521

10 DISTANCE PRACTICE Problem 1. Speed 2. Time Distance MPH 15 MIN

11 DISTANCE PRACTICE Problem 1. Speed 2. Time Distance MPH 4 HRS 04 MIN 500

12 DISTANCE PRACTICE Problem 1. Speed 2. Time Distance MPH 13 MIN 35

13 SPEED SPEED (Scale A, above the speed index) = 1. Distance (Scale A-put over time) * 2. Time (Scale B) Speed here 1 Distance Time (below) 2 Use either Minutes (B) or Hours (C) DISTANCE 240 TIME 120 MINUTES SPEED = 120 MILES where time is 10 minutes or greater

14 SPEED Problem Distance Time SPEED SM (A) 2 HRS 00 MINS (B=120 & C) 120

15 SPEED Problem Distance Time SPEED SM 15 MIN 100

16 SPEED Problem Distance Time SPEED SM 1 HR 10 MIN 116

17 SPEED Problem Distance Time SPEED SM 3 HR 20 MIN 120

18 SPEED Problem Distance Time SPEED SM 12 MIN 175

19 SPEED Problem Distance Time SPEED SM 1 HR 30 MIN 50

20 SPEED Problem Distance Time SPEED SM 12 MIN 75

21 SPEED Problem Distance Time SPEED SM 3 HR 00 MIN 125

22 SPEED Speed (A-speed index) = Distance (A) / Time (B) (underneath the distance) where time is <10 minutes We treat the B scale as seconds and the C scale as Minutes. Instead of using the Speed Index we use a special point on the B scale found at 36 (SEC.) Example: Fly 1 mile in 45 seconds. Set 1 (A scale) over 45 ( B scale) and locate the SEC points (36 on B scale). Groundspeed above is 80 on the A scale. Practice mile in 120 seconds (or 2:00 Minutes) = miles in 45 seconds = miles in 2 minutes 30 seconds = mile in 8 seconds = miles in 4 minutes and 30 seconds =

23 Quick mental math on Airspeed Are we there yet? How long? If the groundspeed is 150 knots, multiply the distance by four and drop the last zero: 20 miles*4 = 80. It will take eight minutes at 150. For 60, multiply the miles by 1 since your are traveling at 1 mile per minute. For 90, divide miles by 1.5 since you are going 1.5 miles each minute. For 100, multiply by six for 120, minus the zero for 12 minutes. For 120, divide by two since you are traveling at 2 miles per minute. For 150, divide by 2.5 since you are traveling at 2.5 miles per minute. For 180, just divide by three since you are traveling at 3 miles per minute. Etc, etc, etc.

24 TIME TIME (Scale B or C, below Distance) = 1. Speed (Scale A) 2. Distance (Scale A) SPEED Speed Use either Minutes (B) or Hours (C) Time here 2 Distance DISTANCE = 240 TIME = 120 MIN or 2:00 HRS

25 Time (B-minutes/C-hours & minutes) = Distance (A) / Speed (A-index) THE FLIGHT COMPUTER TIME Problem SPEED Distance TIME HR 00 MIN

26 TIME Problem SPEED Distance TIME :17

27 TIME Problem SPEED Distance TIME :30

28 TIME Problem SPEED Distance TIME :57:47

29 TIME Problem SPEED Distance TIME :33

30 TIME Problem SPEED Distance TIME :00

31 TIME Problem SPEED Distance TIME :00

32 TIME Problem SPEED Distance TIME :10:00

33 FUEL CONSUMPTION AND RATE RATE OF CONSUMPTION (WORK LIKE SPEED) TOTAL GALLONS (WORK LIKE DISTANCE) G.P.H. 5 FUEL BURNED 10 TIME 120 MINUTES TIME 120 MINUTES FUEL BURNED = 10 GALLONS RATE = 5 G.P.H.

34 FUEL Problem 1. GPH 2. TIME FUEL CONSUMPTION 29 5 (A) 120 minutes (B) (A)= 10 GALLONS

35 FUEL Problem 1. GPH 2. TIME FUEL CONSUMPTION GPH 1 HR 20 Minutes 11.3 G

36 FUEL Problem 1. GPH 2. TIME FUEL CONSUMPTION GPH 300 Minutes G

37 FUEL Problem 1. GPH 2. TIME FUEL CONSUMPTION GPH 2 HRS 15 MIN 30.4 G

38 FUEL CONSUMPTION RATE Problem 1. GALLONS 2. TIME RATE OF CONSUMPTION (A) G 120 minutes (B) (A)= 5 GPH

39 FUEL Problem 1. GALLONS 2. TIME RATE OF CONSUMPTION G 1 HR 20 Minutes 9 GPH

40 FUEL Problem 1. GALLONS 2. TIME RATE OF CONSUMPTION G 300 Minutes 7 GPH

41 FUEL Problem 1. GALLONS 2. TIME RATE OF CONSUMPTION G 2 HRS 15 MIN 6 GPH

42 V speeds THE FLIGHT COMPUTER AIRSPEED WHAT YOU SEE (INDICATED AIRSPEED) IS NOT EXACTLY TRUE KCAS (Knots Calibrated AS) KIAS (Knots Indicated AS) V NE V NO V A 2300 lbs V FE TRUE AIRSPEED (TAS) - Calibrated airspeed must be corrected for altitude and the outside air temperature. (temperature & pressure impact airspeed indicator) TAS IS HOW FAST YOU ARE MOVING THRU THE AIR NOT HOW FAST YOU ARE MOVING OVER THE GROUND (need wind info for GS)

43 TRUE AIRSPEED (TAS) POSITION THE TEMPERATURE OVER THE ALTITUDE PRESSURE WINDOW Temperature Celsius Above Density Altitude Altitude below CAS TAS FIND CALIBRATED AIRSPEED ON B, THE TAS IS JUST ABOVE

44 TRUE AIRSPEED (TAS) Problem ALT TEMP C CAS TAS Density Alt. 37 5,

45 TRUE AIRSPEED (TAS) Problem ALT TEMP C CAS TAS Density Alt. 38 3,

46 TRUE AIRSPEED (TAS) Problem ALT TEMP C CAS TAS Density Alt. 39 8,

47 TRUE AIRSPEED (TAS) Problem ALT TEMP C CAS TAS Density Alt ,

48 TRUE ALTITUDE TRUE ALTITUDE : Indicated altitude corrected for temperature & altitude. 4. T Alt 3. P Alt 1.Temp 2.Ind. Alt 1. Adjust wheel so that indicated altitude is under the outside air temperature (C) 2. Find pressure altitude on the B scale and read the TRUE ALTITUDE above on the A scale. [GET PRESSURE ALTITUDE BY ADJUSTING THE KOLLSMAN WINDOW TO READ 29.92] Problem P Alt TEMP C TRUE ALTITUDE 41 5,

49 TRUE ALTITUDE Problem P Alt TEMP C TRUE ALTITUDE 43 8,

50 TRUE ALTITUDE Problem P Alt TEMP C TRUE ALTITUDE 44 12,

51 INTERPOLATION FOR WINDS ALOFT VFR HEADING FLY odd above 3000 AGL You tell me DIFFERENCE WINDS 3000 INCRMENTS >.50> INTERPOLATE difference Step Difference Direction =20 Velocity 45-15=30 Temperature 12-2=10 Step 2 Cruise Difference Direction.5 x20=10 Velocity.5 x30=15 Temperature.5 x10= VFR HEADING FLY even above 3000 AGL.17> 3000 Step 3 Add Cruise Difference Direction =190 Velocity 15+15= 30 Temperature 12-5=

52 MULTI-PART COMPUTATIONS HOW MUCH FUEL IS BURNED IN EACH OF THE FOLLOWING? (Assumption: IAS and CAS are the same for the below problems). FIND THE TIME AND THEN APPLY TO THE RATE OF FUEL CONSUMED. WIND = 0, GROUND SPEED = 129 MPH, DISTANCE = 320 SM FUEL CONSUMPTION RATE = 9 GPH (Get Time & Gals) ALTITUDE = 7,500, INDICATED AIRSPEED = 105 MPH, TEMPERATURE = + 15C DISTANCE = 256 SM, FUEL CONSUMPTION RATE = 11.5 GPH (Get TAS, Time, Gals) ALTITUDE=7,500, IAS=115, TEMPERATURE=-10C, DISTANCE=335, FUEL CONSUMPTION RATE=8.5 GPH (Get TAS, Time, Gals) GROUNDSPEED=135, WIND=0, TEMPERATURE=-20C, ALTITUDE=9,000, DISTANCE=425, FULE CONSUMPTION RATE = 12 GPH (Get Time and Gals) TIME 2: GALS TAS 121 TIME 2: GALS TAS 127 TIME 2: GALS TIME 3: GALS

53 WIND SIDE

54 WIND SIDE Use wind side to determine / GS resulting from winds aloft Uncorrected flight path

55 DETERMINING WIND CORRECTION & GROUND SPEED WIND 360 VELOCITY = 10 TRUE COURSE = 240 TAS = Set Wind direction Set TC Mark above Wind speed(10) 6-Grommet = GS (110) 2-Grommet to any speed line 5-Slide card so mark Is on TAS (105) 7-WCA (right=+) = +5

56 PRACTICE WIND CORRECTION & GROUND SPEED TRY THIS TC = 310 TAS = 120 WIND = 16 WCA (Wind Correction Angle) TRUE HEADING (TC+/-WCA)? GROUND SPEED?

57 PRACTICE WIND CORRECTION & GROUND SPEED TC=178 TAS= WCA (Wind Correction Angle) TRUE HEADING (TC+/-WCA)? GROUND SPEED?

58 PRACTICE WIND CORRECTION & GROUND SPEED TC=050 TAS=155 MPH 135 KTS 18 KTS WCA (Wind Correction Angle) TRUE HEADING (TC+/-WCA)? GROUND SPEED (KTS)? KTS

59 PRACTICE WIND CORRECTION & GROUND SPEED TC=270 TAS=130 KTS 18 KTS WCA (Wind Correction Angle) TRUE HEADING (TC+/-WCA)? GROUND SPEED? KTS

61 NAVIGATION PROBLEMS You only need 2 more pieces of the puzzle to plot and compute full navigation problems (Deviation and Variation) WHAT AND WHERE DO YOU FIND DEVIATION? Corrections for instrument errors printed (a) in the POH & (b) on the Magnetic Compass N6585J Deviation WHAT IS AND WHERE DO YOU FIND VARIATION? Variation between TRUE and MAGNETIC North located on Sectional Charts as dashed vertical lines (E & W) ADD (+) if W SUB (-) if E

62 NAVIGATION PROBLEMS PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER. IT S ON YOUR E6B TAS, you must know the Winds Aloft, outside air temperature and velocity at altitude WCA is the offset to the TC due to the winds aloft GS is the correction of TAS for the winds aloft TH is the TC correction of WCA (TH = TC +/- WCA) MH is the TH correction of Variation (MH = TH +/- VAR) CH is the MH correction of Deviation (CH = MH +/- DEV)

63 PRACTICE WIND CORRECTION & GROUND SPEED TC=095 IAS=111 KTS TEMPERATURE = +25 C ALTITUDE = 7, KTS TAS WCA (Wind Correction Angle) TRUE HEADING (TC+/-WCA)? GROUND SPEED (KTS)? 130 KTS KTS

64 NAVIGATION PROBLEMS Flight from Vandenberg to Venice FL, TRUE COURSE (TC)=197 WINDS ALOFT = 25 KTS, TEMPERATURE ALOFT +10C IAS = 115 = CAS ALTITUDE 4,500 DISTANCE = 38 SM TAS GS WCA TH (TC +/- WCA) VARIATION 4W MH (TH+/- VARIATION) DEVIATION = CH (MH +/- DEV) =

65 NAVIGATION PROBLEMS SAME FLIGHT DIFFERENT DAY CAS 115, CRUISING 4500 WIND 25, TEMP = +20 C TC= 197 RETURN FLIGHT WIND 25, TEMP = +20 C TAS _127_ TC= 017 GS _102_ WCA TH _+1 198_ VAR +5 MH _203_ DEV CH _ _ TAS GS WCA TH _ _ VAR +5 MH _021_ DEV CH _ _

66 THE NAVIGATION PLOTTER 1. Use as straight edge to draw course line between airports/navaids 2. Measure DISTANCE 3. Determine TRUE COURSE Grommet C A U T I O N USE THE CORRECT SIDE (SECTIONAL) USE APPROPRIATE UNITS OF DISTANCE (NM) USE PENCIL NOT PEN UNLESS YOUR ABSOLUTELY SURE

67 NAVIGATION PLOTTER PRACTICE PRACTICE EXERCISE 1 DRAW COURSE LINE AND RECORD DISTANCE (NM) BETWEEN LEG 1. Tampa Executive to Sebring Airport. LEG 2. Sebring Airport to Wachula Airport LEG 3. Wachula Airport to Tampa Executive Airport

68 PRACTICE EXERCISE 2 NAVIGATION PLOTTER PRACTICE Mark and measure Checkpoints for each leg. It is a visual marker of your choice to assist you to recognize if you are on course. It should be a point easy to recognize. Give careful consideration if night checkpoints will differ at night. 1. Mark your CHECKPOINTS for each let of the flight. 2. Record the distances on each leg of the flight. True Courses discussed next class.

69 Next Session Cross Country Planning & Navigation Study for exam on use of E6B and PN-1. Read Chapters 9,Section A and 5, Section A. BRING A SECTION CHART, E6B, AND PN-1 TO THE NEXT CLASS. Also, in the Jewel folder for the Cross Country-COMM Section 05, Print 2 NAVLOGPlan.pdf sheets for our exercises in class. That s All Folks

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