1. You may request a contact approach if there is 1 SM flight visibility and you can operate clear of clouds to the destination airport.

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1 HOLDING AND INSTRUMENT APPROACHES CONTACT AND VISUAL APPROACHES 1. You may request a contact approach if there is 1 SM flight visibility and you can operate clear of clouds to the destination airport. a. A contact approach is an alternative to a standard instrument approach procedure (SlAP). b. ATC will assign a contact approach only upon request if the reported visibility is at least 1 mile. 2. ATC may assign a visual approach to an airport or authorize you to follow other airplanes for a landing if the approach can be accomplished in VFR. a. You must have the airport or the preceding aircraft in sight. b. Visual approaches can be assigned by ATC; contact approaches cannot. c. On visual approaches, radar service is automatically terminated when the aircraft is instructed to contact the tower. LDA AND SDF APPROACHES 1. LDA (localizer-type directional aid) is as useful and accurate as a localizer (30 to 6 course width). a. The LDA is very similar to an instrument landing system (ILS), but it usually does not have a glide slope (i.e., it has only a localizer) and is not aligned with the runway. 2. SDF (simplified directional facility) has a course width of either 6 or 12. a. SDF approaches mayor may not be aligned with a runway (and their courses are wider). SDF does not have a glide slope. PRECISION RUNWAY MONITOR (PRM) 1. Precision Runway Monitoring (PRM) is a RADAR system that has a high update rate and is able to monitor approaches to closely-spaced parallel runways. 2. Simultaneous close parallel ILS Precision Runway Monitor (PRM) approaches are authorized for use at airports that have parallel runways separated by at least 3,400 ft. and no more than 4,300 ft. They are approved for airports with parallel runways separated by at least 3,000 ft. with an offset localizer (LOC) where the offset angle is at least 2.5 but no more than 3. Two aircraft can make simultaneous ILS approaches next to each other. a. Approval for ILS PRM approaches requires the airport to have a precision runway monitoring system and a final monitor controller who can only communicate with aircraft on the final approach course. The controller is equipped with a monitoring

2 system that tracks the aircraft performance on the final approach segment of the approach. Additionally, two tower frequencies are required to be used, and the controller broadcasts over both frequencies to reduce the chance of instructions being missed. b. Pilot training is required for pilots using the PRM system. This training is available for FAR Parts 121 and 135 and general aviation pilots at training/prm/. RUNWAY VISUAL RANGE (RVR) 1. RVR is an instrumentally derived value that represents the horizontal distance the pilot can see down the runway from the approach end. a. It is based on the measurement of a transmissometer near the touchdown point of the instrument runway and is reported in hundreds of feet. 2. If RVR is inoperative and cannot be reported, convert the RVR minimum to ground visibility, and use that as the visibility minimum for takeoffs and landings. a. Legend chart of RVR/visibility comparable values. 3. The normal lls visibility minimum is 1/2 SM, which is 2400 RVR. MISSED APPROACHES 1. When executing a missed approach prior to the missed approach point (MAP), continue the approach to the MAP at or above the minimum descent altitude (MDA) or decision height (DH) before executing any turns. 2. If you lose visual reference in a circle to land from an instrument approach, you should make a climbing turn toward your landing runway to become established on the missed approach course. ILS SPECIFICATIONS 1. The ILS missed approach should be executed upon arrival at the DH on the glide slope if the visual reference requirements are not met. 2. The normal decision height for a Category IlLS is 200 ft. AGL.

3 3. The amount of deflection and distance from the localizer and the glide slope for an ILS is presented as Figure 139 below. a. A series of questions asks how far you are from the localizer or glide slope centerlines given certain types of deflection on your glide slope indicator. These questions require interpreting Figure The direction of deflection of the localizer and glide slope bar shows where the actual course is located. You should "fly to the needles" or "fly the crosshair" to maintain a perfect course. a. When the localizer bar is left of center and the glide slope bar is below center, you are right of the localizer course and above the glide slope course. To correct your course, "fly to the needles." Make a left correction to intercept the localizer centerline and descend to intercept the glide slope centerline. b. For each combination of localizer and glide slope deflection, use similar corrective actions.

4 5. Compass locators, when used for the outer marker (OM) of an ILS, transmit two-letter identification groups. a. The outer compass locator (LOM) transmits the first two letters of the localizer identification group. b. The middle compass locator (LMM) transmits the last two letters of the localizer identification group. c. If the OM and/or MM are not compass locators, there is no two-letter identification transmission. 6. If DME is available on an ILS or localizer approach, the DME/TACAN channel will be indicated in the localizer frequency box on the instrument approach chart. 7. Parallel (dependent) ILS approaches provide aircraft a minimum of 1.5-mi. radar separation diagonally between successive aircraft on the adjacent localizer course. 8. The legend below contains the ILS standard characteristics and terminology.

5 UNUSABLE ILS COMPONENTS 1. ILS components include a. Localizer b. Glide slope c. Outer marker d. Approach lights 2. If more than one component is unusable, each minimum is raised to the highest minimum required by any single component that is inoperative. 3. A compass locator or precision approach radar (PAR) may be substituted for an inoperative OM or MM. a. An inoperative MM does not change the landing minimums; thus, no substitution is necessary. 4. When installed with the ILS and specified in the approach procedure, DME may be used in lieu of the OM. 5. When the glide slope fails, the ILS reverts to a nonprecision localizer (LOC) approach. a. The LOC MDA and visibility minimums will be used. 6. If you are on the glide slope when the ILS fails and a VASI is in sight, you should continue the approach using the VASI and report the malfunction to ATC. FLYING THE APPROACH 1. Rate of descent on the glide slope is dependent on the airplane groundspeed because the descent must be constant relative to the distance traveled over the ground. a. As groundspeed increases, the descent rate must increase. b. As groundspeed decreases, the descent rate must decrease. 2. The approach should be under the stabilized approach concept. Operational experience and research have shown that a descent rate of more than approximately 1,000 feet per minute (fpm) is unacceptable during the final stages of an approach. 3. If the airspeed is too fast and the glide slope and localizer are centered, you should initially reduce power. 4. When you are being vectored for an ILS approach and are about to fly through the localizer, you should maintain your last assigned heading and question ATC rather than deviate from a clearance.

6 5. If a wind shear changes from a headwind to a tailwind, the airspeed drops, the nose pitches down, and the vertical speed increases. You must initially increase power to resume normal approach speed. a. Then power must be reduced as airspeed stabilizes so you can maintain the glide slope due to the increased groundspeed. b. The tendency is to go below the glide slope. 6. If a wind shear changes from a tailwind to a headwind (or even to calm), you must decrease your power initially and then increase it once you are through the shear to maintain the glide slope. a. The tendency is to go above the glide slope. 7. In tracking the localizer, you should have your drift correction established to maintain the localizer centerline before reaching the outer marker. a. Then completion of the approach should be accomplished with heading corrections no greater than The pilot must maintain a stabilized approach. a. A stabilized approach ensures safe operations and is recommended for all aircraft. b. The aircraft must be in an approved configuration for landing or circling. 1) For turbojets, the engines should be spooled up. 2) The airspeed should be correct for the approach. 3) The flight path with a descent rate of less than 1,000 feet above the airport or TDZE. 4) For a straight-in approach in IFR weather conditions, the approach should be stabilized before the FAF and before descending below 1,000 feet AGL. 5) The descent rate should be less than 1,000 fpm before descending below the following minimum stabilized approach heights. a) For a visual approach or straight-in instrument approach in VFR weather conditions, the approach must be stabilized before descending below 500 feet above the airport elevation. b) For the final segment of a circling approach maneuver, the approach must be stabilized 500 feet above the airport elevation or at the MDA, whichever is lower. 6) Once on a stabilized approach and below 500 feet AGL, the bank angle should be less than 15.

7 SIDE STEP APPROACHES 1. A side-step approach is an instrument approach to one runway until you can see a parallel runway and "side step" to land on the parallel runway. 2. A side-step approach is used when a pilot (a) executes an approach procedure serving one of two or more parallel runways that are separated by 1,200 ft. or less and then (b) diverts to the other parallel runway using a straight-in approach. 3. Execute a side-step procedure as soon as possible after the runway environment is in sight. HOLDING 1. A holding procedure is a predetermined maneuver that keeps aircraft within a specified airspace while awaiting further clearance from ATC. 2. Holding patterns are racetrack-shaped patterns based on a fix that is a radio navigation facility (VOR or other NAVAIO); an intersection of NAVAIO bearings, radials, or a OME fix; or a waypoint (GPS or other RNAV equipment). 3. Holding patterns consist of the following components (note that the fix is always at the end of the inbound leg): a. A standard pattern means the turns in the holding pattern are to the right. b. A nonstandard pattern means the turns in the holding pattern are to the left. 1) ATC will specify in the holding clearance if left turns are to be made. 4. You enter a holding pattern using one of three procedures as illustrated in the figure below. This illustrates a standard pattern; the same concept is used in a nonstandard pattern. a. Parallel procedure. Fly a parallel holding course as in (a). Turn left and return to the holding fix or intercept the holding course.

8 b. Teardrop procedure. Proceed on an outbound track of 30 or less to the holding course; turn right to intercept the holding course, as in (b). c. Direct entry procedure. Turn right and fly the pattern, as in (c). 5. The best way to determine the entry method on the FAA knowledge test is to draw a holding pattern complete with the fix and inbound leg. a. Through the fix, draw the 70 angle such that it intersects the outbound leg at about 1/3 of the outbound leg length. b. Then, slightly shade the (a) area, which is the 110 angle between the extension of the inbound leg and the 70 line. c. The (b) area is the 70 angle between the 70 line and the extension of the inbound leg. d. EXAMPLE: In the previous illustration, the inbound leg to the fix is 270, and the outbound leg is 090. If the fix is a VOR station, the following radials define which entry procedure to use: R-200 to R teardrop procedure R-270 to R parallel procedure R-020 to R direct procedure 6. The timing of the outbound leg begins over or abeam the fix, whichever occurs later. a. If the abeam position cannot be determined, start timing when the turn to outbound is complete (i.e., wings level). 7. Maximum holding pattern airspeed (IAS) for all aircraft

9 a. From the minimum holding altitude (MHA) through 6,000 ft kt. b. From 6,001 ft. through 14,000 ft kt. c. From 14,001 ft. and above kt. 8. When a holding pattern is used in lieu of a procedure turn, the holding maneuver must still be executed within the time or leg length specified in the profile view on the instrument approach procedure (lap) chart. 9. When more than one circuit of the holding pattern is needed to lose altitude or become better established on course, additional circuits can be made at the pilot's discretion only if the pilot advises ATC and ATC approves. 10. The descent gradient during a nonprecision approach is very important. Locate the approach ground speed and time table found in the lower left or right corner of an approach chart (plate) for the appropriate ground speed. Under the ground speed will be the required time to reach the MAP. a. Time (and altitude) establishes the MAP on most nonprecision approaches. b. The key elements one must know are c. EXAMPLE: 1) Ground speed, 2) Altitude descent distance, and 3) Time required to reach a point (i.e., MAP). 1) Ground speed is 90 knots. 2) We are at the final approach fix (FAF) at 2,000 feet MSL and must descend to the MAP at 600 feet MSL, so we must descend 1,400 feet (2, = 1,400 feet). 3) We have to descend 1,400 feet in 2 minutes, 44 seconds. 4) Convert seconds of time to a decimal number (44 seconds + 60 = 0.73). 5) Add 2 minutes to arrive at 2.73 (minutes). 6) Divide distance by time (1, = 513 fpm).

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11 11. Some approach plates will have a glide path labeled in degrees near the bottom of the plate in the plan view area. Descent rates can be found on the Rate of Descent Table (On the previous page). a. Find the ground speed located across the top of the table. b. Find the angle of descent (or glide path) located from top to bottom on the left side of the table. c. Follow down and across, respectively, and where they meet is the descent rate for that ground speed and descent angle. INSTRUMENT APPROACH CHARTS 1. The questions in this subunit are wide ranging. They are best prepared for by studying the approach chart legends on pages 189 through 201. The questions will not refer you to these legends, but the legends will be available to you in the FAA's Computer Testing Supplement for Instrument Rating book. Use them when needed. Remember that approach charts consist of several parts: a. Top and bottom margin identification b. Planview c. Profile view d. Minimums section e. Airport diagram 2. Initial approach fixes (IAF) identify the beginning of an initial approach segment of an instrument approach procedure and are identified by the letters IAF on the planview of approach charts. 3. Aircraft approach categories are listed as A, B, C, D, and E based upon 1.3 times the stall speed of the aircraft in the landing configuration at maximum certified gross landing weight (1.3 Vso). 4. The symbol in a point-down black triangle indicates that takeoff minimums are not standard and/or departure minimums are published and you should consult alternative takeoff procedures. a. The symbol in a point-up black triangle indicates that nonstandard minimums exist to list the airport as an IFR alternate. 1) Standard alternate minimums are for a nonprecision approach and for a precision approach. 5. An airport may not be qualified for alternate use if the NAVAIDs used for the final approach are unmonitored. 6. If there is penetration of the obstacle identification surfaces (OIS), the published visibility for the ILS approach can be no lower than 3/4 SM.

12 7. The absence of the procedure turn barb on the planview on an approach chart indicates that a procedure turn is not authorized for that approach. a. The term NoPT means that there is no procedure turn. 8. A course reversal (procedure turn) is not required (or authorized) when radar vectors are being provided. 9. Minimum safe-sector altitudes are depicted on approach charts. These provide at least 1,000 ft. of obstacle clearance within a 25-NM radius of the navigation facility upon which the procedure is predicated but do not necessarily ensure acceptable navigational signal coverage. 10. Published landing minimums apply when you are making an instrument approach to an airport. 11. If you adhere to the minimum altitudes depicted on the lap, you can be assured of terrain and obstacle clearance. 12. When being radar-vectored to an instrument approach, you should comply with the last assigned altitude until the airplane is established on a segment of a published route or lap and you have been cleared for the approach, after which you should continue descents to the listed minimum altitudes. 13. When simultaneous approaches are in progress, each pilot will be advised to monitor the tower frequency to receive advisories and instructions. 14. When straight-in minimums are not published, you can make a straight-in landing if the active runway is in sight, there is sufficient time to make a normal landing, and you have been cleared to land. 15. If you are doing an approach in a category B airplane but maintaining a speed faster than the maximum specified for that category, you should use category C minimums. 16. When an instrument approach procedure involves a procedure turn, the maximum allowable indicated airspeed is 200 kt. 17. When a OME is inoperative, there will be no code tone (identifier) broadcast. 18. On instrument approach segments, the minimum altitudes are indicated on the planview and profile view, which YOU are expected to be able to interpret and specify on the FAA instrument rating knowledge test. 19. When holding patterns exist in lieu of outbound procedure turns; the length of the outbound leg may be indicated as a distance rather than time. This information is given in both the planview and the profile view of the approach chart. 20. On RNAV approaches, the MAP is identified when the TO/FROM indicator changes, which indicates station passage at the MAP waypoint.

13 a. On some RNAV approach charts, the distance from the MAP to another more prominent waypoint located along the extended final approach course may be shown in the profile and plan views. 21. RNAV waypoints, when used for an instrument approach, contain boxes in which the latitude and longitude are listed on the first line and the VOR direction and distance are listed on the second line. 22. RNAV approaches require an approved RNAV receiver; no other navigation equipment is specifically required. 23. On procedure turns, there may be a distance limitation from a NAVAIO, and procedural turns should be made entirely on the side of the inbound radial or bearing to which the procedural turn arrow points. a. If a teardrop turn is depicted, only a teardrop course reversal can be executed. 24. The airport diagram at the top of the lap chart contains the following important elevation figures in MSL: a. Airport elevation (ELEV) b. Touchdown elevation (TOZE) c. Threshold elevation (THRE) 25. If you are not able to identify a NAVAIO marking a descent to a lower altitude on a nonprecision approach, you cannot descend to the next lower altitude. 26. The MAP of a precision approach is arrival at the DH on the glide slope. 27. The appropriate approach and tower frequencies are indicated at the top of the planview. 28. When a marker beacon receiver becomes inoperative and you cannot identify the MM during an ILS approach, you should use the published minimums. 29. A second VOR receiver may be needed when doing a localizer approach with a final stepdown fix to be identified by a VOR radial. 30. Some nonprecision approaches will allow descents to lower altitudes at specified DME distances. a. The advantage of DME can be determined by comparing the two MDA values. 31. Use the recommended entry into holding patterns as discussed in the previous subunit. 32. The minimum navigation equipment required for a VOR/DME approach is one VOR receiver and DME. 33. Restrictions to circle-to-land procedures are found below the minimums section of the lap chart. 34. The height above touchdown (HAT) is the height of the MDA or DH above the touchdown zone. It is the smaller numbers that appear after the MDA or DH. a. The numbers in parentheses are military minimums.

14 35. The minimums section of the approach chart provides the MDA or DH and the visibility (expressed as RVR or SM). 36. When making an LOC approach to the primary airport of the Class B airspace, the aircraft must be equipped with a. Two-way radio communication b. Mode C transponder c. VOR 37. When the glide slope becomes inoperative during an ILS approach, the approach becomes a nonprecision LOC approach. a. The LOC minimums then apply. 38. The final approach fix (FAF) for a precision approach is identified on the approach chart by a lightning bolt ( ). a. The intercept altitude is indicated next to the symbol. 39. On a nonprecision approach, the distance from the FAF to the MAP is indicated below the airport diagram. 40. If a runway has a displaced threshold, the distance available for landing will be shown by a notation in the airport diagram. For example, "Rwy 21 Idg 5957''' signifies that 5,957 ft. of the total length of runway 21 are available for landing. 41. A category C aircraft must use category C minimums, even if using category B approach speed. 42. Legends 10 through 22 (except 16 and 17) concern instrument approaches and are presented on pages 189 through 201. DPs AND STARs 1. DPs (instrument departure procedures), STARs (standard terminal arrival routes), and visual approaches are all routinely assigned by ATC as appropriate. 2. DPs and STARs are issued to simplify clearance delivery procedures when ATC deems it appropriate, unless you have requested "no DP" or "no STAR" in the remarks section of your flight plan. a. Less desirably, pilots may refuse DPs and STARs when they are part of a clearance. 3. When a DP requires a minimum climb rate of a specified number of ft. per NM, you may be asked to convert the climb rate into feet per minute. a. Use the Rate of Climb Table in Legend 16 on the following page. b. Another method is first to divide the groundspeed by 60 minutes to get the NM per min. Then multiply NM per min. by the required climb rate per NM to determine climb rate in feet per minute (fpm). 1) EXAMPLE: If 200 ft. per NM is required to a specified altitude and your groundspeed is 120 kt., you will be traveling 2 NM/min. (120 NM/60 min.), which will require a minimum climb rate of 400 fpm (200 required ft.lnm x 2 NM/min.). 4. To accept a DP, you must have at least a textual description of it.

15 5. Preferred IFR routes are correlated with DPs and STARs and may be defined by airways, jet routes, and direct routes between NAVAIDs. 6. The departure route description of a DP explains the departure procedures. It also explains the route to be used if communication is lost.

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17 GPS APPROACHES 1. Authorization to conduct any GPS approach requires that procedures be established for use in the event that the loss of RAIM capability is predicted to occur. a. In such an event, you must rely on other approved navigation equipment. 2. When you are using GPS for navigation and instrument approaches, any required alternate airport must have an approved instrument approach procedure, other than GPS, that is anticipated to be operational and available at the estimated time of arrival (ETA) and that the airplane is equipped to fly. a. Handheld GPS systems are not authorized for instrument approaches and are only considered an aid to situational awareness. 3. When shooting a GPS instrument approach, most systems require you to choose to load an approach or load and activate an approach. a. EXAMPLE: When ATC tells you to expect a certain approach, select that approach and load it into the flight plan. Once cleared for the approach, it can be activated. 4. There are two modes during an approach that pilots must be aware of: a. Terminal mode occurs within 30 NM of the destination airport and is used to increase sensitivity. Terminal mode increases the sensitivity on the course deviation indicator (COI) from 5 NM to 1 NM. b. Approach mode further increases the sensitivity on the COI within 2 NM of the final approach waypoint (FAWP) from 1 NM to 0.3 NM. 5. Pilots are commonly vectored by ATC to the final approach course, and many GPS units have a setting that guides a pilot using these vectors along the final approach course. It is commonly referred to as the "vectors-to-final" feature. 6. A fly-over waypoint is depicted on an approach plate's planview as a four-pointed star enclosed in a circle. a. A fly-over waypoint precludes any turn until the waypoint is overflown and is followed by either an intercept maneuver of the next flight segment or direct flight to the next waypoint. b. This type of waypoint is used to denote a missed approach point, a missed approach holding point, or other specific points in space that must be flown over. 7. If you examine the planview of the approach plate, you will see a box, usually in the lower left corner, that depicts the minimum safe altitude(s) (MSA) for a given segment of the approach coverage area. a. This notation gives you an obstacle clearance altitude while also telling you when you may begin descending to the indicated altitude when cleared to a specific waypoint. 8. The Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) is a ground-based enhancement component of the satellite-based GPS navigation system. a. This system improves GPS signal accuracy and allows pilots with WAAS-certified equipment to conduct various types of GPS instrument approaches to varying heights above the ground. 1) This class of approach procedures provides vertical guidance but does not meet the more stringent requirements for precision approaches.

18 2) These procedures are referred to in the general sense as approaches with vertical guidance (APV). b. The LNAV approach is a conventional, nonprecision, GPS (RNAV) approach. There is no vertical guidance offered with this approach type. 1) Some GPS receivers do offer advisory guidance for LNAV approaches. These approaches will appear as "LNAV+V" on your GPS receiver. 2) Bear in mind that the vertical guidance is only advisory in nature. It will not offer lower approach minimums than what is published for the standard LNAV approach procedure. 3) The MAP for an LNAV-only approach is the runway threshold, marked as a waypoint on the instrument approach chart with the designation "RW" followed by the runway number. 4) In some cases, a visual descent point will appear on the profile view of an instrument approach chart, which allows the pilot to continue a descent below the published MOA as long as visual contact with the surface exists and is maintained throughout the descent. a) Note that this allowance for a visual descent is only approved for the LNAV approach type. c. The LNAVNNAV approach is a full WAAS-enabled approach that provides vertical guidance using an electronic glide slope indication. 1) This approach type will offer slightly lower minimums than a traditional LNAV (non- WAAS approach). 2) Similar to flying an ILS approach, you will see a decision altitude (OA) indicated on the instrument approach chart rather than the MOA seen in an LNAV-only approach procedure. 3) The missed approach point for an LNAVNNAV approach is upon reaching the published decision altitude. d. When GPS accuracy allows, a localizer performance with vertical guidance (LPV) approach may be created for a given runway. This is a WAAS-enabled approach procedure that offers the lowest descent altitude for any GPS approach procedure, sometimes as low as 200 feet AGL, the same as an ILS approach. 1) An LPV approach is commonly misinterpreted as a precision approach procedure. Instead, it is an approach with vertical guidance (APV) procedure, just like the other WAAS-enabled approach procedures. 2) It is flown almost identically to an LNAVNNAV approach. However, the decision altitude for an LPV approach is usually much lower than the LNAVNNAV approach. 3) Like the LNAVNNAV approach, the missed approach point for an LPV approach is upon reaching the decision altitude (OA) published on the approach chart.

19 4) When GPS accuracy is sufficient in a given area but obstacles make vertical navigation unsafe, a localizer performance (LP) approach may be put in place instead of the LPV approach. e. Ultimately, the GPS receiver will determine what type of WAAS-enabled approach you can conduct. If the necessary accuracy does not exist for an LPV approach into a given runway, the receiver will default to the next most feature-rich approach procedure. 1) If your GPS receiver does not complete this function automatically, it will be up to you to determine the navigational accuracy available to you at the time of the approach. 2) Be sure that you understand the features and capabilities of your GPS before attempting these procedures on your own. We also recommend that you receive specialized instruction on completing WAAS-enabled approaches from a qualified certificated flight instructor.

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